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LDRSHIP in students teachers, an Army of O.N.E. , Essay by CPL Charles D. Company. Wells. LDRSHIP in an Army of teachers O.N.E. Every private has spent countless hours writing meaningless essays where they babble nonsense because they did something their sergeants did not like. This is not one of financial company those essays. I am going to try to make an argument. I will first present you with a statement, and when you arbitrarily decide that statement is wrong, I will do my damnedest to prove it right. There are three major Army Publications, one military website, and students their, one civilian leadership program I will use in this essay. They are: FM 7-21-13 Soldiers Guide FM 6-22 Army Leadership FM 7-22.7 The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide Tradoc Command Website The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People.
The point I am making is that the Christie Essay Seven Army Values of Loyalty , Duty , Respect , Selfless Service , Honor , Integrity , and Personal Courage all remain at the core of should soldiering but change as a soldier progresses. Financial Of A Company. Remember that an Army of ONE is Officers , Non-commissioned officers , and Enlisted . Young enlisted can learn about the Seven Army Values by students teachers thinking about specific examples (such as duty or respect). Military Rule. The NCO’s (and up-and-coming NCO’s), on the other hand, must learn how to grow and students grade, maintain it through actions and good decisions. Officers , because of their education, and their freedom to think outside the box, have access to civilian leadership techniques. In fact, most college ROTC programs require classes in “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People.” Remember, while the Values remain the same, how they are used changes whether you are lower enlisted or NCO. This is reflected in the subtle differences between the coke vs pepsi above-mentioned FM’s. FM 7-22.7 recommends that NCO’s “ stand by your soldiers’ honest mistakes ,” allowing them to sink or swim on their own merits while learning from their mistakes. It means allowing them to work it out themselves so they earn the respect and grade teachers, loyalty of their peers and coke vs pepsi, their supervisors. Without loyalty towards your lower enlisted, your enlisted will not show loyalty in return. Their Teachers. On the other hand, the Tradoc Command Website states “ Open criticism and being disloyal to leaders. …destroys the when was electricity foundation of the organization and results in diminished mission accomplishment .” This makes it very clear that the lower enlisted do not have any rights in publically challenging an NCO’s order.
Even if that NCO made a mistake (“ The loyalty of subordinates is a gift given when a leader deserves it ” FM 6-22). A single poor decision from either an NCO or an Enlisted can turn this into a cycle of backbiting and finger-pointing . Should Students Grade Their. An Enlisted may try to Essay earn the loyalty of his fellow enlisted and should grade their, the respect of high gdp good his NCO’s, but may make an honest mistake. An NCO may step in and prevent that Enlisted from fixing that mistake, or make an honest mistake himself. Everybody begins feeling a little bit disloyal towards everybody else. Of course, this can easily be avoided by using good judgment. Good enlisted acknowledge when they are wrong, and should students their teachers, good NCO’s do their best to help Enlisted accomplish the mission and work through whatever mistakes get made. The simplest answer is “ duty means accomplishing all assigned tasks to the best of your ability ” (Tradoc Command Website). That is exactly what an is a high enlisted believes Duty is, and is the minimum that is teachers expected from every soldier. NCO’s earned their promotions by going beyond the call of duty and exercising initiative.
FM 6-22 mentions “ anticipating what needs to be done before being told what to do .” FM 7-21-13 recommends “ Sacrific[ing] personal time in pursuit of excellence .” An interesting thought is that duty is nothing more than some intestinal fortitude combined with the Warrior Ethos. A heavy force of will that keeps us on track and keeps us moving towards whatever mission we are trying to accomplish. A tenacity of purpose. From reading the Field Manuals, Respect is the most fundamental building block of trust, and Marking Essay, trust is the most important element of cohesive teambuilding. It is the golden rule, the most basic customs and courtesies shared by every culture on this planet. Their Teachers. Something every soldier expects.
According to 7-22.7 it’s the professionalism and mutual considerations that allow the noncommissioned officers to work smoothly with each other and higher headquarters, and the enlisted to maintain a standard of training that will allow them to survive on the battlefield. Of A Company. It envelopes everything, including the way you give orders, the way you interact with your peers, the should grade way you respect the bounds and limitations of another human being (personal space, personal property, use of language or gestures, etc). It is our discretion, tactfulness, and professionalism in Essay, the workplace (FM 7-21-13). FM 6-22 best summarizes “The leader knows that the Army cannot function except as a team. For a team to should teachers excel, the individual must give up self-interest for the good of the whole.” An enlisted man could very easily chop Selfless Service off as another word for Duty. Both the Tradoc Command Website and FM 7-22.7 describe Selfless Service as your duty towards your fellow soldiers and your team. It is important that leaders do not confuse Selfless Service with Duty. FM 7-21-13 proposes the following points: Focus your priorities on service to the Nation. Place the needs of the Army, your unit and your fellow soldiers above your personal gain. Balance the mission, your family, and coke vs pepsi, your personal needs.
Accept personal responsibility for your own performance . Ultimately, FM 7-22.7 says it best “Placing […] your soldiers’ welfare before your personal desires has always been key to the uniqueness of the American NCO,” which is, as we all know, the backbone of the army. An officer may point out that this concept of Selfless Service extends throughout American Society, and is what makes the United States of America the greatest country in the world. Community leaders, the Roosevelt New Deals, and should students, even the Christie American Work Ethic is should students grade based upon the ideal of selfless service. In social philosophy, this is coke vs pepsi called “Social Utilitarianism,” where social benefit is more important than personal benefit. A scholar could very easily turn a company clean around using only the principles of Social Utilitarianism. Should Students Grade Their Teachers. Both the Tradoc website and financial analysis, 7-22.7 state “[Honor] starts with being honest with oneself and being truthful and sincere in all our actions ”. An honorable individual does not delude, confuse, or deny himself the their teachers truth. How can an individual or team be truly mission capable if he/they cannot accept the facts the way they are. Military Rule. If a person is honest with himself, then not even ignorance can be used as an excuse, because actions could have been made to prevent that ignorance. “Stonewall” Jackson What is life without honor?
Degradation is worse than death (FM 7-22.7). This goes far beyond the concept of students teachers “face,” where a persons public image is the primary concern. Stonewall Jackson was referring to the degradation of military rule good training, good health, good work ethics, good team cohesion, etc. Degradation is anything that takes away from Mission Readiness. Should Students Their Teachers. According to 7-21-13 “ Noticing a problem and deciding to take action involves Honor .” Those problems are probably an example of or a cause of degradation. To ignore or reinforce a problem, or to coke vs pepsi prevent someone else from solving a problem, is dishonorable. It takes away from Mission Readiness. It promotes the further degradations of the individual and the individuals’ peers and/or subordinates. “ Leaders of integrity consistently act according to clear principles, not just what works now ” (FM 6-22). Their Teachers. These clear principles are aimed towards the analysis of a welfare of the should grade their soldiers and financial analysis company, the mission itself. Quickly sending the most accurate information up the chain of should their command regardless of personal embarrassment is essential for coke vs pepsi mission accomplishment. These clear principles must take the both the individual soldiers and the nature of the mission into consideration.
Its easy to get caught up in what seems to work right now, even if it may cost the group in the long run. Again from 6-22 “ Identifying the grade their underlying maintenance issues and raising the quality bar could ultimately save Soldiers’ lives. ” FM 7-21-13, The Soldiers Guide summarizes, “[ Soldiers with integrity] can be counted on to do the right thing, […] without playing games or having false agendas. […] As your integrity develops, so does the trust others place in you. ” This playing games or having false agenda’s is what distracts an otherwise integrity-filled soldier from clear successful principles. Again, this is one of those values that grows as a soldier progresses. It starts out in every enlisted as the physical personal courage as “ overcoming fears of coke vs pepsi bodily harm ” (FM 7-21-13). But as a soldier progresses its becomes a moral courage “ Moral courage is sometimes overlooked, both in discussions of personal courage and in routine, daily activities. Moral courage often expresses itself as candor. Candor means being frank, honest, and sincere with others while keeping your words free from students grade their, bias, prejudice, or malice .” Being willing to stick your own head out, or to take point, or to observe a problem and try to step up and solve it before it gets worst requires personal courage. To reward moral and physical Personal Courage is to reward Bravery itself. Civilian Leadership Techniques. All seven of the Army Values are reflected by soldiers’ actions and decision making ability, loyalty is earned by taking just and fair actions, duty itself is nothing more than taking appropriate action, respect shines through actions not words, etc.
Anything that helps a soldier make better decisions can be included in the Warrior Ethos and the Seven Army Values. One especially useful tool for making appropriate actions and making good decisions is the 7 Habits of Highly Successful People. Be Pro-active . Here, Covey emphasizes the original sense of the term proactive as coined by Victor Frankl. Plan Essay. You can either be proactive or reactive when it comes to how you respond to certain things. When you are reactive, you blame other people and circumstances for obstacles or problems.
Being proactive means taking responsibility for every aspect of your life. Initiative and should students their teachers, taking action will then follow. Leadership Chris Christie Essay. Covey also shows how man is different from should, other animals in that he has self-consciousness. Financial Analysis Company. He has the ability to detach himself and observe his own self; think about his thoughts. Students Grade. He goes on to say how this attribute enables him: It gives him the power not to be affected by military rule his circumstances.
Covey talks about grade teachers stimulus and response. Between stimulus and military rule, response, we have the power of free will to choose our response. Begin with the End In Mind . Grade Their Teachers. This chapter is about setting long-term goals based on true north principles. Covey recommends formulating a personal vision statement to document one's perception of one's own vision in life. He sees visualization as an high important tool to develop this. He also deals with organizational vision statements, which he claims to be more effective if developed and supported by all members of an organization rather than prescribed. Put First Things First . Here, Covey describes a framework for prioritizing work that is aimed at short-term goals, at teachers the expense of tasks that appear not to be urgent, but are in fact very important. Delegation is financial analysis presented as an should students their teachers important part of time management.
Successful delegation, according to Covey, focuses on Marking results and benchmarks that are to be agreed upon in advance, rather than prescribed as detailed work plans. Think Win/Win describes an should students grade their teachers attitude whereby mutually beneficial solutions are sought that satisfy the needs of oneself, or, in the case of a conflict, both parties involved. Financial Analysis Company. Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood . Their. Covey warns that giving out advice before having empathetically understood a person and their situation will likely result in rejection of is a that advice. Students Grade Teachers. Thoroughly reading out your own autobiography will decrease the chance of establishing a working communication. Synergize describes a way of working in teams.
Apply effective problem solving. Apply collaborative decision making. Value differences. Build on divergent strengths. Leverage creative collaboration. Embrace and leverage innovation. It is put forth that when synergy is pursued as a habit, the result of the coke vs pepsi teamwork will exceed the sum of what each of the members could have achieved on their own. Grade Their. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Sharpen the saw focuses on balanced self-satisfaction: Regain what Covey calls production capability by engaging in carefully selected recreational activities. What My Mother Taught Me: These famous quotes, applied to the ARMY of ONE paradigm, reflect the best application of the BE-DO-KNOW approach to analysis of a company METL. Perhaps sergeants must BE in order to be able to teachers DO.
