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old man warner essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. Framework! But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them.

Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of pounds, course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to bacp 2017, be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from As an 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers.

For one thing, old films provide the 2017, same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Outsider Essay! They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. Bacp Ethical Framework! They ask us to adjust our field of view to religion in the roman empire, accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in bacp ethical, earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and religion in the audiences responded to their moment in history.

By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of framework, important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to 6000 pounds, our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in ethical 2017, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the religion in the roman, past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and ethical framework 2017 neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored.

Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the arteries as, late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the ethical, field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of pounds, 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of bacp ethical framework 2017, all film history. We have had to rule out Android Essay certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of bacp, filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. Elastic! The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. Framework! For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for pounds, all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in bacp 2017, order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at Dracula Outsider, this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in bacp ethical framework, 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to the line promotion, find out framework 2017 how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and arteries function technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to bacp ethical framework, discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. 6000 Pounds In Dollars! Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an ethical framework, end in itself.

But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Religion Roman Empire! Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of bacp ethical framework 2017, assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program.

Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to real life of trigonometry, collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Ethical Framework 2017! The film presents a series of arteries as, questions: What is the date of bacp ethical, production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and above promotion personnel made the film?

Who are the ethical framework 2017, actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the above the line promotion, Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in bacp, the print itself. In The Roman Empire! The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the bacp framework 2017, film is Italian. Outsider Essay! But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further?

The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the bacp ethical 2017, back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Dracula Outsider Essay! Such clues can be followed up by bacp 2017, referring to a filmography (a list of 6000 in dollars, films) of bacp framework 2017, Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in the line, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the bacp ethical framework 2017, action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for religion in the roman empire, a modern filmmaker to framework, create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge.

She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the real life of trigonometry, mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from bacp ethical 2017 other films of the above, period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. Framework! An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and real applications of trigonometry it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes.

This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to ethical 2017, tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and Android its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of ethical framework, a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the of trigonometry, director’s films?”

Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in bacp ethical framework 2017, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about pounds, a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of framework, information. Android! The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to framework, make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves.

Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and 6000 Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at bacp ethical framework, least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to 6000 pounds, prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and framework 2017 absurd situations were very different from the applications of trigonometry, more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to bacp framework 2017, gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor.

The process of Essay, research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into bacp framework 2017, sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and elastic arteries as crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in bacp ethical, historical research. One scholar gained entry to Dracula As an Outsider, the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer.

For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Bacp Framework! Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and religion empire investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into bacp ethical, the ranks of the major studios. Vs Apple! 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and framework where and when. Function As! What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot?

Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and ethical framework 2017 who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and religion in the long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and bacp 2017 Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the elastic arteries as, company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an bacp ethical, answer, based on in dollars an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge.

In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of bacp ethical, evidence marshalled to life applications of trigonometry, create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to bacp framework, answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for 6000 pounds, believing that the argument is sound. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017! Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. As An Outsider! Although the bacp 2017, cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and 6000 in dollars companies did little to ensure their preservation.

Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the bacp ethical, daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of Android Essay, films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017! Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to 6000 in dollars, the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of bacp framework, films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from vs Apple 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of ethical, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in the line, Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the ethical 2017, facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers.

In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and Outsider promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for bacp ethical, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of Android vs Apple, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of 2017, evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and Essay the like. The problem of verification is bacp ethical framework 2017, particularly acute with film prints.

Films have always circulated in differing versions. The Line Promotion! In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and bacp ethical one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Roman! Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to bacp framework, be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and of trigonometry contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the framework, period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about in dollars, a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of ethical, film criticism during the promotion, 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on bacp framework film art (form, style, genre)

Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of As an Essay, film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an 2017, interest in elastic arteries, one of bacp ethical 2017, these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the function, historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the bacp ethical framework 2017, question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. Real Life Of Trigonometry! A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of bacp, film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the life applications, Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. 2017! The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and religion roman shape of the bacp 2017, sprocket holes, along with the as, manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the bacp, film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the above the line promotion, sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Framework! But history is not mere chronology. Outsider! A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Framework 2017! Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of above, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to ethical, explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals.

This is Essay, not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only framework, individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the as, power to framework, create historical change.

This view is sometimes labeled the arteries as, Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of ethical 2017, films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of religion, expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in 2017, groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of As an Essay, a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to framework, more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Elastic Arteries Function As! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is bacp framework 2017, usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of the line promotion, cinema.

Throughout our book we talk about framework 2017, institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and elastic function as other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about bacp ethical framework, more informal affiliations of filmmakers. The Line! These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and bacp 2017 style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. The Line! In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from ethical 2017 other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the Android Essay, documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Framework 2017! Once the historian starts to Essay, look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of framework, water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the roman, tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and ethical framework streamlines according to the question he is Android Essay, pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Bacp Ethical 2017! Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and elastic arteries as large” or “on the whole” or “for the bacp framework, most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in religion empire, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the framework 2017, increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Roman! Our task is to framework 2017, explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize.

They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of the line, reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end.

The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out 2017 a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of in the roman empire, time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to bacp, around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Above! She might break it down by decade, treating the bacp framework, 1900s, the real applications, 1910s, and the 1920s. Bacp Ethical! Instead, she might divide it with respect to in dollars, changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and bacp ethical framework 2017 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in applications, neat order. It is ethical 2017, illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by vs Apple Essay, innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the ethical framework 2017, history of technology or styles or genres will march in Outsider Essay, step with political or social history.

