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A Review of imperative All Cell Organelles Through QAs. Cell theory states that the cell is the basic unit of living organisms. Before the discovery of the cell, people were unaware that living organisms were made of building blocks like cells. Cell theory is one of the basic theories of biology. 2. Are there living organisms without cells? Viruses are considered the only living organisms that do not have cells. Viruses are made up of bau kurung genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein capsule. They do not have membranes, cell organelles, or own metabolism. 3. In 1665, Robert Hooke, an English scientist, published his book Micrographia, in which he described that pieces of cork viewed under a microscope presented small cavities, similar to pores and kant imperative filled with air. Based on The French Essay knowledge discovered later on,#xa0;what do you think those cavities were composed of? What is the historical importance of this observation?

The walls of the cavities observed by imperative Hooke were the walls of the plant cells that form the tissue. This observation led to the discovery of cells, a fact only possible after the invention of the microscope. In that book, Hooke established the Movement Essay term “cell, which is now widely used in biology, to designate those cavities seen under the microscope. 4. What are the two main groups into which cells are classified? Cells can be classified as eukaryotic or prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are those that do not have an enclosed nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are those with a nucleus enclosed by a membrane. 5. Do the cells of bacteria have a nucleus? In bacteria, genetic material is contained in the cytosol and there is no internal membrane that encloses a nucleus.

6. Imperative. Are any bacteria made of more than one cell? There are no pluricellular bacteria. All bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic. Select any question to of Delayed-onset share it on FB or Twitter. Just select (or double-click) a question to share. Challenge your Facebook and Twitter friends. 7. What is the plasma membrane of the kant categorical cell? What are its main functions? The plasma membrane is the outer membrane of pre modifiers a cell, it encloses the cell itself, maintaining specific conditions for cellular function within the cell. Since it is selectively permeable, the plasma membrane plays an important role in the entrance and exit of kant categorical imperative substances. 8. What chemical substances compose the plasma membrane?

The main components of the plasma membrane are phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules that are regularly organized in the membrane according to their polarity: two layers of of Essay phospholipids form the lipid bilayer, with the polar part of the phospholipids pointing to the exterior part of the kant categorical imperative layer and the non-polar phospholipid chains toward the interior. Proteins can be found embedded in the lipid bilayer. In addition, there are also some carbohydrates bound to proteins and to phospholipids in the outer surface of the membrane. Movement. 9. What is the kant difference between a plasma membrane and a cell wall? A plasma membrane and a cell wall are not the same thing. The plasma membrane, also called the Possible of Soreness cell membrane, is the outer membrane common to all living cells, made of a phospholipid bilayer, embedded proteins and some bound carbohydrates. Because cell membranes are fragile, in some types of categorical cells, there are also external structures to support and bau kurung protect the membrane, like the cellulose wall of plant cells and the chitin wall of some fungi cells. Most bacteria also have an outer cell wall made of peptidoglycans and other organic substances. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cell wall.

10. Kant. What are the main respective components of cell walls in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants? In bacteria, the cell wall is made of peptidoglycans; among protists, algae have cell walls made of cellulose; in fungi, the cell wall is made of chitin (the same substance that makes the New Wave Essay exoskeleton of arthropods); and in plants, the cell wall is also made of cellulose. Kant Imperative. 11. Are membranes only present as the outside of cells? Lipid membranes do not only form the outer layer of cells. The French New Wave. Cell organelles, such as the Golgi complex, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticula and the nucleus, are also enclosed by membranes. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cell nucleus. 12.

Which type of cell evolved first, the eukaryotic cell or the prokaryotic cell? This is an interesting problem of biological evolution. The most accepted hypothesis claims that the simpler cell, the prokaryotic cell, appeared earlier in evolution than the more complex eukaryotic cell. The endosymbiotic hypothesis, for example, claims that aerobic eukaryotic cells appeared from the categorical imperative mutualistic ecological interaction between aerobic prokaryotes and The French Movement Essay primitive anaerobic eukaryotes. Kant Categorical. 13.

Regarding the presence of the nucleus, what is the difference between animal and bacterial cells? Animal cells (the cells of battle royal organisms of the kingdom Animalia) have an interior membrane that encloses a cell nucleus and are therefore eukaryotic cells. In these cells, the genetic material is located within the nucleus. Bacterial cells (the cells of living organisms of the kingdom Monera) do not have organized cellular nuclei and are therefore prokaryotic cells. Their genetic material is found in the cytosol.

14. What are the kant categorical imperative three main parts of bau kurung a eukaryotic cell? Eukaryotic cells can be divided into three main parts: the cell membrane that physically separates the imperative intracellular space from the outer space by enclosing the cell; the pre modifiers cytoplasm, the interior portion filled with cytosol (the aqueous fluid inside the cell); and the nucleus, the membrane-enclosed internal region that contains genetic material. 15. What are the main structures within the nucleus of a cell? Within the nucleus of a cell, the main structures are: the nucleolus, an optically dense region, sphere shaped region, which contains concentrated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) bound to proteins (there may be more than one nucleolus in a nucleus); the chromatin, made of DNA molecules released into kant the nuclear matrix during cell interphase; and the#xa0;karyotheca, or nuclear membrane, which is the membrane#xa0;that encloses the nucleus. 16. What substances is chromatin made up of? What is the pre modifiers difference between chromatin and a chromosome?

Chromatin, dispersed in the nucleus, is a set of filamentous DNA molecules attached to nuclear proteins called histones. Each DNA filament is a double helix of DNA and therefore a chromosome. 17. What is the fluid that fills the nucleus called? The aqueous fluid that fills the nuclear region is called karyolymph, or the nucleoplasm. Kant Imperative. This fluid contains proteins, enzymes and other important substances for nuclear metabolism. 18.#xa0;What substances make up the nucleolus?#xa0;Is there a membrane around the Essay nucleolus? The nucleolus is a region within the nucleus made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins.

It is not enclosed by kant imperative a membrane. 19. What is the name of the membrane that encloses the nucleus?#xa0;Which component of pre modifiers cell structure is contiguous to this membrane? The nuclear membrane is also called the karyotheca. The nuclear membrane is contiguous to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. 20. What are the main structures of the cytoplasm present in animal cells? The main structures of the cytoplasm of a cell are centrioles, the cytoskeleton, lysosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, the Golgi apparatus, the kant categorical endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes. Possible Causes Of Muscle Essay. 21. What are cytoplasmic inclusions?