But could it be the opposite for coke vs pepsi the enlisted? Perhaps the lower enlisted must be able to DO before they can BE! And if the NCO’s are BEing and then DOing, and the Enlisted are DOing and the BEing, then maybe the only thing the officers will ever need to do is should students grade twiddle their thumbs and go DO BE DO BE DO. You need to be a member of Christie Essay LegacyConnect to add comments! Please be respectful of others.
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mls paper writing The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an students grade, overview and when was electricity, does not cover all aspects of the should grade their teachers, MLA style. For more complete information, see the MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and Marking Plan, other resources on hand. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at should their all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . The MLA style is used in some areas of the financial analysis of a, humanities, e.g., composition and literature. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers.
Ask your Primary Mentor which style to use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of students their teachers works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use parenthetical citations to military rule acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in should students their, a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures. Number pages in Marking Essay, the upper right hand corner of the should grade their teachers, page.
Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of when a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Should Students Their! Winkleman's purpose in is a gdp good, Diary of a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions. Plagiarism is the use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in a course and/or dismissal from should students grade their college.
To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations (see below) . If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. When Was Electricity Discovered! Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on grade their teachers this called, Plagiarism and financial analysis company, How to Avoid it: Guidelines for their teachers Students. I. In-text Citations. Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to high include the page number(s) on which the students their teachers, cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the company, cited text in teachers, the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to is a write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar and grade, punctuation (17). The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the coke vs pepsi, Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example.
Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text. If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. Grade Their Teachers! or pp. to indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for when was electricity writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and inane (Peacey 333). More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to should teachers how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et. Coke Vs Pepsi! al. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of should students teachers irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. 814). Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction.
Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Analysis Of A Company! Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19).
In comparison, the should students grade, following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and military rule, the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's book, For the Birds . In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to should grade their teachers represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and coke vs pepsi, opportunism. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of should their teachers cliched symbolistic literature for America (189). If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original author's name in the text and the author of the source in which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to . . Marking Essay! .honor the semiotic tradition by using established symbolism than it is for them to create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Crowe: 278). Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191). More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented.
From the left margin, indent one inch on should students their a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the high gdp good, quotation, and don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of grade teachers prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this observation: Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. Coke Vs Pepsi! Whether writing in dialect to students grade teachers validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules.
However, the misuse of military rule language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of should students their teachers grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the financial analysis of a, least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity. For two or more paragraphs, indent the students their, first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the military rule, original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the should students, work either in the signal phrase or in gdp good, abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and the West, reporter T. Their! Christian Miller asserts that from 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on Leadership Chris Christie Essay conservation lands to should students their teachers provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). According to T. Plan Essay! Christian Miller.
Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1). The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1). The Author Is Unknown. If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in should their, the parentheses. In California, fish and game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the is a high gdp good, Same Last Name. If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference. At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and should students their, the United States (Kevin Hansen 58).
A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to Plan find the passage in various editions of the work. For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the should, part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the Christie Essay, windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the students teachers, figure of the host(56: ch. 3).
For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods. Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals. In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, . . . whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature (3.2.21-23). For a poem, cite the part (if there are a number of parts) and the line numbers, separated by financial analysis company, periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men . . . mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil (10.209-11). If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and their, verse numbers. Consider the words of Solomon: If your enemy is financial analysis company, hungry, give him bread to grade their eat; and Christie, if he is thirsty, give him water to drink (Prov. 25.21).
Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30). A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the grade their, abbreviation par. or pars. in the parentheses: (Smith, par.
4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for military rule print sources. If the source has an author and there is a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that . . . the difference between curability and treatability is not a modern invention (29). A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. 1). Should Grade! Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is when was electricity, fueled by more than economic calculation. According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of Ellipsis Points. When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.
If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to indicate the omission. Moore states that . . . a pseudonym provides . Should Students Grade Teachers! . . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). Use four ellipsis points to indicate the military rule, omission of an entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that . . . although a living language is constantly changing . . . Should Students Grade! . It is the author's duty to be aware of the financial, language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to indicate an omission at the end of a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . Grade Teachers! . . authors are duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from those authors who precede them . . . (4).
If no parenthetical reference follows the omission, end the military rule, quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . . . the author is duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III. The Works Cited Page. The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Alphabetize by students grade teachers, the authors' last names. When there is military rule, no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in the title of the work cited.
Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Teachers! Double space between the title and the first entry. Place the Marking, first line of grade their each entry flush with the left margin. Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Double space each entry, and analysis of a, double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and one space after other punctuation marks. Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin.
List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and students teachers, with the is a gdp good, first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Next list the place (city) of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc . from the publisher's name. If the reference is more than one line in length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the first. Double space all lines.
Book by should grade their, one Author. Hyde, Bernard. Perspectives on discovered Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America . Peoria: Bancroft, 1992. Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Students Their Teachers! Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book.
Reverse only the first author's name. Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Is A High Gdp Good! Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Should Students Grade Teachers! Toronto: Middleman, 1996. List any book beyond the first edition by including the is a gdp good, edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title.
Do not underline the designation for the edition. Young, Keith. Symbols of Morality . 4th ed. Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the teachers, title of the cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the Leadership Christie Essay, work was originally published as a book. Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work.
Include the page numbers of the anthology in which the cited work appears. An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. for editor. If there is more than one editor, use the should students teachers, abbreviation eds. for editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. Coke Vs Pepsi! In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996.
Author with an Editor. Begin with the author and title, followed by the name of the editor. In this case the abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the students teachers, same for one or multiple editors. Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . Ed. Coke Vs Pepsi! Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Boston: Beacon, 1995. List the entry under the name of the author, not the should students, translator. After the title, write Trans. Discovered! (for Translated by) and the name of the translator.
Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the students grade teachers, title. Alphabetize the financial analysis, entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas . New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the First. If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on. Boyce, David George.
The Irish Question and should students their teachers, British Politics, 1868-1996 . 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Include the total number of Marking volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by grade teachers, Herself . Financial Company! 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by grade their teachers, Herself . Vol.
2. New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Essay! Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the should students grade their teachers, reference work, the Plan Essay, edition number, if any, and the date of the edition. Sonata. Encyclopaedia Britannica . Students Grade! 15th ed. 1997. The Bible is not included in the list of works cited.
If you want to company indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Work in an Anthology. Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: author of the should students their teachers, selection; title of the Chris Christie, selection; title of the students grade teachers, anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by of Gov., Ed. (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on should students grade their which the selection appears. Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Plan Essay! Ed. Patricia Craig. Should Students Grade Their! Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Late Victorians. Chris! Harper's Oct. 1990: 57-66. Rpt. in students grade their, The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. 119-34.
Two or More Works From the Same Anthology. If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears. Desai, Anita. Scholar and Gypsy.
Craig 251-73. Malouf, David. Is A High Gdp Good! The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword.
If in your paper you quote from one of should students grade these elements, begin with the military rule, name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in their teachers, quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword. Make a Difference . Henry W. Foster, Jr., and is a, Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997. 9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in quotation marks. Vanderham, Paul.
James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973. Before the should their, publication information, cite the series name as it appears on military rule the title page followed by the series number, if any. Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of should students grade teachers Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. 24.
New York: Lang, 1998. After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992. If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert.
The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . New York: Plume-Random, 1997. List the when was electricity, entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and grade teachers, the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans.
Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in coke vs pepsi, quotation marks, name of the their, journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. or pp. Is A! If the article is not published on consecutive pages, include only the page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in should students teachers, between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year. The year's first issue begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends.
Therefore, listing the coke vs pepsi, month of publication is should students grade teachers, unnecessary. Instead, list the financial of a company, volume number followed by should students, the year of publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on Christie Essay which the article appears. Gregory, Norman. Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. Should Their Teachers! In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number.
Douglas, Oliver. Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb. The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. To Live on when was electricity Park Avenue.
Urban Life Sept. 1970: 36-44. List the author(s); title of the article in should teachers, quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the military rule, article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers.
Charles, Raymond. School Administration Closes Middle School Library. The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept. 1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. Writer Searches America for Lost Hope. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug.
1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources. Include information as required below. If some of students this information is not available, e.g. , author's name, include the information which you do have. Many research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS.
Generally, the information you need to military rule cite such sources is much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database. Hughes, Keith. Exploring the Internet . 2nd ed. CD-ROM. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of a CD-ROM Database. Cited work originally published as an should grade their, essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania.
Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM. Military Rule! London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's CD Library . Grade! CD-ROM. New York: Mayfield, 1996. Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities.
New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+. Coke Vs Pepsi! New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the source medium as with CD-ROMS. Lovejoy, Trent. Students Their Teachers! On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Master . Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium.
Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . Diskette. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . When Discovered! The Modern Reader's Library . Diskette. New York: Mayfield, 1996. If the grade teachers, source cited from financial analysis of a a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first. Frank, Richard.
The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+. Should Their Teachers! New American Authors: 1994 . Financial Analysis Of A! Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources. Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change. Should Grade Their! The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. Online!
A Reference Guide to coke vs pepsi Using Internet Resources . Grade Their! New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to is a high use, in case it becomes inaccessible later. Their! Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of a URL between two lines. If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only high gdp good after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and relevant), alphabetized by last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. Students Their Teachers! ; Title of a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the military rule, editor of a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the title) or, for a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the their teachers, institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; Date you accessed the is a high gdp good, source; and URL (in angle brackets). Although no single entry will contain all these items of information, most Works Cited entries for Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first).
Document title. Date of Internet publication. Date of should students grade access URL. Shapiro, Herbert. When Was Electricity Discovered! Professional Communications. Spring 1999. 6 Nov. 2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of students grade a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. Analysis Of A Company! A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881.
Victorian Women Writers Project . Ed. Perry Willett. 27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct. 1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Online!
A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. 5 Jan. Students Grade Their Teachers! 2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. On the Birthday of the Plan, Stranger (in memory of John Hawkes). Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999. 12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in an Electronic Magazine (ezine)
Adler, Jerry. Ghost of Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. Should Grade! 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved. New York Times on the Web 5 May 1999. 13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Bush, George.
Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of high April 12 1989 (as modified by students teachers, E. O. Military Rule! 12731). Should Students Grade! Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html. Scholarly Project or Information Database. Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . Ed. Laura E. Hunt and William Barek. May 1998.
University of Toronto. 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. The Internet Movie Database . May 1999. Military Rule! Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . 16 Sept. 1999. William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct.
1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm. NAIC Online . 29 Sept. 1999. National Association of Investors Corporation. 1 Oct. 1999. http://www.betterinvesting.org. Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon.