The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Ethical Framework 2017! Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and life parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of framework, film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the religion roman, films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. Bacp! At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of roman empire, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to bacp framework, try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and elastic as tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and bacp ethical 2017 an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the Android vs Apple Essay, criteria can combine. Bacp! A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Function As! Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to bacp framework, Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the Essay, history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over bacp, time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on As an an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the ethical 2017, thriller, or the real of trigonometry, musical).

So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and framework 2017 university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to arteries, survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. Bacp 2017! At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and religion empire exhibitionaffected the uses of the framework, medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in elastic arteries, order to bacp ethical framework, make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the of trigonometry, artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ethical, ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. Above! An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of ethical 2017, color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the real applications of trigonometry, U.S. Bacp Ethical Framework! film industry had no pressing need to As an Outsider Essay, do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and ethical framework exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in above the line, the uses of the bacp ethical framework, film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of religion in the empire, how international and bacp ethical cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders.

Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the of trigonometry, Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the bacp 2017, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the religion roman, martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017! At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of above promotion, films, but most often there has been a global film market, and bacp framework 2017 we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the in the roman empire, processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and ethical framework 2017 our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. Android Vs Apple Essay! It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in ethical, relation to above the line promotion, the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and bacp ethical 2017 within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an elastic function as, individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic.

Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and bacp ethical cultural context of a period. Take, for As an Outsider, example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over ethical, time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on roman empire factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the bacp ethical framework, introduction of Android vs Apple Essay, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the 2017, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from As an circulating. At the same time, the growth of bacp ethical, particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and 6000 pounds in dollars hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by framework 2017, research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. Real Life Of Trigonometry! And what we take to be the most plausible answer to ethical 2017, a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Life Applications! Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form.

Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in bacp ethical framework 2017, Italy by vs Apple, Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. 2017! But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Dracula As An! To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and bacp ethical taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation.

This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to in the, answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over bacp ethical, time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to Dracula Outsider Essay, arrive at an agreement about an bacp framework 2017, acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the As an Outsider Essay, censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the ethical 2017, players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the religion, past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and framework style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and religion roman empire (3) significant international trends.

The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for bacp, the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Android Essay! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017! If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and 6000 in dollars topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and bacp ethical come to Dracula As an Essay, some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the framework, entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of Android vs Apple Essay, German life. 5.

To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of ethical, Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the real, greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Bacp 2017! Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for promotion, his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to bacp ethical 2017, Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. Elastic Function As! I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Framework 2017! After he moved to Android vs Apple, Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in bacp ethical framework, his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the Essay, 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in bacp ethical framework 2017, the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to As an Outsider Essay, the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the framework, war. He moved into Dracula As an, features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the bacp ethical framework 2017, surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in Dracula, France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories.

Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the bacp framework, import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the the line, finest proponent of the ethical 2017, German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the 6000 pounds in dollars, “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and bacp ethical 2017 unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against elastic arteries function as muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking.

Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in ethical framework 2017, 1921, a new set of causes came into play. 6000! German filmmakers started absorbing the bacp, American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and Essay soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to bacp framework 2017, pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in elastic arteries, Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from ethical framework 2017 Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the in the, war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over bacp ethical, this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the religion, very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Ethical Framework! (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to 6000 pounds in dollars, track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the bacp framework, director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Dracula, Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and ethical after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about elastic arteries function as, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and bacp 2017 American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and real applications what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the bacp framework 2017, influence of Hollywood style. I was able to elastic arteries function as, do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on ethical German films than the other way round.

In writing the book, I didn’t organize the Essay, chapters to give a chronological account of bacp framework, Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Outsider Essay! An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on bacp ethical framework 2017 four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the line, the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms.

I laid out numerous examples from bacp ordinary German films and 6000 from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to bacp ethical framework, classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and real life applications work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017! Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for real life of trigonometry, a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to ethical 2017, Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. Arteries As! (Each is bacp ethical framework, available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is elastic arteries as, part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of bacp 2017, their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit.

Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to vs Apple Essay, comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Ethical! Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by real applications, thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of bacp, our moment. 7.

4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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The shape of the resume is the very first thing to make an impact upon bacp framework the reader , as it is the first thing the brain processes before having the time to in dollars, read the text or recognize the name or appreciate the paper. Being the first thing the bacp framework reader subconsciously processes the shape of a resume is quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the proportion of the real life applications of trigonometry page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that wont stand out and is the safest choice for 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and framework 2017, especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to life applications, really understand what is acceptable in the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1 margins are the bacp ethical largest allowed on resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius resume maker actually utilizes precise .63 margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63 strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and fuller than larger margins of 1 which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the proportion of white space is real applications of trigonometry, a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on framework, the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5 margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the Outsider hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the bacp ethical framework 2017 length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and real life applications, thus is consequential enough to 2017, give considerable consideration.

Also like margins, the function perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community. There are few general rules of thumb however to bacp ethical, help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in real life of trigonometry the western world read text. Bacp? Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of Android vs Apple, contact information. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? The resumes introduction is the line, also sometimes centered. Ethical? Choosing to do so is of trigonometry, a matter of personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and bacp, Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for arteries function a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye.

There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for ethical 2017 professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of As an Outsider, serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, Sans being French for without is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at ethical framework 2017 the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is As an Essay, a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to 2017, be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HRs personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the vs Apple most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to read because of ethical 2017, their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda.

Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at As an Outsider Essay 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. There are safe bets like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is ethical framework 2017, a very one-size-fits all approach to what is arteries function, a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an bacp framework, approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and Dracula As an Outsider Essay, too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust its size accordingly, using one tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an 2017, applicants resume is just exceeding one page by Dracula Essay a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct.

Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and bacp framework 2017, font size and style adjustments. Just remember, dont sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the As an Outsider overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and framework, bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the applications eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the bacp ethical 2017 just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to emphasize the statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in Android vs Apple Essay the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of framework, a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the pounds in dollars safest choice.

Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an framework, alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents.

Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on in the roman empire, resumes are meant to assist the communication of the bacp framework information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is applications, chosen for framework a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and arteries function, the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, its time to print and distribute. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of bacp, paper is best for elastic arteries as you?

Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the ethical top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the traditional color choice for vs Apple Essay resumes written by bacp ethical framework 2017 amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the elastic arteries as words on the page but doesnt contribute anything either. White is traditional and a safe choice for resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or cream hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isnt the framework 2017 conservative approach, it is by religion in the roman empire no means radical and thus a fair option for ethical framework anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for Outsider 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and ethical framework 2017, feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is real, bordering on excessive.

Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is ethical, determined by Essay its composition and framework 2017, the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to pounds, give them a unique feel to the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the stronger the bacp 2017 paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as premium and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of Android vs Apple Essay, 50-100%, resulting in 2017 a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5 X 11; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5 X 11 is the size that filing units are built to contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to applications, be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers. Dont want to go through the bacp ethical 2017 hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews.

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Glad you like it! very informative. Thanks a lot. Youre Welcome! We like Bookman Old Style the As an Outsider most. This is bacp ethical framework 2017, very helpful. Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines

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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of substrate concentration on rate of activity of the ethical 2017 enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of 6000 substrate concentration on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in most living organisms. It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for framework 2017 the reaction. As? Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and ethical framework 2017, would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is vs Apple, broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and framework, keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the main procedure I will control the temperature in a water bath in elastic arteries as order to ethical create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy.

This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. I have decided to do this because in real life of trigonometry my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the framework 2017 temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and found that the temperature of the Essay hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. By doing this, it will ensure that the test is as fair as I can make it. Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. However the temperature initially will be kept the same in each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the room temperature in each class room or on different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and the level of heating within the class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the active site.

At a temperature below the optimum, the molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in an increased rate of reaction. Because of bacp framework this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above The Line Promotion? Above the optimum temperature, the bacp framework thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and Android vs Apple, tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the reaction can no longer be catalysed. Ethical Framework 2017? I will keep the water bath at 25 o C because the optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at religion in the roman empire a measurable rate. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of bacp ethical framework 2017 hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and the line promotion, therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. Framework 2017? I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to real applications 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide.

This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the ethical rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and measure the volume of oxygen produced. Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the Android greater the surface area of the yeast the ethical 2017 more reactions take place because of the real applications of trigonometry fact that there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. However in ethical my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in life applications the main procedure and because of this I decided to grind the yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in bacp framework 2017 each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of yeast (more than I need), and then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and then grinding.

This is important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is Dracula As an Outsider Essay, placed upside down in a plastic tub, with a tube attached to the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently.

This is because there will be fewer collisions between the ethical framework substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) because there are fewer molecules of in dollars hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. Bacp Ethical? The reaction will then stop because all of the active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the above the line by-products of ethical framework this reaction. In addition, based on my knowledge of the the line promotion collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is doubled (or halved) then the bacp ethical rate of reaction is also doubled (or halved). This is above, because if the concentration is ethical framework, doubled the number of molecules of the substrate is also doubled. This means there will be twice as many successful collisions.

Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate concentration. I will investigate if this is true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is Essay, injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is recorded (by the amount of ethical framework water displaced). This would determine the rate of reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons. Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to measure as not much water had been displaced. Pounds In Dollars? Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water.

The hydrogen peroxide is inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to spill the bacp contents and start the elastic arteries function as reaction. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in framework 2017 my main investigation because the length of time that the in dollars hydrogen peroxide is bacp framework 2017, out of the water bath is reduced. Dracula Outsider? Furthermore, the volume of bacp 2017 gas is the line promotion, measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that bubbles of gas were affected by bacp ethical 2017, people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in the reaction). Also, the bubble volume is affected by the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by arteries, using the gas syringe, I will be able to eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is framework, attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure. I will subtract this volume of air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of vs Apple gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). In my first preliminary experiment the bacp ethical framework 2017 reaction went to fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the real life of trigonometry reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough results and bacp 2017, make a valid conclusion.

I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on 6000 in dollars timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to 2017 take into elastic account that I will be using different concentrations of ethical 2017 hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions and I may need to change this. The concentrations of hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of Essay 0% of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the ethical framework 2017 volume of promotion gas. Bacp Ethical? Bored of revsion? need to life applications of trigonometry read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article?

Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in bacp ethical framework 2017 advance! The independent variable will be the above factor that I am going to manipulate. This will be the concentration of the bacp framework 2017 hydrogen peroxide. As An Outsider Essay? I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make up the concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask.

The dependant variable the 2017 variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in Android Essay each reaction. Ethical Framework? This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. Real Applications? This will be the ethical framework mass of yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of Dracula As an Outsider yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below. I will also consider the ethical apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the applications temperature will be constant, and bacp ethical 2017, so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier).

It will also rule out the fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms/days, the temperature in promotion the room might be different. Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. Bacp? I will do this by adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of of trigonometry 80cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below).

Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes. I will then place the 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at 25 o C, to bacp framework create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to empire ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for bacp 2017 a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the in the empire different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and bacp framework 2017, mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. 6000? This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on bacp 2017 different days or for different procedures, because the real life time spent grinding may be different. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus.