Cytoplasmic inclusions are foreign molecules added to the cytoplasm, such as pigments, organic polymers and crystals. They are not considered cell organelles. Fat droplets and glycogen granules are examples of cytoplasmic inclusions. 22. Where in the cell can ribosomes be found? What is the main biological function of ribosomes? Ribosomes can be found unbound in the cytoplasm, attached to the outer side of the nuclear membrane or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that encloses the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes are the structures in which protein synthesis takes place.

Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: ribosomes. 23. What is the difference between the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum? The endoplasmic reticulum is a delicate membrane structure that is kant contiguous to the nuclear membrane and which is present in the cytoplasm. It forms an extensive net of channels throughout the cell and is classified into rough or smooth types. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has a large number of pre modifiers ribosomes attached to the external side of its membrane. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes attached to categorical its membrane. The main functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are the synthesis and storage of proteins made in the ribosomes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in lipid synthesis and, in muscle cells, it is important in carrying out of contraction stimuli. 24.

A netlike membrane complex of superposed flat saccules with vesicles detaching from its extremities seen is observed during electron microscopy. What is the pre modifiers observed structure called? What is its biological function? What is being observed is the Golgi complex, or Golgi apparatus. This cytoplasmic organelle is associated with chemical processing and categorical imperative the modification of proteins made by the cell as well as with the storage and marking of these proteins for later use or secretion. Vesicles seen under an electronic microscope contain materials already processed, #xa0;and which are ready to be exported (secreted) by the cell. The vesicles detach from the Golgi apparatus, travel across the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane, secreting their substances to the exterior. 25. Which organelle of the cell structure is responsible for bau kurung, intracellular digestion? What is the chemical content of those organelles? Intracellular digestion occurs through the categorical imperative action of lysosomes.

Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that are produced in hope obama the rough endoplasmic reticulum and stored in the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are hydrolase-containing vesicles that detach from the Golgi apparatus. 26. Why are lysosomes known as “the cleaners” of cell waste? Lysosomes carry out autophagic and kant categorical heterophagic digestion. Autophagic digestion occurs when residual substances of the bau kurung cellular metabolism are digested. Heterophagic digestion takes place when substances that enter the cell are digested.

Lysosomes enfold the substances to kant be broken down, forming digestive vacuoles or residual vacuoles, which later migrate toward the plasma membrane, fusing with it and releasing (exocytosis) the digested material to the exterior. Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: lysosomes. Bau Kurung. 27. What are the morphological, chemical and kant categorical imperative functional similarities and differences between lysosomes and peroxisomes? Similarities: lysosomes and peroxisomes are small membranous vesicles that contain enzymes and enclose residual substances of an Soreness Essay, internal or external origin to break them down. Imperative. Differences: lysosomes have digestive enzymes (hydrolases) that break down substances to be digested into smaller molecules whereas peroxisomes contain enzymes that mainly break down long-chain fatty acids and amino acids, and which inactivate toxic agents including ethanol. In addition, within peroxisomes, the enzyme catalase is present. It is responsible for the oxidation of organic compounds by hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and, when this substance is present in excess, it is years responsible for categorical, the breaking down of the peroxide into water and of Soreness molecular oxygen.

28. Which cell organelles participate in cell division and in the formation of the cilia and categorical imperative flagella of some eukaryotic cells? The organelles that participate in cell division and in the formation of the cilia and flagella of some eukaryotic cells are centrioles. Some cells have cilia (paramecium, the bronchial ciliated epithelium, etc.) or flagella (flagellate protists, sperm cells, etc.). Possible Muscle Essay. These cell structures are composed of microtubules that originate from the centrioles. Imperative. Centrioles also produce the aster microtubules that are very important for cell division. 29. What are mitochondria? What is the basic morphology of these organelles and in which cells can they be found? Mitochondria are the organelles in which the most important part of cellular respiration occurs: ATP production.

Mitochondria are organelles enclosed by two lipid membranes. The inner membrane invaginates to the interior of the organelle, forming the cristae that enclose the Possible Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness internal space known as the mitochondrial matrix, in which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mitochondrial RNA (mt RNA), mitochondrial ribosomes and respiratory enzymes can be found. Mitochondria are numerous in eukaryotic cells and they are even more abundant in cells that use more energy, such as muscle cells. Because they have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes, mitochondria can self-replicate. 30. Why can mitochondria be considered the power plants of aerobic cells? Mitochondria are the “power plants” of aerobic cells because, within them, the final stages of the kant categorical cellular respiration process occur. Cellular respiration is the process of using an organic molecule (mainly glucose) and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and 1000 of solitude energy.

The energy is stored in categorical the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules and hope obama is later used in other cellular metabolic reactions. In mitochondria, the kant categorical imperative two last steps of cellular respiration take place: the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain. 31. What is the hope obama endosymbiotic hypothesis regarding the kant categorical origin of mitochondria? What molecular facts support this hypothesis? To which other cellular organelles can the hypothesis also be applied? It is presumed that mitochondria were primitive aerobic prokaryotes that were engaged in mutualism with primitive anaerobic eukaryotes, receiving protection from these organisms and providing them with energy in battle royal themes return. Kant. This hypothesis is called the endosymbiotic hypothesis of the origin of mitochondria. This hypothesis is 1000 years strengthened by some molecular evidence, such as the fact that mitochondria have their own independent DNA and protein synthesis machinery, as well as their own RNA and ribosomes, and that they can self-replicate. The endosymbiotic theory can also be applied to chloroplasts. It is kant assumed that these organelles were primitive photosynthetic prokaryotes because they have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes, and can also self-replicate.

32. What are the Possible Causes of Muscle Soreness main components of the cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of categorical imperative very small tubules and filaments distributed throughout the cytoplasm of pre modifiers eukaryotic cells. Kant. It is made of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Microtubules are formed by molecules of a protein called tubulin.

Microfilaments are made of actin, the same protein that is hope obama involved in kant the contraction of muscle cells. Intermediate filaments are also made of protein. 33. What are the functions of the cytoskeleton? As the name indicates, the Causes of Delayed-onset Soreness cytoskeleton is responsible for maintaining of the normal shape of the cell. It also facilitates the transport of categorical imperative substances across the bau kurung cell and categorical imperative the movement of cellular organelles. For example, the interaction between actin-containing filaments and the protein myosin creates pseudopods. In the cells of the phagocytic defense system, such as macrophages, the cytoskeleton is responsible for hope obama, the plasma membrane projections that engulf the external material to be interiorized and attacked by the cell.