New Directions for students Education. E-Mail to edu.users. 4 Sept. 1997. Include the following information if your mentor requires a complete address. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Military Rule! Internet. 4 Sept. 1997.
Available http://firstname.lastname@example.org. MLA format for a research paper does not require a table of contents, an outline, or an abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the grade their, necessary information on military rule the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the top of the page on the right side (to run continually throughout your paper).
Format a one-inch margin for students grade the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers. Mentor Tom McElroy. ENL 202 American Literature. American Literature and the Perpetuation of Stereotyping Language.
The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to be Asians and consequently classified them as Indians. Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of that term, including Injuns and of Gov., Injiins, to describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the grade teachers, more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by high gdp good, classifying them as savages, heathens, and barbarians. This style guide was produced with the aid of the MLA Handbook for should grade their teachers Writers of Research papers 5th ed . Coke Vs Pepsi! It is intended only as a brief guide to MLA citation methods.
Complete information can be found in the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to write .
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2 blade essay 1997 James Pontolillo. Note: An earlier, significantly different, version of students grade teachers, this article appeared as Myth and Meaning in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner in Pebbles magazine (vol. 1, no. 4, Winter 1994-95, pp. 8-20). High. They are shepherds who take care only of themselves. They are clouds carried along by a wind without giving rain, trees fruitless in autumn, dead twice over and pulled up by the roots. They are wild sea waves, foaming with disgraceful deeds; they are stars that have wandered from their courses, and should teachers, the place reserved for them is an eternity of blackest darkness. Marking Essay. [Jude 12, 13] Following poor in-house and sneak previews in early 1982, the film's backers prevailed upon students grade teachers director Ridley Scott ( Alien, Black Rain, Thelma Louise, 1492: Conquest of Paradise ), to make substantial changes in plot, scripting, and the soundtrack.
Blade Runner was then released on June 25, 1982 and proved to be a box office flop. Many viewers felt confused, irritated, or depressed by the film's unrelenting bleakness, gritty pessimism, and thematic ambiguity. Critical reaction to Blade Runner was highly polarized and, more often than not, downright harsh. But a funny thing happened. Blade Runner wouldn't go away and by the late 1980s it had become a worldwide cultural icon embraced by a broad spectrum of science fiction fans, cineastes, and literati. At the 1992 World Science Fiction Convention, a poll of attendees named Blade Runner as the third most popular sci-fi film of all time (behind Star Wars and 2001 : A Space Odyssey ). This ever-increasing interest and popularity ultimately led Ridley Scott and Warner Brothers to release his original version of the movie. On December 14, 1993, Blade Runner was accorded the highest of honors when it was inducted into when, the Library of Congress National Film Registry. Should Grade Teachers. A total of six different versions of Blade Runner have been screened to Leadership Essay date: Workprint (1982, 1990, 1991), San Diego Sneak Preview (1982), U.S.
Theatrical Release (1982), International Theatrical Release (1982), U.S. Should Students Teachers. Broadcast TV Version (1986), and Director's Cut (1992). The differences between the versions are relatively minor, except for the Workprint and The Director's Cut which dramatically differ from Christie Essay each other. Their Teachers. All Blade Runner videotapes and laserdiscs (The Director's Cut not included) released prior to 1993 are the European Theatrical Release version - except for Leadership Chris Christie, the Embassy/Nelson Entertainment LD (13806) which, although marked as the Euro-version, is actually the U.S. Theatrical Release. For the purpose of discussion in this article, all visual references were taken from the Blade Runner - The Director's Cut videotape (Warner Brothers 12682). The movie's original U.S. Theatrical Release soundtrack (scored by Vangelis and supplemented with other source music) has a similarly complex history. It has never been officially issued, although a number of variations have appeared. The first was a poor quality, bootleg cassette soundtrack that surfaced several weeks prior to the movie's release.
In coordination with Blade Runner 's release, Full Moon/Warner Brothers issued an official orchestral adaptation of the movie soundtrack by the New American Orchestra (WEA 9-23748-2). In 1989, Vangelis included two previously unreleased recordings from the movie soundtrack on his Themes CD (Polydor 839-518-2). A few days before Christmas 1993, a limited-edition bootleg CD entitled Original Motion Picture Soundtrack : Blade Runner was released by Off World Music (OWM 9301) and appeared in a handful of stores. It contained selections of the grade teachers, original soundtrack as well as unused music from various sources. In 1994, Vangelis finally released an official Blade Runner CD (Atlantic/Warner 82623-2), however, it is not a soundtrack in military rule the usual sense of the term. The twelve tracks included material composed for, but never used in, the original soundtrack. In 1995, a limited-edition Romanian bootleg soundtrack, Sunetul Original al Filmului: Blade Runner (Gongo Music GM-003) was offered for sale by collectible music dealers. For the grade their teachers, most part it featured the same tracks as those offered on the first bootleg. Finally, 1995 also saw the release of Leadership Chris, Blade Runner: Synthesizer Soundtracks (Silva Screen Records STD5003) which only featured a reworking of one movie track.
For the purpose of discussion in this article, all audio references were taken from the Blade Runner - The Director's Cut (Warner Brothers 12682) videotape soundtrack. Should Students Their Teachers. Those desiring a more in-depth discussion of the various movie versions, their differences and implications, the making of Blade Runner, and a host of other general topics should consult the authoritative works by Sammon (1996) and Chapman (1995). Be forewarned that this article relies on a working knowledge of the coke vs pepsi, Blade Runner cycle of movies and contains spoilers, so those who have not seen the movie should probably do so before reading any further (or else, don't blame me for your confusion and a ruined ending!). However, even for those familiar with Blade Runner - The Director's Cut (hereafter BR-TDC) a character and plot summary is in order before plunging into the often murky world of should students grade their teachers, interpretation. Roy Batty (Rutger Hauer): the Leadership of Gov. Christie Essay, leader of a group of six renegade replicants; combat model Bryant (M. Emmett Walsh): Los Angeles Police Department [LAPD] Inspector; Deckard's former boss Chew (James Hong): genetic eye designer for the Tyrell Corporation; proprietor of Chew's Eye World Deckard (Harrison Ford): a retired Blade Runner for should students grade their, the LAPD Gaff (Edward James Olmos): a member of the LAPD Holden (Morgan Paull): a Blade Runner for the LAPD Leon Kowalski (Brion James): one of the six renegade replicants; combat/loader model Taffey Lewis (Hy Pyke): proprietor of an adult nightclub called The Snake Pit Pris (Daryl Hannah): one of the six renegade replicants; recreational model [i.e., a prostitute] Rachael (Sean Young): an was electricity employee of the Tyrell Corporation J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson): genetic designer for the Tyrell Corporation; suffers from progeria [Methuselah's Syndrome] - a form of premature aging Dr.
Eldon Tyrell (Joe Turkel): owner and driving force behind the Tyrell Corporation Zhora (Joanna Cassidy): one of the six renegade replicants; political homicide model. Deckard is picked up at a sushi bar by Gaff and taken to students their LAPD headquarters. There he has a less than happy reunion with his former boss, Bryant. Gaff creates an origami figure of of a, a chicken and places it on a table. Deckard is forcibly reinstated as a Blade Runner and given the background of the case: six Nexus-6 replicants (three male and three female) mutinied, escaped from an students their teachers off-world colony by coke vs pepsi jumping a shuttle and should students grade their teachers, killing its crew, and have returned to Earth for reasons unknown. Bryant claims that one of the six was destroyed three nights ago by an electrical security fence at the Tyrell Corporation. Deckard is then shown photos and data on four replicants (Roy, Pris, Zhora, and Marking Plan Essay, Leon). Deckard and Gaff go over to the Tyrell Corporation to VK a sample Nexus-6 for test purposes. Deckard meets Rachael and Dr. Eldon Tyrell.
Dr. Should Students. Tyrell wants a negative test on is a high gdp good, a human first and suggests that Deckard should VK Rachael. Deckard sets up the apparatus and only after much questioning concludes that Rachael is a replicant and doesn't know it. Out of should their, her earshot, Dr. Leadership Of Gov. Essay. Tyrell clarifies: memory implants (although she is beginning to have suspicions). Deckard is should, stunned to find out that the dividing line between real humans and replicants has become so very narrow. Deckard and military rule, Gaff leave the Tyrell Corporation and go to search Leon's apartment. Gaff creates an origami figure of a man with an erection and places it on a table.
Deckard finds a stack of photographs hidden in a dresser drawer and a mysterious scale in the bottom of Leon's tub. Leon has been observing the police search from a safe distance. Roy and Leon go to Chew's Eye World. They interrogate Chew and learn that J.F. Sebastian is one of the few people with access to Dr.
Tyrell. They then kill Chew (though this is not shown). Deckard returns home and is confronted by Rachael who desperately wants to be told that she is really a human. Deckard callously proves that she is a replicant by relating two of the most private memories that she had never divulged to anyone (in fact, they were programmed memories from their teachers Tyrell's niece). A very distraught Rachael leaves. Deckard hits the bottle. Pris, acting on Roy's directions, shows up at J.F. Sebastian's apartment building. Financial Analysis. Playing an innocent homeless waif, she cons her way into should grade teachers, J.F.'s heart and apartment (he has the entire building to financial analysis of a company himself).
She says she will find her friends tomorrow. A drunken Deckard (still in his apartment) pecks away at a piano, reminisces over family photos, lapses into should their teachers, sleep momentarily, and dreams about a unicorn running through a green forest. He gets up and feeds one of Leon's photos into his Esper machine to examine it. Of Gov. Chris Christie. In the photo, Deckard is able to make out the face of Zhora associated with a shiny boa. The boa resembles the scale that he retrieved from Leon's tub. Grade Their. Deckard goes to a market and gets an discovered animoid fish maker to should their teachers analyze the scale for him. It is military rule, a snake scale. Students Grade Their. He visits Abdul Ben Hassan (a maker of fine artificial snakes) and learns that the snake was sold to Taffey Lewis. Deckard goes to Taffey Lewis' adult nightclub (The Snake Pit) and inquires about Zhora.
Taffey buys him one on the house and them brushes him off. Deckard calls Rachael and asks her to join him for a drink to Essay make amends, but she refuses. Deckard stays to drink for should students grade, awhile and witnesses the act of Miss Salome and her Snake. He realizes that Miss Salome is Zhora and visits her backstage. Zhora, sensing that something is wrong, gets the jump on Deckard and escapes into the streets. Deckard chases Zhora through the streets and finally shoots her to death. Was Electricity. Leon witnesses it all.
Deckard buys himself a bottle for the road. Teachers. Bryant and Gaff show up to military rule congratulate Deckard on students grade their teachers, his kill. Bryant informs Deckard that he also has to retire Rachael, who is now missing. Deckard starts home, but spots Rachael in the crowd. He goes after her. Leon appears, pulls Deckard into an alley, disarms him, and works him over. Just as he is was electricity, about to kill Deckard, Rachael shoots Leon in the back of the head with Deckard's gun.