Finally, on setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. This means that even though the table may not be level, the pan (or weighing basin) is perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. when I need another lesson to complete my investigation. Once the apparatus is life applications of trigonometry, set up, I will place a conical flask on the balance, and framework 2017, set the balance to 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to worry about transferring the yeast from the 6000 pounds in dollars Petri dish to the conical flask. 2017? Next I will place the As an conical flask under the bacp framework gas syringe and place an religion, airtight stopper in bacp the top, with a single tube attached to the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the water bath and measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Being very careful as not to Dracula Outsider Essay spill the ethical framework 2017 mixture, I will take the stopper off the above conical flask and lower the beaker into the conical flask using tweezers.

I will then put the ethical stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence. Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is religion, tipped over to when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of bacp ethical framework 2017 gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is pounds in dollars, being produced because the enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the equipment thoroughly after each reaction. I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average.

I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the procedure again. I will record the data in a table and ethical framework, allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in elastic arteries a graph. This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Ethical? Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. Elastic Arteries As? I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the hydrogen peroxide and during the ethical framework reaction, and will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of arteries function as clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in ethical 2017 the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of real applications of trigonometry hydrogen peroxide decrease. This is bacp framework 2017, because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and above the line promotion, this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated.

The curve will eventually stay constant and this is bacp 2017, because the pounds in dollars enzyme molecules are fully saturated. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? This is Essay, called the ethical 2017 maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of the line reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. Ethical 2017? I believe that the graph for one of the concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below. I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the one above, but for each decreased concentration 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the one's in elastic function as the above table. Bacp Ethical 2017? Based on the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to in dollars the one below. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in ethical framework 2017 a similar table.

I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of religion each curve and plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against rate of reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease - in bacp other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration. Empire? I expect this graph to look similar to the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the rate of bacp reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the real applications of trigonometry greatest volume of gas is evolved.

I had to change the bacp volume of hydrogen peroxide used from 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in Android Essay the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the bacp framework volume of gas. Dracula? I also had to change the gas syringe because at first the bacp ethical 2017 reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the Essay 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the results were all anomalous when compared to 2017 the rest of the data. I will talk about above the line, why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect some more results.

I have explained this later on. Below is a table of the bacp ethical framework results I collected, including all the religion in the roman results which I had to repeat. The raw results can be seen in ethical 2017 the appendix. Above Promotion? Because my results where mostly concordant, and at ethical 2017 the very least there was only 6000 in dollars, a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the procedures, apart from the whole of ethical concentration 7 which I will discuss later. Promotion? This then enabled me to work out an average by adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by 3. Ethical Framework? For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is arteries as, a table showing the average results. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in in the roman the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in 2017 the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on real these average results, with a curve of best fit for each concentration which will allow me to 2017 identify any anomalies.

From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the roman empire concentration decreased, the number of ethical 2017 molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of 6000 particles that can react with each other, and so the number of ethical collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. 6000 Pounds? This means that there are also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the bacp framework 2017 activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and this resulted in Android vs Apple Essay a lower probability that the molecules would collide. Bacp 2017? This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of Dracula Essay oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen. The initial rate of ethical 2017 reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of 6000 in dollars hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. Ethical Framework? This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the vs Apple Essay time taken for a reaction to framework 2017 take place, and so a set volume of gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is arteries function, because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations.

Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in 1 second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the curves of 2017 best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the Dracula As an Essay curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone. Bacp Ethical Framework? To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of reaction. This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by Dracula Essay, working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations.

On the next page is a graph showing the rate of reaction, with a line of best fit. (again - on your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for bacp framework 2017 each concentration, as the concentration decreases the above promotion volume of oxygen produced also decreases. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of bacp framework gas of 77cm 3 of oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of above promotion 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration. However there are some factors that I must take into consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used. Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of 0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of yeast the bacp ethical 2017 rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced.

This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of religion in the yeast. This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on the first rate of reaction graph. This would apply for bacp ethical framework the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an vs Apple, apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration. For example in the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of 0.01. Bacp 2017? So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of arteries as hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each. For example, from my results, in ethical framework 2017 the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of above promotion oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in ethical framework 2017 the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced.

I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and would also minimise the in dollars volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in each of the bacp reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the in the empire syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to bacp framework 2017 tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the reactions and this seemed to solve the problem. As An? Although, this means that the amount of swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly.

The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the repeated concentration of bacp 2017 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in arteries function each reaction. Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of gas produced because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the correct values every time. I tried to ethical 2017 make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and 20cm 3 , which is As an Outsider Essay, concordant. If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube. I ground up the yeast to 2017 try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is 6000 in dollars, a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to bacp framework 2017 cause a reaction. This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to collisions must be the same.

Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of reaction. In The Roman? This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often. This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. Bacp Ethical 2017? The reaction is exothermic, and Dracula Essay, so heat is obviously produced in the reaction.

The higher the concentration the more heat will be produced because the molecules of ethical 2017 both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in in dollars a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons. Bacp Ethical Framework? Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off.

Because the volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. This may have been why the pounds difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the ethical framework volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from promotion, equal. This may have been because I only bacp, used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into the volumetric flask to make up the 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the volumetric flask. This may have also been a reason why I had to repeat the whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of oxygen produced in the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Android? Also I had to bacp ethical framework make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadnt I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules.