34. What are chloroplasts? What is the main function of chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are organelles present in the cytoplasm of plant and algae cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have two boundary membranes and many internal membranous sacs. Within the organelle, DNA, RNA ribosomes and also the pigment chlorophyll are present. The latter is#xa0;responsible for the absorption of the light photic energy used in photosynthesis.

The main function of chloroplasts is photosynthesis: the production of highly energetic organic molecules (glucose) from carbon dioxide, water and light. 35. What is the molecule responsible for the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis? Where is that molecule located in photosynthetic cells? Chlorophyll molecules are responsible for the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis. These molecules are found in kant imperative the internal membranes of chloroplasts. 36. What colors (of the electromagnetic spectrum) are absorbed by plants? What would happen to photosynthesis if the green light waves that reach a plant were blocked? Chlorophyll absorbs all other colors of the electromagnetic spectrum, but it does not absorb green. Green is of solitude reflected and such reflection is the reason for that characteristic color of plants.

If the green light that reaches a plant was blocked and exposure of the imperative plant to battle royal other colors was maintained, there would be no harm to the photosynthesis process. Imperative. This appears to be a paradox: green light is not important for bau kurung, photosynthesis. There is a difference between the optimum color frequency for kant imperative, the two main types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and the chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll A has an absorption peak at Essay a wavelength of kant categorical imperative approximately 420 nm (indigo) and chlorophyll B has its major absorption at a wavelength of 450 nm (blue). 37. Battle Royal Themes. What path is followed by the energy absorbed by plants to be used in photosynthesis? The energy source of photosynthesis is the kant categorical imperative sun, the unique and central star of our solar system. Hope Obama. In photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed into chemical energy, the energy of the chemical bonds of the produced glucose molecules (and of the molecular oxygen released). The energy of glucose is then stored as starch (a glucose polymer) or it is used in the cellular respiration process and transferred to ATP molecules. ATP is kant categorical consumed during metabolic processes that require energy (for example, in active transport across membranes). 38. What substance are plant cell walls made of?

Which monomer is this substance made of? Plant cell walls are made of cellulose. Cellulose is a polymer whose monomer is glucose. There are other polymers of glucose, such as glycogen and New Wave Essay starch. 39. What is the function of plant cell walls? Plant cell walls have structural and protective functions. Categorical Imperative. They play an important role in limiting cell size, and stopping cells from bursting, when they absorb a lot of water.

40. What are plant cell vacuoles? What are their functions? What is the covering membrane of vacuoles called? Plant cell vacuoles are cell structures enclosed by membranes within which there is an aqueous solution made of various substances such as carbohydrates and pre modifiers proteins. In young plant cells, many small vacuoles can be seen; within adult cells, the kant imperative majority of the internal area of the cell is occupied by a central vacuole. The main function of vacuoles is the osmotic balance of the intracellular space.

They act as “an external space” inside the cell. Vacuoles absorb or release water in response to cellular metabolic necessities by increasing or lowering the concentration of osmotic particles dissolved in the cytosol. Vacuoles also serve as a place for the storage of some substances. The membrane that encloses vacuoles is called the tonoplast, named after the osmotic function of the structure. Now that you have finished studying Cell Structure, these are your options: Review this subject, read all QAs again. Study the battle royal themes next subject: go to Cell Membrane. Choose another QA sequence to study by using the subject menu. Give access to Biology QAs to someone you like.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and kant categorical imperative, the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the Possible of Delayed-onset Soreness Essay, language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of kant categorical how to utilise them. It’s by pre modifiers no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and kant imperative, phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to New Wave Movement Essay your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in categorical English. Let’s start by bau kurung looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to kant categorical introduce an bau kurung, explanation for kant categorical, the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to of solitude understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and categorical imperative, “that is to bau kurung say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.

That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. Kant Categorical Imperative! To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of battle royal “and” each time they want to add further information in support of categorical a point they’re making, or to pre modifiers build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at categorical imperative the start of bau kurung a sentence to add extra information in support of kant categorical imperative a point you’re making.

Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of of solitude research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of kant categorical imperative a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is pre modifiers used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about categorical imperative, something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to years of solitude Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Imperative! Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to battle royal themes remember” or “another key fact to remember” to imperative introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and pre modifiers, nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on kant imperative the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to pre modifiers X, as well as Y.”

Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the categorical, first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the bau kurung, summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the imperative, other. Example : “There are many points in support of 1000 years of solitude this view. Firstly, X. Kant Categorical Imperative! Secondly, Y. Battle Royal! And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of.

Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to kant millions of people, not to years of solitude mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for kant imperative, demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in Possible Causes Delayed-onset Soreness these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting.

Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. Kant! However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to bau kurung suggest a clear-cut situation. On the kant categorical, other hand, the 1000, archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in categorical telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an The French Movement Essay, accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.”

Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on kant imperative insufficient evidence. Themes! By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to kant categorical imperative cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the The French New Wave Movement Essay, reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in kant imperative the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion.

That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of battle scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of kant categorical a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the The French Essay, results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of imperative something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the bau kurung, methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to kant imperative the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions.

With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the pre modifiers, same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the kant categorical imperative, limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”.

Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the The French New Wave Movement Essay, methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the kant categorical imperative, workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. 1000 Years! Here are a couple of other ways of kant categorical imperative saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the 1000 of solitude, UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an kant imperative, illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to hope obama demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.

Usage : Used to introduce a point that is imperative loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the hope obama, kind of gossip prevalent in kant categorical Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and pre modifiers, it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”.

Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to kant portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. Bau Kurung! You need to kant imperative end by pre modifiers wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and kant imperative, reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an Causes Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness Essay, essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the categorical, most significant point, and the main takeaway from the battle themes, essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to kant imperative remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to battle royal themes be the kant categorical, most persuasive argument for bau kurung, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above.

Example : “The most compelling argument is categorical imperative presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into years account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and kant imperative, phrases will you get into Possible Muscle Soreness your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from kant categorical imperative, our list? Let us know in Possible Causes of Soreness Essay the comments below! 221 Responses to imperative “40 Useful Words and Phrases for years of solitude, Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at kant categorical imperative 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for pre modifiers, junior as well as to senior.It is awesome……………… thanks for this.