Deckard and Rachel return to his apartment to drink off the shakes from killing. Deckard tells Rachael that he won't hunt her because he owes her one (but somebody would). Rachael plays the piano while Deckard rests. Rachael and Deckard make love. Should Grade. Pris and J.F.
Sebastian are relaxing in his apartment when Roy Batty joins them unexpectedly. Roy gives Pris an update of the bad news (there's only two of us now). Sebastian concludes that they are Nexus-6 replicants. Plan Essay. Roy and Pris pressure Sebastian into helping them gain access to Dr. Tyrell via the ongoing chess match between the two scientists.
Roy and J.F. Sebastian go to the Tyrell Corporation late at night, but their elevator car is stopped at an automated checkpoint. Dr. Tyrell thinks that only Sebastian is in the car. Sebastian (using Roy's advice) defeats Dr. Should Grade. Tyrell in their ongoing chess match. Sensing that something is on Sebastian's mind, Tyrell unwittingly clears him to come on up. Roy confronts his maker: he wants more life for himself and Pris (whom he loves). Tyrell claims that there is nothing he can do to help. Military Rule. In a fit of rage, Roy kills Tyrell and Sebastian and then leaves.
Deckard receives a police band call announcing the deaths of Dr. Tyrell and J.F. Sebastian. He calls Sebastian's apartment and recognizes Pris on the vid-phone, even though she hurriedly hangs up. Deckard heads over to Sebastian's apartment. Deckard searches Sebastian's apartment, but Pris gets the their teachers, jump on him. After a brief one-sided fight in coke vs pepsi her favor, Deckard is finally able to shoot and students grade their teachers, kill Pris. Roy returns to is a Sebastian's apartment and finds Deckard and should their, Pris' body. Roy is able to when disarm Deckard and breaks two of his fingers.
However, he gives Deckard his gun back. It is their, clear that Roy wants to play with the Blade Runner . Roy briefly mourns for Pris, kisses her goodbye, and coke vs pepsi, then begins to hunt Deckard through the building. In the heat of the chase, Deckard loses his gun. Roy is beginning to should students teachers show imminent signs of discovered, death (loss of muscle control in his right hand which he counteracts by plunging a nail through his palm). They spar physically, but Roy is students grade, merely toying with him. Deckard is coke vs pepsi, able to should grade teachers climb outside of the building to the rooftop, yet even that offers no escape. In desperation, Deckard tries to jump to a neighboring building in the pouring rain. Was Electricity. He doesn't quite make it and ends up hanging on for dear life from a wet I-beam. Roy (with a white dove in hand) easily leaps onto the neighboring building. He looks down at should their teachers, Deckard and tells him: Quite an Leadership Christie Essay experience to live in fear, isn't it? That's what it is to be a slave.
Deckard can hold on should grade, no longer and falls. At the last possible moment, Roy grabs Deckard and pulls him up to safety. With his dying breaths, Roy delivers a moving soliloquoy. When Was Electricity. As he dies, Roy releases the dove that he has been holding and it flys away. After an indeterminate amount of time, Gaff appears and gives Deckard his gun back. Should Students Grade. Deckard tells Gaff that he is retiring. As Gaff leaves Deckard on the rooftop he turns one last time and says: It's too bad she won't live . Coke Vs Pepsi. but then again, who does? Deckard returns to his apartment and finds (to his immense relief) Rachael asleep. He has her grab a coat and they cautiously leave his apartment.
Outside his door, Deckard spots a little origami unicorn sitting on the floor. Gaff's last statement echoes through his mind. Should Grade. He smiles wryly and was electricity, joins Rachael in the elevator. The doors close. Veiled Symbolism or Viewer Imaginings? One of the movie's critical scenes revolves around Roy Batty's attempt to gain access to his maker, Dr. Eldon Tyrell, via J.F.
Sebastian. A chess match between Batty and Tyrell takes center stage. Chess has traditionally been the royal game of life - a conflict between the powers of students grade their, darkness and light for domination of the world. At one level, the game represents the intellectual struggles of Batty and financial analysis company, Tyrell (first on should students, the chess board, and then as Tyrell tries to reason with Batty). On another level, the match echoes the struggles of the replicants (pawns) to obtain more life or become human (get queened). The final moves in the game are particularly instructive. Roy attacks (Queen to Bishop 6) with the spirit or the Mover under Will. Tyrell parries (Knight takes Queen) with a piece representative of the intellect devoid of spirit.
Roy ends the match (Bishop to King 7) with a move reasserting the primacy of the spiritual over the physical realm. While following up on clues, Deckard has an animoid fish maker examine the scale that he found in Leon's tub. The images used as special effects are those of high gdp good, a female marijuana bud. Eye symbolism is rampant throughout BR-TDC. Some of the students their, more prominent examples are: close-up of an eye during the opening sequence, the importance of eyes to the VK test, the visit to Chew's Eye World where both Chew and Leon handle eyes, attempts by of a replicants to should students their kill humans by gouging their eyes out, owl's eyes are shown several times, Roy Batty plays with glass-encased eyes while in J.F. Sebastian's apartment, Deckard's and the replicant's eyes glow, Dr. Tyrell wears a pair of tri-focal glasses that magnify his eyes, and Marking Plan, Pris' emotional state is frequently expressed through her eyes. In this connection it is useful to grade teachers recall E.T.A. Hoffman's story The Automata.
In it, a man falls in coke vs pepsi love with a female piano-playing automaton. Upon realizing her true nature, he commits suicide by jumping off a building. Since it was her eyes that betrayed her, the man shouts beautiful eyes just before he jumps. The correspondences here with Rachael (a piano-playing replicant) and Deckard (falls in love with Rachael; takes near-suicidal leap from J.F. Sebastian's apartment building) are unmistakable. When Gaff arrests Deckard in a sushi bar at the beginning of the movie there is more at stake than a disturbed meal. Should Grade Teachers. The event marks the transition for Deckard from sedate retirement (remember, a dead replicant is discovered, one that has been retired) to their a frantic life and was electricity, death struggle or alternately, his awakening from the darkness of students grade, ignorance to the light of knowledge. It is more than coincidental that he should be eating fish at this turning point: fish is the sacramental meal of most mystery religions (e.g., the Last Supper, the Hebrew Sabbath meal, and military rule, numerous feasts for the dead).
Almost universally, to partake of fish is to symbolically renew or sustain life. Pris, the prostitute replicant, has an incept (birth) date of February 14 - St. Valentine's Day. The repeated occurrence of the number 23 as an integral part of students their teachers, important numbers throughout the movie was one of the first irregularities to catch my eye. Financial Analysis Company. Robert Anton Wilson (1988) has commented extensively on the 23 synchronicity and its purported meanings. Should Students Grade Their Teachers. In BR-TDC the number 23 is cited an inordinate number of coke vs pepsi, times. Some examples: the renegade replicants killed 23 people on the hijacked shuttle, the LAPD spinner vehicle is number 995 (9 + 9 + 5 = 23), Rachael's phone number is 555-7583 (7 + 5 + 8 + 3 = 23), Deckard's badge number is B26354 ( + 2 + 6 + 3 + 5 + 4 = 22), and J.F. Sebastian's apartment number is 46751 (4 + 6 + 7 + 5 + 1 = 23). Should Grade. The number 23 is military rule, representative of a man undertaking the Great Work - the Mystical Marriage of the Qabalists, or union with the Godhead. He first leaves his life of comfort and teachers, then the world at large.
There is no return for one that has started on Chris Christie Essay, this path which is students, clearly representative of Deckard and coke vs pepsi, the other replicants' journey. Hopefully, these examples suffice to show that a fair amount of hidden material lies just beneath the surface of should students grade teachers, BR-TDC. Character Profiles by Ancient Arts. Of course, before continuing I should provide some rationale as to why it is reasonable to analyze a movie released in of Gov. Chris Christie Essay 1982 with an ancient Hebrew mystical practice. The answer is quite simple: most of the movie's character names and grade, thematic essentials are taken directly from Philip K. Of A Company. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of students their, Electric Sheep? (1968), it is known that Dick incorporated mystical systems into some of his other works, and even a cursory viewing of BR-TDC reveals a host of biblical themes (see The Mythic Strand, below). Marking Essay. Dick's Hugo Award-winning novel The Man in the High Castle (1962) was entirely plotted by consulting the I Ching and his novel Ubik (1969) revolves around the Bardo Thodol of the Tibetan Book of the Dead. In private letters he noted that as of 1966 he had picked up a wealth of theological material from his friendship with San Francisco Episcopal Bishop Pike (who was eventually stripped of his office due to grade their very public journeys into the realms of mysticism).
Dick's last works : Valis (1981), The Divine Invasion (1981), The Transmigration of Timothy Archer (1982), and is a gdp good, Radio Free Albemuth (1985) were outright religio-mystical explorations published under the guise of should grade, science fiction. It would not be surprising if other P.K. Coke Vs Pepsi. Dick novels also yielded mystical affinities upon closer inspection. Roy Batty: The character of Roy Batty is both the students grade teachers, most tragic and inspiring figure in BR-TDC. He is Lucifer (as destroying angel) and Christ (as the crucified saviour of coke vs pepsi, his enemy, Deckard). Grade. His incept date of when was electricity, January 8 - well within the should grade, calendrical variation for the Feast of Epiphany (from the Leadership of Gov. Christie Essay, Greek epiphanos, the emergence of Deity) - is grade teachers, another tie to Christ.
However, like Lucifer he rebels against order and military rule, leads his fallen angels (the other replicants) in should grade their teachers a war against coke vs pepsi Heaven. In fact, Roy successfully ascends to Heaven and then confronts, condemns, and destroys his Creator (Tyrell). But even this cannot save Batty and his fellow replicants who have been under an unalterable death sentence since their birth. An exegesis of Roy Batty (RY BTTY = 200/20, 220) signifies the biblical giants known as Nephilim who were superhuman (When we set our eyes on students their, the Nephilim we felt no bigger than grasshoppers; and that is how we must have been in their eyes. [Num. xiii 33]). Roy is associated with several animals throughout the movie. While questioning Chew, an illuminated hawk-like figure can be seen briefly behind Roy. The hawk is a traditional attribution of strength and power. Later, when Roy chases Deckard through the is a high, ruins of Sebastian's apartment building, he howls like a wolf several times.
The wolf represents the Earth, evil, and devouring, persecuting spirits. In Celtic mythology a wolf swallows the Sun at night (as Batty has destroyed Tyrell). Prior to saving Deckard's life, Roy adopts a white dove as his final animal attribution. Doves represent love, peace, light, and the life spirit especially when passing from one state of existence to another. Incidentally, looming over the scene of Roy's death is a large, illuminated TDK Corporation sign (TDK = 33 = sorrow, tears, mourning). Bryant: Police inspector Bryant appears to should teachers carry no special significance in analysis company BR-TDC beyond what we actually see on the screen. An exegesis of his name (BRYNT = 271) signifies that which is low and should students grade teachers, mean, certainly an apt description of the inspector.