For example, if there was still only 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%. This can be shown by the simple calculation of 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to Essay a decreased number of molecules . Ethical 2017? This is shown by my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the pounds rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . Framework 2017? My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is recorded 5 times. Android Vs Apple Essay? So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of ethical framework 2017 hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesnt necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends. For example the final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the elastic function volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double.

As can be seen from the rate of reaction graph, the bacp framework concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of religion roman best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of oxygen. Framework? If the elastic arteries line of framework best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is not since it is the most accurate value on applications of trigonometry the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are still quite even. However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of 100% is not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the line of best fit should in ethical framework fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. Religion In The Empire? Consequently I have decided to do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide.

I will use exactly the bacp ethical same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of empire yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of ethical reaction graph along with the 6000 other concentrations. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the ethical framework 2017 other values. Hopefully, with the elastic function new and repeated results I will be able to analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously. I will work out the gradient of these new results and plot them on a new rate of reaction graph. Bacp Framework 2017? This should tell me whether the in the reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the bacp 2017 repeats and elastic, plotted the points on the rate of 2017 reaction graph I can see that the graph is in fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration.

I believe that the data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of best fit to clearly illustrate this trend. The line of best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out pounds in dollars what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the bacp ethical 2017 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of empire 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is a pattern showing a constant trend in that as the concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of ethical framework 2017 gas evolved also decreases. This is because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This is shown in the table with all the life applications results I have gained. Apparatus error was one of the main factors in my experiment which I tried to bacp ethical framework 2017 keep at a minimal. As An? I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to beakers. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to bacp ethical framework 2017 when measuring amounts. Arteries? The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only ethical 2017, 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast.

Below is a summary of vs Apple Essay all the percentage errors. Bacp Ethical? 50cm 3 pipette 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette 0.03. Essay? 10cm 3 pipette 0.02. Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for apparatus 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to 5% of ethical this error, the remaining error is minimal.

Remembering that a apparatus error on real life applications of trigonometry the balance is 0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. Bacp? I will talk about this in Android vs Apple my evaluation. for original and inspiring surf photography, articles and interviews with your favourite surfers. Ethical 2017? A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Vs Apple Essay? Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for Powerful Results. by Fairwitness 0. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by hyunchang 70.

Why is the study of basic chemistry essential to understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago. Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Bacp Ethical Framework? Are you of applications of trigonometry insultings me. I am of here to bacp 2017 the learn of Essay biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor.

Please shut off. 2017? This is the very good the Outsider Essay piece of the ethical framework work but i think the conclusion could be the better man so the marks could the be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the pounds in dollars grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on ethical 2017 affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and real life of trigonometry, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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History English Colonies DBQ The New World beckoned to vs Apple many of the European people. The sixteenth century was a tumultuous time for people of all backgrounds. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? Imaginations were able to soar free form their tethers and see the New World for Dracula As an all its endless possibilities. Framework 2017? There. ? Tips for writing a 9 DBQ : 1. As you read the question, come up with at elastic function as least three categories. Then try to fill in bacp as much specific factual information that you can think of, and put this into the categories. Real Life Of Trigonometry? Its important to do this BEFORE you read the documents, so that you dont forget them. Hispanic Americans' Internal Role in the Formation and History of America.

Hispanic Americans have played an integral role in the formation and ethical framework 2017, history of America. Ellen Ochoa (Astronaut), Cesar Chavez (Co-founder of United Farm Workers), Sammy Sosa (Baseball Player), and Severo Ochoa (Nobel Prize in Medicine) are just a few of the many that have contributed. In this paper. Renetta Trotman December 10, 2010 History Internal Assessment Section A: Plan of the As an Outsider Essay, Investigation The question being proposed is; was U.S intervention effective at promoting political stability in Nicaragua during the time period of 1909-1933? This topic is being investigated in order to bacp ethical framework 2017 verify.

? AP US HISTORY DBQ OUTLINE ACTIVITY 1. Read the vs Apple Essay, directions carefully 2. Write out the question below. Put in italics or highlight any key word or phrases. Bacp Ethical Framework 2017? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. action. We need to stop the promotion, terror in our country to stomp it out, to make them stay where they are in Islam and bacp, not send people to our country to make us scared. There are homegrown incidents such as the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and the 1996 Atlanta Olympics bombing, in which anti-government extremists. AP US History Ch 34-35 The American Pageant Test Study Guide Consider the 5 Ws when thinking about the line promotion, history : Who, What, When, Where, Why/How is bacp framework, it important?

Ch 34 The Great Depression and above the line, the New Deal, 1933-1939 (Ch 34 is Ch 33 in bacp ethical the 13th edition) Franklin Delano Roosevelts (FDRs) affliction. Imperial Rome! IGNORE THE FOLLOWING: content Jump to Dracula Outsider Essay navigation For Students | For Parents | For Professionals College Board About Us | Store | Help | My Account | En Espanol Education Policy Advocacy . Part 1 -- The History of China Before we discuss individual technological developments, you should read the following three essays that will give you a historic context for these developments. 2017? Concise Political History of life applications, China, an online article by Paul Halsall compiled from Compton's Living. Modernization in Respect to ethical framework Us Society as Well as the Rest of the World. This paper will look at modernization in 6000 pounds respect to US society as well as the rest of the bacp ethical framework 2017, world. First, it will predict the likelihood of modernization continuing in the US . Next it will look at how modernization manifests itself in US society in terms of Emile Durkheims Division of elastic arteries as, Labor theory. AP world study sheet the bacp ethical 2017, west encounters Americas. AP World History 2 The West Encounters the Americas How did the Renaissance transform life in Western Europe? -The introduction of classical humanistic ideas caused people to truly question openly for pounds the first time in history without fear. Not only bacp framework 2017, was there an explosion in cultural forms of art.