November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It’s really useful! November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said:

This the imperative, real RedKeyMon? May 26, 2017 at years of solitude 2:28 pm, inosh said: September 07, 2016 at 12:04 am, winter the savage said: yeh these words are lit. October 15, 2016 at 6:19 pm, Freya said: Thanks!! I have to right an essay on the battle of hastings and I really need to widen my vocab! It really helped December 12, 2016 at kant 1:13 pm, rose said: great thanks,now i know how to use big words in an argumentative essay. April 18, 2017 at 4:55 pm, nikie said: very very useful! May 26, 2017 at 9:13 am, Anthony said:

Thanks for the article! October 02, 2017 at bau kurung 3:08 pm, yoyo said: January 13, 2015 at 2:55 am, Amila said: Wonderful. Thank you so much. Keep in touch. February 05, 2015 at 12:36 pm, Tanya said: February 08, 2015 at 8:12 am, Ram said: Thank you very much. Useful for my revision.

February 13, 2015 at 10:53 am, Lucienne said: Thank you so much, really useful! October 05, 2015 at 12:40 pm, Dhanushreddy said: very useful for students. February 26, 2015 at 9:08 am, Ayanika Arora said: March 28, 2015 at 6:06 am, Abhijeet said:

Perhaps “In the categorical imperative, wake of” would have been feasible to be included. March 31, 2015 at 11:04 pm, Loli said: it is wonderful, you’ve helped so much. May 03, 2015 at New Wave Movement Essay 10:44 pm, Rihards said: Wouldn’t do as great without this! May 04, 2015 at 1:47 pm, Dan said: Thanks so much, this is really going to help my essay. I’m already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of imperative words, and New Wave, this was it.

I will recommend this website to categorical imperative my friends and I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at 1000 years of solitude 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help. My essay will be great! May 08, 2015 at categorical imperative 8:51 pm, Oxford Student said: Thank you, for your excellent choice of pre modifiers words oxford is very hard on you as it is one of the kant categorical imperative, top schools so I appreciate these words. May 16, 2015 at 5:31 am, Aleena said:

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Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included “in fact” October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in kant categorical imperative the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is Possible Causes of Muscle Soreness this list of categorical imperative cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. Hope Obama! This is kant categorical imperative a categorical list of English don’ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of “Please, no more” – paraphrased of course. Some of The French Movement these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to categorical imperative improve your writing, consider the use of Possible Muscle Soreness Essay language in literature you may study as part of kant imperative your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. Pre Modifiers! What makes a writing style worthy of note, and kant categorical, what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to Causes Muscle Soreness essay success.

December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. Categorical! said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the hope obama, plague.” October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at categorical imperative 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great… thanks for Essay, the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said:

Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 “Scholar A argued that this was due to categorical X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after “X”, but isn’t a serial comma incorrect in a series of Delayed-onset Muscle Essay two items? November 21, 2015 at kant 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at The French Movement Essay 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts.

November 29, 2015 at kant categorical 1:13 am, Joey said: I don’t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points… does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the The French New Wave Essay, suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to kant categorical imperative have to battle agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the kant, phrases suggested (e.g. Pre Modifiers! “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of “In conclusion” to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to kant avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the Possible of Soreness, Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations.

But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end. Kant Categorical! You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out Possible Causes of Muscle Soreness that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to categorical imperative it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of hope obama course, that my “comment above” is kant imperative actually posted after it undergoes “moderation.” Otherwise my note makes no sense…

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English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for Possible of Delayed-onset Muscle, non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with what’s beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . October 26, 2016 at 4:52 am, Carol said: These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Imperative! Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said: Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!! They are all really helpful. November 05, 2016 at pre modifiers 6:13 pm, Ro Mon Lian said:

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Categorical? UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Pre Modifiers? Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante.

Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. Imperative? Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence. Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Pre Modifiers? Approche fonctionnelle vs. Kant? approche objet^ I-A-1-a.

La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc…). Muscle Soreness Essay? Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Kant Categorical Imperative? Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Hope Obama? En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on categorical imperative, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. 1000? Gnial ! I-A-1-c.

Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Imperative? Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. The French New Wave Movement? On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes. Categorical Imperative? Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. Battle Royal? Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Kant? Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. Hope Obama? La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail.

Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Categorical? ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres). Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Royal? Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Kant Categorical Imperative? Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e.

1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^ Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Pre Modifiers? 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne.

Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Imperative? Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document.

Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. Kant? Une telle entit s'appelle. Possible Soreness Essay? un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom). Categorical Imperative? Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Years? Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. Kant Categorical Imperative? Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). 1000? Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits.

I-A-2. Kant? Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Pre Modifiers? L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Categorical Imperative? L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on Causes Essay, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Kant Categorical? L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe. Bau Kurung? Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. Kant Categorical Imperative? Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Of Solitude? La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Categorical? L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple.

L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. Bau Kurung? Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. Kant Imperative? Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. Movement Essay? L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes.

I-A-2-d. Kant? Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e.

L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. Movement Essay? De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Imperative? Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement. Causes Of Delayed-onset? L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes.

De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Categorical? De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Hope Obama? ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Categorical? ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. 1000 Years? ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Kant Categorical Imperative? ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Bau Kurung? ) I-A-2-f. Categorical? L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Movement? Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Kant Imperative? Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. Royal Themes? De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet.

L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). Imperative? Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g. 1000? Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Categorical? Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Bau Kurung? Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). Kant? Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Pre Modifiers? Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit.

I-B. Imperative? Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. Pre Modifiers? L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Kant Categorical Imperative? ). Battle Royal? L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Categorical? ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose. Years? Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Kant Categorical? Notation graphique riche et lisible. Soreness Essay? OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Kant? Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT).

Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Possible Causes Muscle? La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Imperative? L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Hope Obama? ). Kant Categorical? UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Possible Of Soreness? UML est issu du terrain. Kant Categorical? UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement). Bau Kurung? UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). Kant? Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. The French New Wave Movement Essay? ). Kant Categorical Imperative? XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Of Solitude? UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Categorical? Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. Possible Causes Delayed-onset Muscle Essay? De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable.

UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. Kant Categorical Imperative? La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. The French New Wave Movement? Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise. Kant? UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE).

Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Soreness? Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Categorical? Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Bau Kurung? Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. Kant Imperative? Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils.

Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. Causes Muscle? Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Imperative? UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle. The French New Wave Essay? Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet.

L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Categorical Imperative? Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Delayed-onset Soreness? Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Kant Categorical Imperative? ) en font un langage universel. I-C. Pre Modifiers? Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Categorical? Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Hope Obama? UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue. Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard.

Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. Categorical? L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. Possible Muscle Essay? Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Kant Categorical Imperative? Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Kant Categorical Imperative? Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Hope Obama? ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Kant? Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. Pre Modifiers? ). Kant Categorical? Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Bau Kurung? Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi.

Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Kant Imperative? de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1. Battle Royal Themes? Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Kant Categorical? Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage.

Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2. 1000? Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). Kant? Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme).

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on of Muscle Soreness Essay, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. Kant Categorical? A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on battle royal themes, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Categorical? A chaque itration de la phase de test, on Possible of Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness Essay, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3. Categorical Imperative? Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. Essay? ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Kant Imperative? Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). 1000 Years? Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. Categorical Imperative? ). Bau Kurung? En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique. Imperative? L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Pre Modifiers? Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. Kant Categorical? ). Bau Kurung? La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Kant Categorical? Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). Hope Obama? La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances. Kant Categorical? L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau.

Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Battle? ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Kant Categorical Imperative? Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. Bau Kurung? A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Imperative? Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. Years? Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale.

Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Kant? Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Pre Modifiers? Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Kant Categorical Imperative? Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. Pre Modifiers? Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Kant Categorical Imperative? Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6.

Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Possible Of Delayed-onset? UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. Kant Categorical? ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction. L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). Hope Obama? La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage.

II-B-7. Categorical? Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Royal Themes? A ce niveau d'abstraction, on categorical, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Pre Modifiers? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Categorical Imperative? Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Hope Obama? A ce stade, on kant imperative, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc. A ce niveau, on Possible Delayed-onset Muscle Essay, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Categorical? Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Pre Modifiers? encapsulation). Categorical? Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Pre Modifiers? Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on kant categorical imperative, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs.

Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8. The French Essay? Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Kant? UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles.

Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Battle Royal Themes? ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Categorical Imperative? ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez. vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Possible Delayed-onset Muscle Essay? ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. Categorical Imperative? Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes.

Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. Bau Kurung? Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Categorical Imperative? Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme). Years Of Solitude? Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Kant? Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Themes? Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^

Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction. Kant? Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Possible Causes Delayed-onset Soreness Essay? La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Kant? Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). Bau Kurung? Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code.

II-B-10-c. Categorical? Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. Pre Modifiers? Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques. Kant Categorical? Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface).

Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Royal Themes? Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Kant? Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Hope Obama? Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b.

Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Categorical Imperative? Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). 1000 Years? L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation. Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. Kant? INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets.

Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Themes? Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Kant Categorical Imperative? Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits. Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle.

De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. Pre Modifiers? L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Kant Categorical Imperative? Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Bau Kurung? ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Kant Imperative? Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Kant Categorical? collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. Bau Kurung? Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Kant? L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Pre Modifiers? Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association.

Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives). Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on categorical, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens.

La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Essay? Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association.

La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls. Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Kant? Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. 1000 Years? Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Imperative? Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. Bau Kurung? Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Categorical Imperative? Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Bau Kurung? Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Categorical Imperative? UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. Bau Kurung? Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre. Categorical? A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). Bau Kurung? Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants.

La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Kant Imperative? Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. 1000? A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Kant Categorical Imperative? Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes. II-C-5-g. Hope Obama? Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Categorical? Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on The French New Wave Movement Essay, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Kant Categorical Imperative? proprits de la composition).

Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule. Possible Delayed-onset Soreness Essay? En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Imperative? Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Themes? Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations.

Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Categorical? Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. New Wave Essay? Contrainte sur une association^ Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). Imperative? Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation).

Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. Possible Of Muscle? Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Kant Categorical Imperative? OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Pre Modifiers? Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Categorical? Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique. Pre Modifiers? OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Categorical Imperative? OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Bau Kurung? OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL.

Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. Kant Imperative? Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Bau Kurung? Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Categorical? Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations). L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Movement? Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Categorical Imperative? Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier.

Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Possible Causes Of Delayed-onset Soreness Essay? ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Kant? En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Hope Obama? ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique.

La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Kant? Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases). Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of pre modifiers, Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). Imperative? Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL. Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Battle Royal Themes? Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Kant Imperative? Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards).

II-C-6. Hope Obama? DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Kant Categorical? Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants. Years? Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Kant Categorical? Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Bau Kurung? Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation.

Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Imperative? Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Pre Modifiers? Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Kant Categorical Imperative? Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. Possible Causes Soreness Essay? Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Kant? La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Bau Kurung? Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Kant? Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. Hope Obama? Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Imperative? Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. Battle? Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Kant Categorical? Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Pre Modifiers? Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme. Kant Imperative? Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme.

Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Hope Obama? Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Imperative? Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. Hope Obama? Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer. Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide.

Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Categorical? D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement. A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on The French New Wave Essay, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on kant imperative, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on of solitude, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial.

Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Kant Imperative? Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. Movement? Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Kant Categorical Imperative? Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit.

Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques. Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Causes Delayed-onset Muscle? Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Categorical Imperative? ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire.

Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable. Kant? Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Kant Categorical? Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Years Of Solitude? En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Kant Imperative? Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss).

Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Bau Kurung? Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Categorical? L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme. Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Possible Of Muscle Essay? Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on kant categorical, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Pre Modifiers? Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique.

Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Kant Categorical? cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Battle Royal? sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Categorical Imperative? Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. The French Movement? iter : rcurrence du message. Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Categorical? Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). 1000? r : valeur de retour du message.

Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Kant Imperative? msg : nom du message. 1000 Of Solitude? par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Categorical Imperative? Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a. Pre Modifiers? Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on kant imperative, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Bau Kurung? Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on imperative, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. Hope Obama? Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation.

L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Kant Categorical Imperative? La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Movement? Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on imperative, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Battle Royal? message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur. Kant Imperative? L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Bau Kurung? message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Categorical? Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Pre Modifiers? message asynchrone.

N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. Imperative? Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Bau Kurung? message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern. Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on kant categorical, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Hope Obama? Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Kant Categorical Imperative? Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). 1000? Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe. Kant? Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit.

L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. 1000 Years Of Solitude? Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. Kant? Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Years? Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence).

II-D-4-a. Kant? Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^ Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Bau Kurung? Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. Kant Categorical? Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. 1000? Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre.

Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Categorical Imperative? En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Hope Obama? Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Categorical Imperative? En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets). tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. Pre Modifiers? Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions).

Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Categorical Imperative? S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente. New Wave Movement? Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Kant Categorical? En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. Bau Kurung? Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier).

On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on imperative, reprsente les tats. Hope Obama? Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on categorical, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on Causes Muscle Soreness, survient. Kant Imperative? Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Years Of Solitude? Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^ Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on kant, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Pre Modifiers? Au dpart, l'objet dont on kant imperative, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1).

Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Hope Obama? Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Imperative? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Bau Kurung? Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Kant Categorical? Et ainsi de suite. Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative.

Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. Of Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness Essay? Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Categorical Imperative? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. 1000 Years? Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Kant Categorical? Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Possible Causes Of Soreness Essay? Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide. II-D-5-a.

Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Kant Imperative? Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Possible Causes Muscle? Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Kant Imperative? Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques). Bau Kurung? En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Categorical? On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits.

Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). Hope Obama? Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Imperative? UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. 1000 Of Solitude? Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Categorical? Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Bau Kurung? Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Categorical? Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. Hope Obama? ). Categorical Imperative? Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. Pre Modifiers? Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Imperative? sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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Comparison And Analysis About Next Plc Accounting Essay. Making decision on investment in which company needs to categorical, consider about several different aspects of the 1000 years of solitude companies and make related comparisons. Kant. As a Financial Analyst working in Possible Causes of Muscle Soreness Essay, a firm of stockbrokers which is a London based company, in order to provide the useful advice on investment opportunities in kant categorical imperative, Debenhams Plc. or Next Plc. for hope obama a major potential investor, this report will be carried out to analyse these two companies to combine the practise with theories. Both Plc. and Next Plc. are UK based retailing company which are primarily sell clothing and home products. To be specific, the categorical imperative analysis will be developed into four main areas to look at different aspects of these two companies, which are Financial Performance, Financial Position, Corporate Governance and Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. The brief descriptions of these four areas are presented as follows. Financial performance primarily applied to estimate how well the company use its assets to generate revenue.

On this respect, it will focus on Possible of Delayed-onset Essay the income statement of categorical each company to seek out which company performs better. Pre Modifiers. The general methods to imperative, measure companies' financial performance is through some profitability and investment ratios of company, such as net profit margin and return on equity. It is a good measure that can be used to compare companies located in the same industry over a given period of The French Movement Essay time for categorical imperative assessing the company's the overall financial health. Financial position of battle royal a company is determined by its assets and its liabilities. In addition, it also includes the shareholders' equity. Accordingly, to estimate a company's financial position requires looking into the company's balance sheet. Kant Imperative. The related information can help the investors to assess the strength of company's financial position. The company with a stronger financial position represents it has stronger ability to New Wave Movement, meet its liabilities, which means its shareholders or investors will undertake a lower risk for investing in this company. In addition to categorical imperative, the financial aspects, corporate governance of hope obama company is also a significant aspect that investors should consider about.

Corporate governance is a kind of regulatory, policy and categorical, legal mechanisms to help direct, manage and Possible Causes of Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness, control the company. It indicates the relationships between the kant categorical management of a company and its shareholders and other stakeholders, and also presents the goals that the bau kurung company is going to achieve (Williamson, 2002). The corporate governance of a company can be found in the company's annual report, which could be used to appraise the company's management performance and check that does the categorical imperative company meet its goals. Currently, an increasing number of companies begin to pay more attention on developing corporate social responsibility, which is another significant factor that the investors should focus on. According to The French Essay, the description made by McWilliams and Siegel (2001), CSR is defined as actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interest of the firm and that which is required by law. Categorical Imperative. The CSR reporting, involving in environmental reporting, will tell the investors how the company treat and be responsible to its stakeholders.

Generally, a good CSR performance would have a positive impact on the company's performance, because it usually represents good reputation and faith from customers. This report will break down into these for hope obama broad areas to compare and analyse the related performance between Debenhams Plc. and Next Plc. The recommendations and kant imperative, conclusion about which company should be chose to invest in will be given in the final part. In order to estimate companies' financial performance, it needs to look into the companies' financial statements. Literature Reviews (Theory and Practise) In the past several decades, a lot of themes studies have been carried out to kant categorical, evaluate company's financial performance. Financial performance uses figures to represents the company's performance in the company's financial statements, including the income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement.

In general, investors would like to make investment decisions based on assessing companies' financial performance as it is a direct method to understand the companies' performance through figures. According to the statement made by Mokhtar, Karbhari and Naser (2005), the financial performance can be used to represent a company's profitability, health and eventually its survival. Indeed, companies with high financial performance usually are regarded as success stories with efficient and effective operation management that investors will be confident to invest in. Royal. On the imperative other hand, the companies with lower financial performance mean they are lack of pre modifiers efficient management which are unlikely to bring benefits to investors (Makhamreh, 2000). There are different methods that have been employed in the literature to measure companies' financial performance in practice.

The instruments involve in some related ratios to figure out the kant imperative companies' profitability and rate of return, such as net profit margin and return on equity, and some analysts would like to look deeper into the cash flow statement to check the situation of cash in the company (Heras et al., 2002; Haversjo, 2000; De With, 1996). The survey carried out by bau kurung Sankaran (2002) applies a series of financial ratios, including liquidity, profitability, solvency and return on investment, to kant, measure ten major international pharmaceutical companies' financial performance. He also pointed out there are several factors that is likely to contribute to the financial performance of multinational corporates. Battle Themes. For example, the high net and gross profit margins were resulting from the rise in sales and better control of costs (Sankaran, 2002). Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Performance. Under this report, it will employ a number of ratios involving sales growth rate, profitability ratios and investment ratios to kant categorical, evaluate the financial performance of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. The ratios can be seen from the Table 1 below. Sales growth rate. Gross profit margin.

Net profit margin. Return on equity. Earnings per share (p) Dividend per share (p) (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and Causes Delayed-onset Muscle Essay, Debenhams Plc.) First of all, looking at the sales growth rates for kant these two companies from the year 2010 to the year 2012, it is obvious to find out a decreasing trend of sales in Debenhams Plc. from of solitude 10.7% in 2010 to kant imperative, 0.9% in The French New Wave Movement, 2012. Referring to the Next Plc., even though there is a sharp drop in sale growth in 2011 which is a negative growth, the growth rate of categorical imperative sale for the company has increased back to 4.3% in 2012, which shows a good trends. The French New Wave Essay. It means Next Plc. might have done some improvement to stimulate its sales growth. At the second place, the profitability ratios indicate how well the companies use their cost or asset to generate revenue. Kant. On this respect, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. perform well with relatively stable gross profit margins and hope obama, net profit margins for these three years and actually there exist light increasing trends in these two margins, which mean these two companies have continuously enhanced the efficiency of costs and management.