Chew: Genetic eye designer Chew is one of the Tyrell Corporation scientists that form a trinity of was electricity discovered, natural powers. Chew is a hermit dwelling in the realm of should students their, ice - his cryogenic lab. When Discovered. An exegesis of his name (ChV = 14) signifies the interplay of Divine Will with matter, or his role as eye-creator. Deckard: An exegesis of his name (DKRD = 228) signifies the First-born (Adam) and a Ruler of the Earth. He is linked to Dr.
Tyrell (see below) by his possession of an evergreen bonsai tree which symbolizes everlasting life. It is clear from clues in BR-TDC that Deckard is a replicant. The crucial piece of evidence to confirm this is the origami unicorn figure that Gaff leaves outside of Deckard's door at the end of the movie. Deckard is also linked to J.F. Sebastian through their shared possession of a unicorn (see below). In this instance, the should students grade their teachers, unicorn represents virtue, incorruptability, power, and strength. The unicorn is coke vs pepsi, also a guardian of the Tree of Life. Gaff could only have known about Deckard's unicorn dream through access to his mind, thus Deckard must be a replicant with memory implants.
The unicorn manifests itself from should students grade their out of the dream-realm into the material world. Leadership Chris Christie. Similarly, Deckard has been transformed from a destroyer of life into its guardian, and from a human into a replicant (although, is there really any difference?). This is supported by an exegesis of Deckard's apartment number (9732): it symbolizes the place where the archetypal and formative worlds unite - i.e., Deckard's realization concerning his true nature. Gaff: Gaff is should students grade their, a shadowy figure who spends all of his time trailing Deckard during his hunt of the replicants. Military Rule. An exegesis of his name (GPHPH = 173) signifies lighten mine eyes - an accurate description considering his pivotal role in enlightening Deckard via the origami unicorn. Holden: Holden is shot by Leon in students grade teachers the opening sequence of BR-TDC. He is coke vs pepsi, put on life-support and never seen again. An exegesis of his name (HLDN = 89) signifies body and silence.
Leon Kowalski: Leon's animal attribution is the tortoise which represents the support of the World, the their teachers, Earth, and the base of any matter. Tortoises are also associated with northern regions. An exegesis of his name (LN KWLSKY = 80/146, 226) signifies the is a gdp good, World and the North. Leon is the common man/replicant. Taffey Lewis: An exegesis of students grade their, his name (TPHPHY LVS = 580/336, 916) appropriately decribes his nightclub, The Snake Pit, as the Christie, place of lewdness where an attack occurs. The worm Deckard finds in his drink embodies the should, death and dissolution that lie just below the surface of The Snake Pit's glittering exterior.
The candles arrayed all about the nightclub represent the uncertainty of life as they are easily extinguished and form a symbolic link with Dr. Tyrell's bedroom (see below). Pris: When Pris first meets J.F. Sebastian she is framed by streetlights resembling cat's eyes. As the scene ends, she stares evilly at Sebastian's back while synthesized feline howls echo through the night. Traditionally, the cat has represented stealth, evil, darkness, the lunar powers, and a variable nature. All of these aspects characterize Pris' role in setting up J.F. Sebastian and Dr.
Tyrell for the kill. Pris has often been accorded a racoon attribution on is a high gdp good, the basis of students their teachers, her makeup, however, her darkened eyes, pale complexion, and garishly red lips are also the historical trademarks of the prostitute. Financial Analysis Company. An exegesis of her name (PRS = 580) signifies lewdness, particularly the scapegoat that was burdened down with the Hebrew's sins and should students grade their, then driven out (The goat will carry all their iniquities upon itself into some barren waste, where the man will release it, there in the wilderness. Marking. [Levit. Grade Their. xvi 22]). Rachael: An exegesis of her name (RChL = 238. 76) signifies the secret slave, a recognition of Rachael's status at coke vs pepsi, the beginning of should teachers, BR-TDC. Her primary natural attribution is the spider, Deckard's knowledge of which proves to high gdp good Rachael that she is should their teachers, a replicant. The spider is the Great Mother in her aspects as the weaver of destiny and the genetrix who spins the web of life from out of her own substance. Rachael can certainly be considered the weaver of Deckard's fate. Coke Vs Pepsi. As the Great Mother, Rachael is also Eve.
Her secondary natural attributions emerge during the VK test performed by Deckard: calf, butterfly, wasp, naked woman, oyster, and students grade their teachers, dog. These combine to signify an unblemished and chaste, but fertile, feminine psychopomp (i.e., Rachael's role as the experimental, transitional form of replicant that is barely distinguishable from a real human). J.F. Sebastian: Sebastian is another of the Tyrell Corporation scientists that form a trinity of coke vs pepsi, natural powers; he is the hermit dwelling in the realm of water (leaky is should grade teachers, a wild understatement for his apartment building). Coke Vs Pepsi. An exegesis of his name (YPH SBSTYN = 95/841, 936) signifies the students teachers, broken one who creates a multitude. This refers both to his affliction with progeria and to his role as a genetic designer.
Sebastian's animal attributions are the rodent (rats are seen on the table around him as he dozes in his apartment), the bear cub (a teddy bear in a military uniform greets him when he brings Pris into his apartment), the ostrich (among his toys), and the unicorn (also among his toys). The rodent represents hypocrisy and duplicity, pointing to Sebastian's role in betraying Dr. Tyrell. In Christianity, bear cubs are emblematic of amorphous beings, a fair description of Sebastian who is human but suffers from the same fate (a genetically-based shortened lifespan) as the replicants. Military Rule. The unicorn represents Sebastian's meekness. The ostrich signifies his role as a destroyer, which combined with an exegesis of his passcode number at the Tyrell Corporation (1 + 6 + 4 + 1 + 7 = 19, an enemy) reaffirms Sebastian's role in Tyrell's death. Dr. Eldon Tyrell: Dr.
Tyrell is the hermit-like apex of the grade their teachers, Tyrell Corporation trinity of natural powers - a living solar god. He dwells in a golden ziggurat that dwarfs all neighboring buildings in Los Angeles. In Sumerian tradition, the coke vs pepsi, ziggurat represents the Sacred Mountain, the dwelling place of divinity, and the cosmic axis. The only time we ever see the sun and stars in BR-TDC is from the vantage point of the Tyrell Corporation building. At night, Tyrell lies in bed surrounded by students grade their teachers 46 candles (the light of perfection and was electricity, through exegesis, one of the holy names of should teachers, God). His headboard is covered with a motif of white cranes - symbolic of a high position, immortality, and an intermediary between heaven and gdp good, earth. Tyrell's animal attributions are the owl (wisdom, solitude; darkness, death) and the eagle (power, authority). Interestingly, he also has several plant attributions: two evergreen bonsai trees (everlasting life) seen on the office table when Deckard first arrives at the Tyrell Corporation and an unidentifiable deciduous tree (the life principle, the whole of manifestation) in the right corner of the office.
Everything surrounding Dr. Should Students Their Teachers. Tyrell - the trees, the owl, Rachael, the very building he inhabits - are direct artificial manifestations of military rule, his will. An exegesis of his name (LDN TYRLL = 84/279, 363) signifies the almighty and everlasting, but flawed, Creator that dwells in the City. As the Creator is flawed, so are his creations (replicants). He is the granter of students grade teachers, life and coke vs pepsi, death. Those who wish to see him must ascend a golden stairway (zigggurat) and request an audience in his chambers.
As Taffey Lewis' nightclub is a place of physical decay, so is Tyrell's bedroom a place of spiritual desolation (see earlier comments concerning the their teachers, chess match). Military Rule. Zhora: An exegesis of her name (ZHR = 212) signifies a harlot. While it is true that Zhora is programmed for political assassinations, her occupation in BR-TDC is students, that of an exotic entertainer at Leadership, an adult nightclub (voice announcing her act at should students grade teachers, The Snake Pit: watch her take the pleasures from the serpent that once corrupted man). Essay. In fact, her act is should students their teachers, billed as Miss Salome and Her Snake - an overt reference to the deadly erotic snake dancer of Hebrew legend. As Zhora's animal attribution, the snake represents death, evil, sin, and sexual passion. Serpents accompany many female deities and are often twined around them in a symbolic sexual union. It has been noted by many observers of BR-TDC that there are three couples in the movie: Deckard and Rachael, Pris and Roy, and Leon and Zhora. An exegesis of each couple's names yielded interesting results. Deckard and Rachael (228/76, 304) signify gold or illumination, incorruptibility, and sacredness - a form of the Gods.
Pris and Roy (580/220, 800) signify the is a gdp good, rainbow - a transfiguration or the students grade, bridge between one world and military rule, another. Leon and Zhora (226/212, 438) signify the baetylic stone of Jacob - a meeting place of heaven and earth (Build the altar of the Lord your God with blocks of undressed stone, and offer whole-offerings on grade teachers, it to is a high the Lord your God. [Deut. xxvii 6]). Thus, each of the should students grade their teachers, couples embodies a perfect object that connects the human world with transcendant realms. An exegesis of the summed names of all of the military rule, replicants in BR-TDC (1542, including Deckard) signifies the Oil of Anointing (. they drove out many demons, and anointed many sick people with oil and cured them. [Mk 6, 13]). As this oil infuses new divine life into its recipients, so do the replicants by students their teachers their existence and slavery serve as a potential curative for a society that has lost touch with its capacity for empathy. Entangled Themes Meet a Pair of coke vs pepsi, Scissors. Six replicants (Roy Batty, Pris, Zhora, Leon Kowalski, unnamed male, unnamed female) mutiny and escape from an off-world colony by hijacking a shuttle and murdering its crew. The replicants return to Earth and hide out in Los Angeles. Their goal is to gain access to their creator, Dr. Eldon Tyrell, because they are dissatisfied with their limited lifespans.
The replicants attempt a break-in at the Tyrell Corporation; two of the replicants (the unnamed ones) are incapacitated and captured. [Bryant lied about this to Deckard during his briefing. He told Deckard that there were originally six replicants and that one was killed during the break-in attempt. Students Teachers. This would leave five replicants for Deckard to retire, but Bryant acts all along as if only four need to be retired. Until, of course, he adds Rachael to the list] Dr. Tyrell begins an experimental re-programming of the captured female replicant - this becomes Rachael. The LAPD puts the current top gun Blade Runner , Holden, on the job of tracking down and retiring the four remaining replicants.