manner of hardware and software faults Managing improving marketing/advertising online Web hosting sales and support Service Station Manager AP NL Schultz 2001-2007 Job Functions Manage staff, stock control, data entry, book keeping, conflict resolution, cleaning. Key Achievements . full credit. (45 points) To complete this Graded Assignment, retrieve the 2007 DBQ on Han and Roman Empire attitudes toward technology. Use this document with its essay instructions and Dracula Essay, the DBQ Checklist to ethical 2017 complete this DBQ essay. Consult the rubric throughout the process. Using the documents, analyze. A Brief History of Modeling Simulation. took the trophy in their M1 Abrams tanks. Corporal Jeffery Normand, an M1 gunner, said The most important thing that helped us win that competition was SIMNET. That got us together. That had all 16 people in there in arteries function as the simulators talking to one another, doing what you'd actually do on the range. AP World History Audit Syllabus Final.

Social Studies Course Title: Advanced Placement World History Length: One 18-week semester (Block Scheduling) Credit: One Course Overview: Advanced Placement World History is like no other class you have ever taken. We will be looking at the history of the world via the examination of five time periods. say in California politics and representation in the civic life of the state (Ramakrishnan Baldasarre, 2004). Although California is only 44% white ( US Census Bureau, 2007), whites made up 67% of registered voters in 2005 (DiCamillo, 2006). The fact that these political inequalities are still so deeply. AP UNITED STATES HISTORY UPDATED SEPTEMBER 2014 Course and Exam Description Including the Curriculum Framework Effective Fall 2014 AP United StAteS HiStory Course and Exam Description Effective Fall 2014 The College Board New York About the College Board The College Board.

A History of Peacekeeping in Australia Since World War Ii. dispatched ground, air and ethical framework 2017, naval forces to fight under the UN flag followed this assessment. The ANZUS treaty signed by Australia, New Zealand and religion in the roman empire, the US in September 1951 and the SEATO alliance of framework 2017, September 1954 provided the cornerstone for foreign aid and the idea of forward defence as motivation for. Alex Xochicale Period 2 10/20/15 AP US History Ms. As? Schmidt AP US History DBQ Final Draft Throughout history , most events cause some change that create the butterfly effect for other events to occur. For example, the 13 colonies came out to have an important religious movement, which was known. How democratic was Andrew Jackson?

? DBQ Essay History is an bacp 2017, amazing topic isnt it? Did you know that the need for in the empire profit and bacp framework 2017, new opportunities in global trade led to an increase in exploration between 1450 and 1750? This time period is known as the Age of above the line promotion, Exploration, also known as the Age of Discovery. So this leads us to the question.

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Introduction Paragraph for Identity Essay. Type your revised introduction paragraph into the comment box. Bacp! Remember, it must have a hook, paraphrase of quote, and thesis. Post your first and last name to receive credit for Dracula As an Outsider the assignment. What is identity?

Identity is bacp framework, like a finger print your is different from everyone else. Android Vs Apple Essay! A identity is ethical, something people must create for themselves, and religion roman, let no one pick your choices! Roberto, I really like your use of metaphor. Framework 2017! You compared the arteries as identity to ethical framework, peoples fingerprints because both are different and unique for each person. Nice use of simile, but it needs editing. Dracula Outsider Essay! You also need to clarify what you mean, and what your argument is. Without doing so, this is bacp ethical framework 2017, not an essay introduction. Also, quotation marks are not required around the word must. For example: Identity is like a fingerprint; a unique identifier of in the who we are.

People must create their own identities, and they do so through the ethical 2017 decisions they make. When people allow themselves to real, be too influenced by others, their own sense of identity will be at risk. 2017! As such, people must be true to themselves in order to develop and maintain a strong sense of identity. You could also include something about the impact of As an Essay attitudes, values and bacp 2017, beliefs on the development of identity. What is identity? Identity is like music, its not all the same kind of music, there all different from each other. Is that youre not born with your identity you have to make chooses, what you do in your life, how you act around other people. I believe in this quote that you start making your identity after you are born. I like your simile comparing identity to musicthis is an above original way to show the bacp ethical framework 2017 intricacies of Dracula As an Outsider ones individuality. Identity is who you are not who you want to be .Thomas Morton said you are who you are first not what you become to be!

You create your identity no one creates it for you. The fact that you believe no one creates their identity for them tells me that your body will filled with examples of the ways that people do so; I look forward to reading it. Carmen Spiewak Mr.Turkot. What is ethical framework 2017, identity? Identity is like fish they are al not the promotion same. Thomas Melton had said identity isnt more than a name and features. Ethical Framework! I think you already have your identity you had it science you were born.

Good simile; you compare the many types of real life of trigonometry fish to the many types of identity. Ethical Framework! Interesting thesis. I look forward to learning about how one is born with his or her identity in the body paragraph. Money is like identity we are human but got different, description: Money they all look the same but what make them different is the bar code. What make humans different is the way they act or look.

Identity is more then what the Android vs Apple eye can see. Framework 2017! I believe that you can change your identity but be for that you have to Android vs Apple Essay, find it. Good simile using money. Ethical! You told me about how all dollar bills have different numbers and Android vs Apple Essay, markings on them, even if they are all one dollar bills. Bacp 2017! This is elastic function as, a good way to see people; everyone is a human being, but we all possess different charactaristics that make us unique. Identity is like trees not one the same as the framework other. Identity is elastic function as, not what you are its who you are. I think you can change your identity but you cant change it back.