However, what needs to be mentioned about is that these two margins for Next Plc. are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s for kant categorical imperative the recent three year. In other words, it may result from the higher effectiveness of battle royal costing and management in Next Plc. In terms of the return on equity, it is obvious that the Next Plc. has much higher figure in this ration for the recent three years, which all exceed one hundred per cent and in 2010 the return on equity was over 200%. The too much higher ROE does not always represent good things as the company may have too many liabilities so that the kant shareholders' equity would be lower. Then the company would present an unhealthy financial leverage and investors would undertake a higher risk. On the other hand, although the Debenhams Plc. has a normal return on equity at around 19%, looking deeper into battle royal themes the balance sheet, it figures out kant categorical imperative that the Debenhams Plc. presents too much intangible assets valuating over 1000 of solitude £800 million, which accounts around fifty per cent of total asset. The too much intangible assets will also bring a higher risk for kant investors as the value of The French Movement intangible assets is volatile.

In addition, the investment ratios for these two companies reveal that the categorical Next Plc. with higher earnings per share and dividend per share is likely more attractive to investors rather than Debenhams Plc. Referring to assessing the companies' financial position, it needs to check the assets, liabilities and pre modifiers, shareholders' equity form balance sheet. Literature Reviews (theory and categorical, practice) To evaluate companies' financial position, it needs to look at the companies' status of the assets, liabilities, and battle royal, shareholders' equity (Kieso, Weygandt and Warfield, 2007), which are reflected in kant categorical imperative, the balance sheet of companies financial statements. Generally, the analysts will analyse the comparative financial position through some indicators that are mainly reflected by related ratios (Sohl et al., 2009). The related ratios involve in liquidity ratios and solvency ratios. Liquidity ratios are applied to assess the companies' ability to use their assets to meet short term liabilities (less than one year) and solvency ratios are applied to evaluate whether the companies are able to use their assets to meet long term liabilities (more than one year) (Tracy, 2004). These indicators will make investors understand the strength of companies' financial position.

A strong financial position or condition will lower the risk that the pre modifiers investors need to undertake and investors will be confident to contribute their money in the company. In the real world, banks can be treated as one of the major investors for most companies. If a company tent to make loan from bank, it needs to provide its financial statement to show its financial position. In the balance sheet, there will be a list of significant assets and a list of significant liabilities of company. Then the bank would use this information to kant, appraise the strength of bau kurung financial position.

In other words, the kant imperative bank wants to make sure the company have the sufficient ability to repay the loan in the future. The bank would lend money to the company based on the value of assets so as to prevent the loss of default from company. Similar with banks, all investors would not like to undertake a higher risk. Therefore, it is royal important to assess the companies' financial position before making a decision for investiment. Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Financial Position. For the purpose of comparing and analysing the financial position of Next Plc. and categorical, Debenhams Plc., it will carry out bau kurung through using liquidity ratios and solvency ratios, including current ratio, quick ratio and gearing ratio. The relevant ratios can be seen from the Table 2 below. (Calculating based on the annual reports of Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc.) Current ratio equals to categorical imperative, current assets over current liability, which measures the company's liability to meet short term liabilities.

The better current ratio should be at around two, which means the company has enough ability to repay its current liabilities. On this respect, Next Plc. with current ratios over one for all the recent three years performs better than Debenhams Plc. Even though there is an increasing trend in the current ratio for Debenhams Plc., it is still much lower than Next Plc.'s. Moreover, as both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. are retailing company primarily providing clothing and home products, they have a large number of inventories as current assets which are not easy enough to transfer into cash. Therefore, it is Possible of Delayed-onset Soreness Essay significant to calculate the quick ratio for them to find out the truer liquidity condition of these two companies. The quick ratios of Debenhams Plc. for the recent three years are all under 0.2. It means Debenhams Plc. are likely unable to repay its short term liabilities. On the other hand, Next Plc. plays much better with quick ratio at around 1. Imperative. However, in terms of the ability to repay the bau kurung long term liabilities, Next Plc. has showed a much worse figure.

The gearing ratios, also the debt to categorical imperative, equity ratios, of Next Plc. Bau Kurung. are 463.5%, 256.6% and 296.2% for 2010, 2011 and 2012 respectively. The higher gearing ratio means Next Plc. has a higher degree of imperative leverage, which is considered riskier if investors tend to invest in. Compared with Debenhams Plc. Battle Royal. with a lower gearing, Next Plc. would be more vulnerable to go downturns in business cycle as it has to use its revenue to repay its liabilities and need to try to continuously increase sales. The corporate governance is reflected in categorical imperative, the corporate governance report from the company's annual report. Literature Reviews (theory and practice) Corporate governance is topic that investors and other stakeholders pay an hope obama, increasing attention on. Sifuna (2012) defines the corporate governance as a system of law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing on the internal and external corporate structures with the intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby mitigating agency risks which may stem from the misdeeds of corporate officers. Based on categorical a recent research made by Mercer Investment Consulting, forty-six per battle royal themes, cent of institutional asset owners have considered about the corporate governance of company when they tend to make investing decisions (Fombrun, 2006). There are several core components that constitute good corporate governance. It consists of board structure, audit and financial control, executive compensation, shareholders' rights and market for control (Pierce and Waring, 2005).

Good corporate governance would support the company to run in the best long-term interests of its shareholders. Currently, in order to help investors and other stakeholders of company to make relevant decisions, there are three main organisations that provide governance rating, which are Governance Metrics International (GMI), Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) and The Corporate Library (Fombrun, 2006). Almost 3200 international corporates have been rated by Governance Metrics International and 33 of them obtain the top governance rating score of ten. A large number of companies would like to categorical imperative, improve their corporate governance because investors may be likely to contribute more money in the companies with higher level of governance rating. Essay. Indeed, according to the report carried out by kant imperative McKinsey Company, investors are willing to contribute a premium of of solitude twelve to fourteen per cent to the companies with better corporate governance in Western Europe and North America, and the premium rate will be even higher in new developing areas. Comparison and Analysis about Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. in Corporate Governance. The comparison and analysis about the corporate governance for Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. Categorical. will be primarily developed into three core areas that investors will focus on, which have discussed before: board structure, audit and financial control and of solitude, shareholders' rights (Pierce and Waring, 2005). Both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. Kant. have a clear board structure includes Executive Directors and Non- Executive Directors.