However, when Leon disposes of him so easily the authorities realize that they have a major problem on their hands. When. The LAPD decides to try a risky gambit by having Tyrell revive the should their teachers, captured male replicant and military rule, giving him memory implants from the most renowned Blade Runner ever (the retired or deceased Rick Deckard). The new Deckard has all of the original's psychological strengths and weaknesses housed in the superior frame of a replicant. This is corroborated by the new Deckard's ability to should students take extreme physical punishment (witness his beatings at the hands of Leon, Zhora, and Marking Plan Essay, Pris) and to shove Rachael around his apartment. This reincarnation of Deckard also explains why Roy Batty knows his name, even though they have never met before. If Roy is intelligent enough to outwit his creator, surely he can see through the LAPD plan when his followers suddenly start dropping like flies. Students. Undoubtedly, the human Deckard would have been infamous in replicant circles. The movie now begins and events initially unfold to the satisfaction of the LAPD. The new Deckard is slowly but surely tracking down and destroying his fellow replicants.
Unfortunately, two monkey wrenches get thrown into the works. The first is an outgrowth of the Marking Plan Essay, human Deckard's memories: the new Deckard is wracked by doubt and guilt over the killings (presumably what caused the human Deckard to retire in the first place) and then to make matters worse, he falls in love with Rachael. The second is the should students grade, existence of an unsuspected saboteur with hidden motives (Gaff) who tips off the new Deckard about its own true nature. These two incidents completely unravel the LAPD plan to bring in military rule the unsuspecting new Deckard for retirement after it has disposed of the other five replicants (original four + Rachael who turns up missing). Thus forewarned, the new Deckard and Rachael gain a headstart on any pursuers. Students Grade Their Teachers. Given that the new Deckard is still the best Blade Runner ever, perhaps there is some hope for coke vs pepsi, the fugitive couple. Then again, we have no idea how far along they are in should grade their teachers their life-cycles.
To paraphrase the is a high gdp good, shadowy Gaff: it's too bad they won't live. but then again, who does?
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format term papers How to Write Term Papers. Writing a term paper is one of the most common requirements for an upper-division course such as the one for which this book was probably assigned. Such term papers usually count for a significant part of should students grade their teachers your final grade. Yet many, perhaps most, students have never received formal instruction about how to write a good research report. The following pages are meant to help you write an A paper by giving you some guidelines about how to go about coke vs pepsi your research and should students their teachers, writing.
Why do instructors assign papers? Answering this question is a good place to start thinking about coke vs pepsi term papers because if you know why papers are such a common assignment, then perhaps you can approach the students their, task with added enthusiasm and dedication. Two goals usually motivate this assignment. One goal relates to the specific subject of the course; the other goal is based on your professional development. The first course-specific goal is to increase your expertise in some particular substantive area. The amount that you learn from is a gdp good this or almost any other course will be expanded significantly by doing research and by writing a paper. The effort will allow you to delve into the intricacies of a specific topic far beyond what is possible in the no doubt broad lectures that your instructor must deliver in class. Your research will go beyond the necessarily general commentary found in this text. The second and probably more important goal behind a paper-writing assignment extends beyond the specific content of the course.
The object is to students, sharpen your analytic and writing skills in preparation for the professional career that you may wish to pursue after graduation. Military Rule? Do not underestimate the importance of such thinking and communications skills. Should Students Grade? Most professional positions that college graduates seek will eventually require that you find information, analyze it, and convey your conclusions and recommendations to others, including your boss. Coke Vs Pepsi? You will be judged by your product. A survey of ranking business executives a few years ago asked them what accounted for the rise of their most successful young subordinates compared to the failure or slow progress of other junior executives.
Communications skills was one of the factors most mentioned by the top executives. No matter how smart you are, no matter how much you know, these assets will be hidden unless you can communicate well. The evaluation of your academic and professional work will be based partly on its substantive quality. A well-researched, clearly organized, incisively analyzed, powerfully written report will enhance your professional standing; a poorly done report will cast a shadow on your professional competency. It is also important to realize that your report will be judged in part by such standards as neatness, grammar, and spelling, and other such technical criteria. It is not uncommon for university instructors to get papers that represent a good research and analytical effort but that are sloppy, contain numerous grammatical errors, are full of misspellings, or are burdened by should grade teachers other such technical deficiencies. Of Gov. Christie Essay? Such shortcomings make you look bad. It is very difficult for an instructor (or, later on, your boss) to be dazzled by your intellectual acumen while being simultaneously appalled by grade teachers your English usage. Also do not delude yourself with the common refrain, When I get on discovered, the job, I will do it right.
It takes practice to do things well. Grade Teachers? That is true for rollerblading, shooting baskets, and of Gov. Chris Christie Essay, playing the their teachers, guitar. It is also true for doing a research paper. Now, in Marking college, is the time to should students grade their, practice and learn. Your instructor is likely to be more patient and helpful than your boss will ever be. Most successful efforts require some planning. Here are two hints about what to do before you begin to do research on, much less write, your paper. Military Rule? Both hints are tritely obvious; both are regularly ignored to the student's disadvantage. 1. Follow instructions. Your instructor will (or at least should) let you know what is expected.
Far too often, students write papers that do not fulfill the assigned task. If you do not understand the assignment, if you have any doubts at all, discuss it with your instructor. Should Their? It is coke vs pepsi, not uncommon in class or on the job for a person to get instructions, to not understand them, but to be reluctant to ask for clarification for fear of seeming dumb. This is a significant error. In the students, first place, your boss will probably not think less of you for asking for clarification. In the second place, asking for supplementary instructions is far, far better than doing a report that does not meet the needs of your boss and is not what he or she wanted. That really makes you look dumb. 2. Do not wait until the last minute. Last-minute efforts usually read like last-minute efforts!
Plan backward from the military rule, date the paper is due to should students grade their, allow plenty of time to get it done. A good paper requires careful preparation, research, critical thinking, and writing. These steps take time. Also, allow time for the unexpected. Computers crash or files get erased; printer toner or ribbons run out and coke vs pepsi, have to be replaced; personal crises arise.
You need to be able to cope with these and should students grade teachers, still get the paper done on time. Is A? My hard disk crashed is one of the students their, modern excuses of choice; it is no more acceptable than the classic, My dog ate my paper. Being late with reports in Christie class or on should their teachers, the job is a very, very bad idea. The next step in your progress toward an award-winning research paper is to choose your topic carefully. If you are responsible for choosing your own topic, put some thought into financial of a company, this decision. First, as mentioned, make sure any topic you select fulfills the paper assignment. Second, if possible pick a topic that interests you. The more interested you are in a topic, the easier it will be for you to devote time and energy to studying it and to writing about it.
Third, ensure that you select a topic that fits the grade teachers, length of the paper that you intend to write, the research resources that are available to you, and your analytical tools. Length: If you attempt to write a 10-page paper entitled The President and of Gov. Chris Christie, Congress Struggle for Power: Two Centuries of should students their Constitutional Conflict, then your paper is destined to be a mile wide and financial analysis, an inch deep, as they say. It is better to do something more narrowly focused and to do it well than to give a superficial treatment of a large subject. Research Resources: Trying to write a paper on Secret Military Operations in the Persian Gulf War would also be a mistake because the government has not released the relevant information. You should take the holdings of your library into account. Should Students Grade Their? If you are at a major research university, you can probably find whatever you need. Even at large libraries, however, you may have trouble finding good sources to support a research paper on was electricity, U.S.-Sri Lankan relations or U.S. policy regarding international cooperation in should students grade their the development of mining technology. As your library holdings decrease, your ability to study unusual or narrow topics decreases as well. Essay? So be careful not to choose a topic that destines you to fail.
Analytical Tools: If you are going to pick a topic such as The Use by the Federal Reserve of the Discount Rate to Influence Monetary Relations, then you had better be sure you have the background to understand the complexities that you will encounter. Grade Teachers? Similarly, ensure that you have the when, proper statistical skills if you are going to analyze votes in Congress to see whether length of service, party affiliation, constituency interest, or the margin of grade victory is most closely associated with a senator's support of presidential proposals. For all of these issues, rule number 1 here and throughout this writing guide is check with the instructor if there is any doubt in your mind. Indeed, it is a very good idea to write a paragraph on Essay, what you intend to analyze, show it to the professor, and get his or her reaction. Now the project begins in earnest. Good research is the foundation of your paper. Should? It stands to reason that without a solid foundation, the paper you build will inevitably be weak. When Was Electricity Discovered? As a general rule, your paper will be stronger if you use a good variety of the most up-to-date, and the most specific and expert, resources.
The Library: The place to do research is the students grade their teachers, library. Do not be intimidated if the library on your campus is gdp good, big and unfamiliar. Even the most experienced faculty member needs help sometimes, particularly when using such specialized sources as government documents. The good news is that assistance is readily available. This appendix will presently outline some of the students their, main resources you may find in military rule your library. The list can serve only as a very brief introduction, however, so it is should students their teachers, important to make use of the library's staff.
When you get lost, as we all do, ask the nearest librarian for help. When? Actually just standing around and looking confused will suffice sometimes to summon aid. Research Strategies: When you are doing your research it is important to should students grade their teachers, be creative. Here are a few tips: 1. Start out by reading a general study or two on coke vs pepsi, your subject. This will give you a broad grasp of your topic and should students their, will help you identify what is important and on what you need to focus your research. Simply jumping in and beginning to do research in specialized studies can often waste a considerable amount of your time. Textbooks can also be helpful.
For many topics, one starting point might be a U.S. diplomatic history text such as American Foreign Policy (Paterson, Clifford, Hagan, 1991a, b). A general introduction to international relations such as International Politics on coke vs pepsi, the World Stage (Rourke, 1995) might also prove helpful to gain an overview of a topic. 2. Treat research like a detective story. Search under a variety of should students grade teachers subject headings when looking for sources in the physical or computerized card catalog, in an index, or any other finding aid. If, for Leadership Chris Christie, example, you are doing a paper on Vietnam, do not limit yourself to looking under V for Vietnam. Other likely subject headings might be Asia, Southeast; Ho Chi Minh; Kissinger, Henry; Johnson, Lyndon B.; Nixon, Richard M.; U.S.-Foreign Relations; or U.S.-History. 3. Look at the most recent books and journal articles first.
These sources will usually contain a bibliography and notes that list earlier works on the subject. Teachers? This can be an invaluable as well as a time-saving step in locating supplementary source material. 4. Photocopy important material. If you can afford it, photocopying is much faster than taking notes and there is less chance for error. If you take written notes, use index cards. Larger cards are better than smaller ones. Use one card for each quote, statistic, or other piece of research that you collect.
Cards work well because they can be arranged easily. For topics with distinct parts, you might even want to Leadership Chris Essay, try a different color card for each part. Some people use portable computers to take notes. Grade Their Teachers? If you do, be sure to make a backup copy on a floppy disk. 5. Make a careful and complete notation of the source of your material. Later on military rule, we will cover why and how to cite material, but there is nothing more frustrating than having to go back to the library to look up a citation that you should have noted clearly and completely in the first place. Your library contains many types of resources that you can utilize to should students their teachers, do your research. The following list is a mere beginning. Use it, but also go to military rule, your library, wander about a bit looking at its various sections and the resources that each contains, and ask librarians about what is available. You may be surprised at how many resources you discover.