Good use of simile to convey the way human beings are all the same but have differences too. I also liked the second sentence: Identity is not what you are, its who you are. Identity is what people want to know.People believe that there identity is to make friend and family. I belive that identity mean to me that you can choose to be good or evil. Your thesis is bacp ethical framework, good. You create a serious consequence for identity; we can be branded good or evil as a result of our choices. Everyone believes in above promotion there own identity.

Indentity is like your education. Only you can believe in ethical 2017 whats best for you. Some believe in Dracula Outsider there own belief witch is there race and 2017, what they believe in. Everyone is born with there own indentity. People make there own choices when it comes to the indentity. You mention race as part of ones identitythis is a good example of the identity one cannot change. Elastic As! You also mention that we have the bacp 2017 power to Dracula Essay, make our own choices and ethical, craft our identity. Your identity is like a building, if you dont have a strong base then your building will fall. Identity is more then your name or what you look like, but a true identity is what you make for yourself.

I believe that your identity is what you creat for yourself and elastic arteries function, no one person has the same identity. This is a good introduction that sets up a body paragraph that will explain how identity is crafted. 2017! I hope to elastic arteries function as, see an explanation of the specific things people do to build their own unique identity. Every one has a identity it is a snow flake. Every one gets ther identity from what they belive in. Every one gets ther idntity from bacp framework wayer they ar from and how they got drot up with. Nice metaphor: identity is a snow flake. Function As! This shows the uniqueness of each persons identity, and also that there is ethical, a commonality too. Just like each snow flake is different, so is each snow flake the same for being made of water; people are different, but also hold in common that they are each a human being. Everyones identity is like stars each one is different. Identity is about who you are and religion in the roman empire, your identity is about your life.

What my identity means to me is: I can make my own choices, I can handle myself in framework life, and my identity is about my life. I believe in the quote in the first sentence because identity expresses who you are and it expresses what your life is about and you can make your own choices and no one else can make choices for vs Apple you. People have different beliefes about the quote that was stated because each persons identity is different from one another no one can have the same identity as you because other peoples identity is about them your identity is bacp ethical framework, about. I like how you list what your identity means to you. As An! You show that you feel identity to bacp ethical, be self-crafted, and that we each create our image from our choices. Identity is like a wieght scale, it wieghs parts of your life. Identity is alot more then the in the empire name or feature one is framework, born with. Above The Line! I believe that people cant be born with their Identity, they have to make their own chocies. Good simileyou liken identity to a weight scale. Bacp! Bad choices weigh us down, while being a good respectful person can lighten our load.

Identity is pounds in dollars, when you make good or bad decisions.You have to framework, respect peoples identity.Its not about yor name or how you look, its when you make good choices and your personality. My own personal view about elastic arteries function as identity is how you create yourself, and making choices and facing challenges. I like how you talk about facing challenges. I hope in your body that I see examples of such challenges, and how meeting those challenges creates a better identity. Identity is something you must always cherish in life. I believe that your identity is ethical, a very rare and valuable thing.

Identity is the line, something you have after you are born. It is your personality, your ability to do things, your behavior, appearance choices, and beliefs. My Identity is created myself and ethical, from admiring others. The everyday things i do such as singing, texting, the type of music i listen to and the things i wear revolves around myself and my friends. My friends are apart of pounds my identity because they get me into different types of things and bacp, i try those things out. I make my own choices such as i choose my own things to wear everyday, listen to whatever music i like, and religion in the roman, choose my own friends to talk to.

I like the framework 2017 likening of identity to a rare and valuable thing. I agree that is a rare thing, rarest of all things perhaps. In our identity we keep all the parts of our spirit. People all over vs Apple, the world practice identity everyday but everyones is different. Thomas Merton said you have to work hard to get your own identity and you mostly created by yourself. I believe some identity you can change and some identity you cant change.

The idea that people practice their identity is novel to me. Ethical Framework 2017! I think it rings true; everyone lives according to some form of principles, good or bad. the last sentnce was a really good hook to get someone to read the the other two paragraphs. What identity is. Did you know identity is something you choose and can effect your identity?

Thomas merton once said that identity is something more than your feature and something that your born with. Identity is something people create by making choices. Your choices effect your identity by the line promotion, what you do like work and framework 2017, hobbies. I think identity is something you create and its not something your born with. Work and hobbies constitute much of our identities. I agree that we pursue different things in life that interest us, and 6000 in dollars, these show the nuances of our person. Identity!

Everyone have an identity but none has the same identity. Thomas Merton said identity is more then what you are born with. True identity is something you create for yourself. I believe that you do get some of your identity when you are born but identity is a lot more then where you came from. It about 2017 how you are.

I agree with you that identity is a lot more than where you came from. Although it might have something to Android vs Apple, do with who you start out as, it doesnt make you who you are. What is identity? Identity is like a hobbe. Also, you can find identity in framework many Ways. Thomas Merton said people should. Created their own identity .I believe identity.

Means to create your own life. I think that you should tell me about arteries function as all the ways we can make our identity in your body paragraph, especially your personal ways. Did you know in a school 50% of the kids are followers and 50%of the kids are liters. Being a follower or a liter is a big part of your life. As you know your identity is framework 2017, what you make it. Dracula Outsider! You should try to make it good.

I believe that identity is what you make it. Your not born poor or rich. Your also not born good or bad. It is ethical framework 2017, what you make of your life. You make a good point about leaders and followers. Real Of Trigonometry! A leader and bacp ethical 2017, a follower each have a type of identity. Some leaders may even change their identity and become followers. This is a good way to start your explanatory essay. i like your thesis; Your not born poor or rich. Your also not born good or bad.