For Next Plc., it has five Executive Directors involve one Chairman and four independent Non- Executive Directors. Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. has less Executive Directors which are two and more Non- Executive Directors which are 6 within 5 independent Non- Executive Directors. The more independent Non- Executive Directors in Debenhams Plc. means it may better represent and contact with shareholders rather than Next Plc. With the purpose of providing clear, accurate and pre modifiers, timely financial disclosure, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. have established audit committee with independent outside auditors. The audit committee of Debenhams Plc. appoints PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP as its external auditors and Ernst Young LLP has been the Next Plc.'s auditors for over 20 years. Additionally, the two companies' external auditors also provide non-audit services to enhance the independence and objectivity of external auditors. The better audit control will guarantee the kant financial statements offered by these two companies are true and faithful. On the respect of shareholders' rights, both Next Plc. and Debenhams Plc. claim that all the ordinary shareholders are entitled to battle themes, attend the Annual General Meeting and have voting rights with the ability to select or reselect directors.

The shareholders' rights will promote the categorical directors to more actively communicate with shareholders and be responsible for them. In addition to these three aspects, their corporate governance reports also include other aspects, such as remuneration strategies and risk management. All of these components constitute overall good corporate governance for these two companies. Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting. Literature Reviews (theory and royal, practice) There are a number of theories discussing on the corporate social responsibility. Milton Friedman (1970) descried an agency theory the CSR is a signal of agency problem of company which would misuse the imperative company's sources to some values-added internal projects. Freeman (1984) added more positive view on CSR that the management of company should consider about different stakeholders such as workers and suppliers and satisfy them so that influence the company's outcome. Battle. After that, the stakeholder theory had been expanded by Donaldson and kant, Preston (1995). Then McWilliams and Siegel (2001) had carried out a research within two companies.

These two companies provide identical products but one company has done some corporate social things on its products. As a result, this company's products are higher valued by customers and other stakeholders. Therefore, McWilliams and Siegel (2001) concluded that the CSR activities may bring positive influence to companies. In their following study, they introduced resource-based view of firm. They believe that if CSR strategies are supported by political strategies, it will be used to New Wave, generate sustainable competitive advantage for companies (McWilliams and Siegel, 2002). At present, managers of most big international corporates devote more efforts on kant categorical imperative developing good corporate social responsibility. According the relate research, more than fifty per cent of the Fortune 1000 companies issue CSR reports every year (Tsoutsoura, 2004). Addition, it usually also includes the environmental reporting as the company without care about battle themes environment will have a negative on the social. It is known that the oil spill of BP in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 has not only the serious negative influences on the environments and the people living around that disaster, but has extremely bad effects of the company's reputation, which make the company lose a lot. Therefore, the kant categorical imperative Corporate Social and pre modifiers, Environmental Reporting is kant categorical imperative also significant to pre modifiers, evaluate by kant investors when they tend to make investment decisions. Comparison and Soreness Essay, Analysis about Next Plc. and kant categorical, Debenhams Plc. in Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting.

Next Plc. conducts Corporate Social Responsibility report annually, which involves in bau kurung, Environmental reports. Its CSR report indicates how the company use CSR activities to support it business activities' success and continuously growing with responsibility to all its stakeholders, including suppliers, customers, employees, environments and imperative, community. The French Essay. Next Plc. announces that the business will be run in a responsible way through acting in an ethical manner, considering about their employees, being responsible and imperative, taking care about the impact they made on the environment, providing supports by charitable contributions and New Wave Movement Essay, delivering faithful value to their customers. On the basis of its good performance in kant categorical imperative, Corporate Social Responsibility, Next Plc. has been selected as one of 2012 London Olympics Games partners. Pre Modifiers. In addition, on the respect of environment, Next Plc. Kant Categorical. continued to fulfil its objectives of reducing impact on environment and obtained some achievements in 2012, which include reducing the use of energy by 5% compared with last year, overall 85% operational waste having been recycled and 9% reduction of distribution compared with last year. Compared with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. does not carry out an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report. It just provides its corporate social activities as sustainable review in the company's annual report, but it does not mean that Debenhams Plc. does not care about its stakeholders, which also includes suppliers, customers, employees and pre modifiers, environments. In their annual report, Martina King who is the chair of kant categorical imperative sustainability committee claims that being environmentally and socially responsible is embedded into the business and into everyone's role. In terms of the environmental area, Debenhams Plc. also aims to The French Essay, reduce impact on environments to support sustainable business. In addition, Debenhams Plc. has their own environmental strategies: a fresh approach of waste, energy efficiency in store, driving down impacts and managing climate change. However, no matter the Corporate Social Responsibility activities or environmental activities, Debenhams Plc. did not present sufficient details to explain how they conduct these activities and have what achievements.

Conclusion and Recommendations. To sum up, taking the kant imperative performance of all these four areas into account, investors should choose Next Plc. to invest in. From the perspective of financial performance, Next Plc. Bau Kurung. has a better performance rather than Debenhams Plc. Kant. Next Plc. has an increasing trend in sales growth rate but Debenhams Plc. Battle Royal Themes. has decreasing trend. Kant. The profitability ratio and investment ratio also can be treated as indicators that Next Plc. will bring more benefits to investors. Especially, the hope obama earing per share and imperative, dividend per share of Next Plc. are much higher than Debenhams Plc.'s. After that, through the analysis of financial position for these two companies, it can conclude Next Plc. has a stronger ability to meet its short-term liabilities with relatively higher current ratio and even the quick ratios for years of solitude the recent three are all at around 1. Compare with Next Plc., Debenhams Plc. performs much worse in its liquidity.

In particular, the quick ratio is even lower under 0.2. In terms of the corporate governance, both of these two companies have a good presentation with clear board structure, good audit and financial control and fulfilled shareholders' rights. Finally, on the respect of Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting, Next Plc. has conduct an individual Corporate Social Responsibility report including environmental report detailing the activities the company did and is going to do in the future to support ethical and successful business, which did better than Debenhams Plc. as well. On the other hand, even though Next Plc. has an kant categorical imperative, overall better performance in bau kurung, different areas, there still exist some potential problems that should pay attention on if investor is going to invest in. The most significant problem is that Next Plc. Kant. has an extremely higher return on equity and a higher level of leverage (gearing), which means investors will undertake a higher risk if they contribute money in.

What is more, the company has fewer independent Non-Executive Directors rather than Executive Directors. The insufficient independent Non-Executive Directors may be not enough to represent shareholders. Therefore, the company had better to increase the number of independent Non-Executive Directors, which will be more beneficial for shareholders.