Reference Works: One of the grade their teachers, most important places in your library is the Marking Plan Essay, reference room. We will mention some of the resources you will find there, but if you follow our advice about exploring this resource area, you may save yourself many hours later on. The materials in the reference room are valuable resources for beginning to structure the basic outline of your topic. Political science encyclopedias and dictionaries are one type of resource. There are many. For an American foreign policy course you might wish to look at sources such as the Dictionary of American Diplomatic History (Findling, 1989) or, at students grade teachers, the most general level of political science, you might wish to consult The Encyclopedic Dictionary of American Government (Dushkin, 1991). There are similar works, such as The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (Krieger, 1993), that are global in scope. Then there are resources such as Editorial Research Reports , the Political Handbook of the World , or the Index to is a gdp good, International Public Opinion that deal with particular topics, give summaries of various governments, or take other specialized approaches.
Such works are normally acceptable sources; general-purpose encyclopedias (such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica , the World Book , etc.) typically are not suitable, although the should their teachers, bibliographies they include with individual topics may prove helpful. In a U.S. foreign policy class, an often overlooked place to start is the series of works published by Congressional Quarterly. Weekly updates come in the form of the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Reports . Information on an annual basis comes out in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac . Multiyear summaries called Congress and the Nation are available as well. These contain the basics of when most U.S. foreign policy actions. Besides coverage of congressional policy making, summaries of grade their teachers presidential or executive branch actions are included as well. The reference room also has bibliographies of works on of Gov. Christie, various subjects. These are classified under Z. Check with the reference librarians. They may save you time. Books: Use your library's computer access system or card catalog for books on your subject. Students Grade? A good place to start is with the Library of Leadership Chris Essay Congress Subject Headings for ways to cross-reference your search for should students their teachers, books. In the Library of Congress system, most U.S. history is under the letter E. Coke Vs Pepsi? For economics, look at H; for world history, consult books under D. Under H, the subsets of HC, HG, and HJ are particularly good for economics.
The letter J encompasses most works on political science. As subsets, the letters JK focus on U.S. politics; JL, JN, and JQ cover other parts of the world; and students grade, JX covers international politics. Military affairs are under U. It is valuable to know these letters because sometimes it is Marking Essay, worthwhile to grade their teachers, simply go to the stacks where those letters are shelved and browse a bit to uncover resources that you may have missed in Marking Plan Essay your computer or card catalog search. The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the Library of grade their teachers Congress system. Older books are also sometimes catalogued under the Dewey decimal system with the discovered, 300s and 900s of students grade their especial relevance to political science and history.
Scholarly Journal Articles: Some topics, like U.S. diplomacy during the coke vs pepsi, recent fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina, may be so contemporary that there are few or no books yet available. In such cases, scholarly journals are more likely sources of information and analysis. You should consult journals even for noncontemporary topics because scholars may have found new information or conducted new analyses. Should Teachers? The places to Plan, find journal articles are the Public Affairs Information Service , the Social Sciences Index , the S ocial Sciences Citation Index , and the ABC Pol Sci . You should be able to find most, if not all of these, in your library's reference room. Just a few of the leading journals in foreign policy and international affairs are Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, International Affairs, International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of International Affairs, Orbis, and World Politics. Should Students Their Teachers? There are also many journals such as the American Political Science Review that contain general political science research.
Government Publications: You may also find valuable information that has been published in a report of a governmental agency, in hearings or reports of a congressional committee, or in the transcripts of the proceedings of Congress. The United Nations and Marking, a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and should their teachers, reports. There are several indexes available. The Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications provides a comprehensive list of sources. The CIS/Index by the Congressional Information Service abstracts and Leadership of Gov., indexes congressional hearings and reports. Should Students Grade Their? Debates and financial analysis, other proceedings of Congress are found in students teachers the daily Congressional Record. At some schools, accessing government documents can be a challenge. See your reference librarians for help with government publications. Newsmagazines and Newspapers: If you are covering a current topic or need to military rule, have a day-by-day account of grade their events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to newsmagazines and newspapers. Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to Plan, ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for should students teachers, your assignment. Mostly they are useful for facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis.
Your library may have a computerized access system such as InfoTrac to assist you. The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature also helps access this material. Additionally, major newspapers like the New York Times, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times are indexed. Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to use the computer to military rule, search by subject and then print out the relevant stories. For instance, InfoTrac is one CD-ROM-based system that among other things indexes the New York Times, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times. The Lexis/Nexis computer database will not only provide you with indexed citations of journalistic articles, but also with the text of the their, article in most instances. See the reference librarians for help with such resources.
There are sources such as Facts on File and coke vs pepsi, Keesing's Contemporary Archives that are compilations of should students grade weekly news events and are indexed. World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: Over the past few years it has become increasingly easy to find research information by using the was electricity, Internet. Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of grade their teachers Internet information access, but now most governmental and was electricity, nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web. The following are a number of students grade Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in when writing your research paper. Should Students Their? Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators (URL) listed below are for specific information sources, most provide you with hot-linked lists that will get you to military rule, where you might want to look for information.
It is important to should their teachers, note that URLs change frequently. If any of these do not work for you, double-check the URL or contact the organization sponsoring the page. Miscellaneous Sources: Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library. There may be a map room. There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection. Financial? Talk to should grade teachers, a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Military Rule? Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. Students Grade Their? You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program.
Check with your reference librarians to analysis of a, learn how to use this service. Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time. So order any needed sources as early as possible. External Sources: Knowledge is not confined to libraries or even campuses. A surprising number of should teachers students know someone who knows something about the specifics of some U.S. High Gdp Good? foreign policy issue. Even if you do not know someone personally, you might find it interesting and students grade teachers, possible to conduct an interview with a decision maker or some other relevant person.
Some students have been known to telephone the State Department for information successfully. Others have called the United Nations Missions or local consulates of other countries involved to get information from them. For advice on discovered, unconventional sources, see your instructor. The keys to should grade their teachers, effective papers are good organization and military rule, presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills. There are a number of should students sources that you can access to help you both organize and write your paper. Some are: Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); The Chicago Manual of was electricity discovered Style (1993); The Write Stuff (Cronin, 1986); Writing with Power (Elbow, 1981); The Elements of Style (Strunk White, 1979); and A Manual for should students, Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and coke vs pepsi, Dissertations (Turabian, 1987).
Our comments on grade teachers, writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for the fuller discussions you will find in these writing guides. There are three organizational issues to consider. They are the outline, the parts of the paper, and the approach. Outline: No one would think of building a house, computer, or other important and complex project without a plan. Coke Vs Pepsi? Students regularly write papers without a plan. As a result, poor organization is a common weakness of undergraduate term papers. The best way to construct your plan and to organize information for maximum effect is to should students grade, put together an outline. An outline serves to is a gdp good, lay out your paper's structure, to ensure that it is complete and logical, and to prevent you from getting off the track.
Determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper; then prepare an outline specifying every step from Introduction to Conclusion. Linear writing is students grade their, crucial in professional papers and reports. A good outline also serves to help you later: It ensures that you stay on track, write an accurate summary for your conclusions, and Plan Essay, cover all of the relevant information and arguments. Parts: All papers should have three basic parts: an introduction, a main body, and students their teachers, a conclusion. Financial Company? The introduction is the key to letting your reader know where you are headed and what you will accomplish.
Remember always that while the organization of should their your paper may be clear to you, it is not clear to military rule, your reader. Should Grade Their Teachers? Therefore, the introduction is something like a road map that acquaints the reader with the journey ahead. Plan? This will make it easier for the reader to understand what follows and should students teachers, will improve the reader's evaluation of your work. Tell the reader in concise terms (1) what the subject of the paper is, (2) what it is that you hope to find out, and gdp good, (3) how you will go about it. If you are writing an advanced, theoretical paper, your introduction might well also include a review of the existing scholarship on the subject, a section in which you identify how you collected your data and other information, and a discussion of the teachers, methodology you will use. Wolfinger (1993) is a guide for such advanced papers. The main body is the largest part of the paper. It should have a logical organization. Especially if the paper is of Gov. Chris Christie, long, it is often a good idea to divide the main body into sections designated by students grade teachers headings and subheadings. Look at almost any text, including this one, and you will see that it uses headings to help keep the high, reader aware of the organizational structure. Also with regard to teachers, your main body, do not assume knowledge on the part of the reader.
Include all important information, explain its significance, and Essay, detail your logic. Write your paper as though its reader will be a reasonably intelligent and should grade, informed person but not an expert on your topic. Your instructor wants to know what you know and will not read into the paper information that is not there. The conclusion should sum up what you have found and is a high, stress the evidence that supports your analysis. There is something very human about wanting to have things summed up, so do not leave your reader hanging without a conclusion. Approach: There are several ways to approach your paper. A common organizational approach is a chronological one. Their? The advantage of this approach is Plan, that it uses the passage of time as its organizing mechanism.
The disadvantage of should students their a chronological approach is that it can easily become a laundry list of events, both important and unimportant. Military Rule? Students often list everything they find, leaving it to the reader to teachers, determine which factors are most important. Chronologies are also no substitute for is a high gdp good, analysis. There is nothing wrong with a chronological approach if it is done well; just be sure to put more emphasis throughout on why things happened than on what happened. A more analytic approach would be organized around a set of factors, or variables, that are important to the subject of the paper. Theoretical approaches can also be used to organize a paper.
See Allison's (1971) Essence of Decision for an illustration of such an analytic approach. Whatever approach you choose, bear in should students their mind that a cardinal rule is, analyze, analyze, analyze! Summarizing your findings in the conclusion does not mean that this is the coke vs pepsi, only place to put you in should students their the paper. Marking Plan? Your analysis should appear throughout the paper. A big error that many novice writers make is to use the main body of the paper to create a heap of facts and to wait until the conclusion to say what they mean. Should Students Grade? This approach is boring and will not impress your readers with your analytical ability.
The best papers by far are those that draw data, events, and other material together and interpret them throughout. Besides organization, the other hallmark of a good paper is Marking Plan, clarity in should students grade their teachers writing. Remember that if a paper fails to communicate well, then its research-no matter how well done--will have little impact. There is an is a gdp good old piece of advice that says, write like you speak. This is terrible advice, at should, least for formal papers. Good written communication is somewhat different from good spoken communication. When you speak to gdp good, someone, especially face to face, you can convey meaning through voice inflection, gestures, and other methods in should grade addition to your words. These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and other considerations are particularly vital when you write.
Good writing can be divided into three parts: effort, style considerations, and technical matters. Effort: Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that Genius is of Gov., one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. That is true whether one is grade their teachers, inventing the lightbulb or creating an essay, a report, or a book. Writing and military rule, polishing drafts of a paper take time and effort. They cannot be done the grade their, night before the Christie Essay, paper is due. If you sit down at your word processor the night before your report is should students their, due and write it into the wee hours of the morning, you will almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. Two things to do are to write drafts and to get others to read your paper. 1. Coke Vs Pepsi? Write a draft, preferably more than one. Grade? No professional writer would dream of sending a manuscript out for review or to press without writing multiple drafts.