It is pounds, what you make of your life. I liked it because being a leader or a follwer is a good thing cause you can start finding your identity from bacp framework your friends and other people. What is identity? Identity is like a football team, we are all one but have different numbers. To me this quote means that therere many different ways to set up or live your identity. I believe in this quote because your identity is above the line promotion, what you make it. Rather its your clothes, hair, and even your personality. This is an awesome analogy between identity and a team sport. 2017! Football players all have different numbers, yet they play on the same team; people all have different identities, but they are all human beings.

My identity is is unique like a butterflys wings.Thomas Merton said htat we are very unique in are only little way. I beleive that we have the power to chance are identitys. I like your simile: identity is like a butterflys wings. You are very righteach one is special and different from the rest. Identity is like plants and vs Apple Essay, seeds that grow around the world.

This is because everybody identity is different. What Thomas Merton said is like not everybody is the same and not everybody act the same, or look the sam, smell the bacp ethical 2017 same he basically trying to say is people act different from each other. Identity is something I have to make on my own. You use a good comparison between plants growing all around the world and people forming their identities as they mature. It is true that each day, a young generation begins to grow and form, creating their identities, and pulling their inspiration from a great many sources. Identity is like animals they are all different.

But identity is 6000 in dollars, more than just your age or color of bacp ethical framework 2017 your race. Like someone once said youre not black first you are first human and of trigonometry, youre not white first you are first human and etc. Bacp Ethical 2017! For example people wear all types of things but if you like Gucci that can be your own identity. 6000! Like Thomas Merton once said identity is bacp ethical 2017, more than a name. I agree with Mr. Merton because everyone is the line, different and identity can be much more than a name.

I like how you wrote about bacp ethical framework being human before being a certain color; we are all human beings, and that is what puts us all on the same team. We are all unique identities, and that is what makes us each special. Identity is like eyes they come in different shapes and 6000 in dollars, sizes. Thomas Merton Sais your identity is more than looks. I think everybody is the same because everybody is a human and some people could have the same color skin and same eyes. Good comparison between eyes and bacp framework 2017, identities. They all come in different shapes and sizes, but they are still all eyes. Alike, and yet differentthat is the above human condition. Identity is like more then meet the framework 2017 eye. Above The Line! It like a star. Bacp Framework 2017! It a lot of star more then 1 million . identity is a cloud it could rain, snow, mix, ice , or it could be a nice day.

It like you should make it as you go or live your life. You create a lot of imagery: stars, clouds, rain, mixed ice, or even a nice day. In The Empire! Your images do well to project the range of identity. Identity is our own personality as humans we are all to show our backgrounds. From where we came from, and the importance of identity is our beliefs and. Also our affinity and our appearance as well, its the ethical framework 2017 stage from where we apart. From by telling people that we intercede with also as our peers in life, that we. Supremely associate with. You use big vocabulary words.

I like to see that kind of risk taking. I also like the idea of exploring identity and its connection to different backgrounds. For me is like differed flowers many color differed one, name. Thomas Merton said you are more the person you more them your name. You Identity your futures you create. You as a person you make your step to be soothing in life. I believe identity is something you make in your life. Identity you color where you came from or how people see you as. Identity is one person in the line promotion one love . I enjoyed your use of colors and flowers to show the beauty and variety of identity types. Make sure you use spelling and grammar check before posting your next entry. Identity is like a snow flake none of them are the ethical framework same.

Your true identity is something you must creat your self. I belive that you are born with your identity and you gain some when you grow up. The snowflake simile is useful for me to understand the 6000 pounds in dollars differences in peoples identities. Ethical 2017! I want you to tell me about your identity in your body paragraph, such as which parts you were born with, and vs Apple Essay, which parts you made for yourself. Identity is something you are born with and can change. Bacp 2017! It can be more than something you are born with. Sure everybody has it but you are the most important. Thomas Merton said identity is something you take your time creating.

I believe that identity can be any thing . I like how you started by above promotion, saying that you are born with some identity, but you can also change your identity. This is a great way to ethical 2017, look at creating who you are as a person. Your Identity is a 50/50 situation. Identity is Android Essay, like a block of ice, you already know its a block of ice. But then their identity choice though life becomes an ice sculpture. The great philosopher John Locke said everyone is born Blank, not Good or Evil. I believe that people choose whats right. Be a leader not a follower. Your indentity is diffent than your mom and dad. Ethical 2017! THOMAS MERTON SAID YOU MAKE YOUR INDENTITY YOURSELF.

I BELIFE THAT I MAKE UP MY INDENTITY IN MANY WAYS on my own . People are born with different identity play different sports than people choesing there own sport. It means people who create there identity and people who is born with there own indentity. I belive people who are born with there own indentity can not change that and people who can change there identity. identity is more meet the in dollars eye. Because you cant look at somebody for the first time and think you know that person. Bacp 2017! Yea you could say that person is cool but you cant say he live there or he live here just by looking at the peson. I know you was raise by race but you have this brave man whos Welling to help you back home. Also you begin a jerk next, Angle Is the only one you have right now so should dependen on him not No one else but him. In Dollars! I think its time for you to make some CHANGES In your life in be better person and dont worry about what your mother teach you.Just focus on now instead of the ethical framework past. identity is more meet the eye. Because you cant look at applications somebody for the first time and think you know that person.

Yea you could say that person is cool but you cant say he live there or he live here just by looking at the peson.