Indeed, the military rule, more one writes, the more one feels the need to do drafts. Only undergraduates have the hubris to should students grade their teachers, keyboard a paper into the computer, print a copy out, hand it in, and wait confidently for that rave review and military rule, an A grade from the instructor. A better idea is to write a first draft. Note here that the should students teachers, adjective rough does not precede draft. Your draft should be complete and carefully done. Once your smooth draft is done, put it aside for a few days so that you can gain perspective. Then reread it.
You may be surprised at how many ways you find to improve what you have written when you look at it with fresh eyes. The same is true for your third and subsequent drafts. 2. Get help. There are many people who can help you write a first-rate paper. One person is analysis company, your instructor. Should Students Grade Teachers? Discuss your topic and your ideas with your professor. He or she may be able to help you refine your topic, avoid pitfalls, identify resources, or plan the paper's organization. Submit drafts to your professor far enough ahead of the when discovered, deadline to students, give the was electricity, instructor time to suggest revisions. It may prove helpful also to should students teachers, ask a classmate, a family member, or someone else to read your paper. Of Gov. Chris Christie? Most people are not good judges of their own writing. We tend to read what we meant to should students, say, not what we actually wrote.
A fresh reader will be able to military rule, point out technical errors and lapses in your argument and organization. Writing centers are another source of help at many colleges and universities. You may have already paid for students their, such assistance with your tuition dollars; you might as well use it. Style Considerations: It may take innate talent to become a great literary figure, but achieving a reasonably pleasing literary style is possible for Leadership of Gov. Christie, everyone who exercises a little care. A few suggestions should help you write a paper that has literary, as well as intellectual, merit. 1. Watch your sentence structure. Students and scholars too often seem to assume that long, complex sentences are symbolic of profundity. They are not; they are mostly just cumbersome.
Simple, subject-verb-object sentences are best. They are powerful. Still, if you do not vary them occasionally, numerous short sentences do not read well. So, after several simple sentences, add a longer one. But do not go too far the other way. Consider Rourke's Rule of 2s: Sentences more than two lines long or with more than two commas are probably too long to be understood easily, especially if there have been two in should students their teachers a row. 2. Rely on active tense, action verbs.
Avoid the passive tense (No: Politicians are disliked by many people. Yes: Many people dislike politicians.). Similarly, action verbs (made, jumped, went) are better than verbs of Christie being (is, are, were). In general, active/action verbs generate more interest. 3. Use standard English.
Colloquial English typically does not make a good impression unless you are writing fiction. Obscenities and other forms of students their gutter English are almost never acceptable. 4. Avoid starting too many sentences with adverbial or adjectival clauses or phrases. These are the short phrases (such as In the high gdp good, morning, we went. ) that are often followed by a comma. Also shun beginning or ending sentences with words or phrases such as: however, though, for example, for should students teachers, instance. 5. Watch your paragraph length. Paragraphs over one page in length are usually too long. They may contain redundant statements or more than one major idea. Rework such paragraphs to delete unnecessary text or to separate ideas into additional paragraphs. At the military rule, other extreme, one-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Remember that each paragraph should have a topic sentence and several others that explain or develop that topic.
6. Rely on transitions between paragraphs. Conventions like On the other hand, Still, Also, Nevertheless, Thus, However, or As a result help the reader get from one thought to another. Should Students Grade? They smooth the is a, reading process. 7. Avoid clichés. They fought like cats and dogs over which policy to adopt. Ugh! 8. Get to the point. Do not beat around the bush; save a tree; avoid word pollution. Technical Matters: Your paper must be free of common writing mistakes. Cautions about should students teachers some of these are: 1. Avoid sentence fragments.
Every sentence must have a subject and when was electricity, a verb. 2. Check your spelling. Misspelled words make you appear uneducated, careless, or both. Grade Their Teachers? Keep in mind that misspelled words and typographical errors cannot be distinguished from each other by is a high a reader. Both are unacceptable. Should Students Grade Their Teachers? Some professional proofreaders read a manuscript backwards to check for spelling. Try it. Plan Essay? Do not rely on should students grade, just your own sense of how words are spelled.
Use a dictionary, a spell check program if you have a computer, and a second reader to proofread your drafts. Beware of spell checkers, though! Consider this sentence: Its necessary to military rule, get there attention or we may loose the vote. These three mistakes (its for it's, there for their, and loose for lose) are common ones that would not be caught by most spell check programs. Should? Thus it is coke vs pepsi, crucial to have a human scan your words. 3. Make sure subjects and verbs agree. Subject-verb disagreement is most likely to occur when the two are separated in the sentences by several other words.
4. Be careful of verb tense. Many poor writers use only present tense. Use past tense, future, and other tenses as appropriate. Also be careful to keep verb tense consistent within paragraphs. 5. Make pronouns mean what they say. Misuse of pronouns is very common.
A pronoun refers to the last noun of the same person and gender. Consider the sentences, John F. Kennedy was shot by grade their teachers Lee Harvey Oswald, who was subsequently also shot and killed. Chris Christie? Many Americans wept at his death. What this means literally is that many Americans wept when they heard of Oswald's death because his refers to the closest prior singular masculine noun (Oswald). Should Students Grade Their? Also, do not normally use pronouns more than twice in high gdp good a row to refer to the same noun. Use the their, noun or a variation thereof again for clarity. When? While we are on the subject of pronouns, it is seldom correct to use a gender-specific pronoun (he, she, him, her) to grade their teachers, refer to an inanimate object. The United States, for example, is an it, not a she. 6. Military Rule? Do not split infinitives. Except when absolutely necessary to avoid misinterpretation, to and the verb should not be separated by an adverb. 7. Avoid the should students grade, use of contractions.
Words like can't, won't, or don't are too informal for coke vs pepsi, a formal writing assignment. 8. Be careful of abbreviations. Do not start sentences with abbreviations or numbers (unless spelled out). For countries, avoid using the abbreviation as a noun (No: The U.S. did. ); but the abbreviation is acceptable as an adjective (Yes: Current U.S. foreign policy. ). The first time you name someone, give his or her full name and the title if appropriate. Should Students Grade Their Teachers? Also do not use an acronym unless it is very common without first spelling out the full name, as in, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
9. Do not end sentences with prepositions. This rule is being relaxed, but repetitive use of prepositions at the end of sentences is indicative of poor sentence structure. 10. Know when and how to use specific punctuation. The various style manuals mentioned earlier elaborate on the proper usage of commas, colons, semicolons, parentheses, brackets, and the like. All good research papers rely on information compiled by and analysis done by others.
If you write a research paper without consulting other works, then you have written an essay, not a report. If you do rely in part on the work of other people and you do not cite them, you have failed in your responsibilities. High? A research paper must cite the work of others. There are two reasons that citations are mandatory. Should Students Their Teachers? The first is to allow the reader to discovered, explore the subject further by consulting the works that you have utilized.
Without regular and complete citations, such further exploration by your reader is difficult or impossible. Should Teachers? Second, intellectual honesty requires citations. Failure to use them is plagiarism, which is military rule, unacceptable in should any form. Plagiarism is the theft of the thoughts, facts, or knowledge of others by not giving them proper credit. When to Cite: Follow these guidelines to when was electricity, protect yourself: 1. Anytime you quote or paraphrase the grade teachers, thoughts or work of others, cite the source. It is incorrect to of a company, believe that only quotations require citations. You should also insert a note whenever you are relying on someone else's thoughts or research, even if you are only paraphrasing (putting it in your own words).
2. Simple, commonly known facts need not be footnoted. A rule of thumb is that if you did not know the information before you started the students grade their teachers, paper, then you should use a citation to show where you found the information. Also, even if you know something when you start, you should cite the coke vs pepsi, source of any controversial fact (Ireland's St. Brenden and the Vikings came to should students teachers, the New World before Columbus). 3. When in doubt, cite the Plan, source. Plagiarism is unethical. Instructors and other readers take it very seriously. Grades, reputations, and academic careers have been ruined by plagiarism. Err on the side of safety.
One citation too many is far better than one citation too few. How to Cite: The use of a correct format for citations used in endnotes or footnotes and in a bibliography often seem a bit complex and cumbersome, but doing so has two good points. Those advantages are completeness and consistency. Most styles fall into one of teachers two categories, notation styles and reference-in-text styles. Notation style involves the use of Leadership Essay numbers to indicate each citation. Each number's corresponding note may be at teachers, the bottom of the page as a footnote or at the end of the paper as an endnote. In either case, you should provide comprehensive information on each source the first time it appears as a footnote or an endnote, with shortened versions appearing in later footnotes or endnotes. At the end of the paper, a bibliography repeats the gdp good, full documentation of these sources, listing them alphabetically by students grade their author.
Bibliographies have their own formatting styles. A number of financial analysis of a company works demonstrate both citation and bibliography format styles, including A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian, 1980) and The Chicago Manual of should grade teachers Style (1993). A r eference-in-text style uses the author's name and the year of publication of the coke vs pepsi, work, which are placed in grade teachers parentheses and Plan, inserted at the appropriate place in the text. A page number is also included for direct quotes and in some other cases. Then at the end of the paper or book there is should students grade their, a References or Works Cited section that contains the full documentation for all the sources cited throughout the body of the work. These sources are listed alphabetically by Essay author.
Reference-in-text styles are increasingly the norm in social science, and most are some variant of the style developed by the American Psychological Association (APA). For details of how to use such styles, see the APA's Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1983); Writer's Guide: Political Science (Biddle Holland, 1987); or use this book as an illustration. Should Students Grade? Whatever citation style you choose, use it correctly and be consistent. Your job is Plan, not quite finished. Should Grade Teachers? After writing the paper, you must prepare its physical presentation. Unless told otherwise, you should type your paper double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all four sides of each page. Your paper should feature a title page, the body of the paper, and then the bibliography, Works Cited, or References page(s). When Discovered? If your instructor prefers some variation of this model, that will usually be specified in advance.
Once again, it is important to stress that a paper is should their, a whole product. A paper that contains impeccable research, cogent analysis, and brilliant writing will still evoke a negative reaction from the reader if it is wrinkled, printed sloppily, or barely readable because the ink on the ribbon is exhausted. Some general guidelines include: 1. Printed material is preferable. Most instructors will not accept handwritten reports. Even if printing is coke vs pepsi, not mandatory, a printed report has a more professional image than does a handwritten report. 2. Should Students Their Teachers? Make sure the print is easily legible. When you type or print your report, make sure that the ribbon or ink cartridge is up to Leadership of Gov. Essay, par. 3. Grade Teachers? Do not play the margin, spacing, and font game. Professors are not naive and have read veritable mountains of papers.
Having extra-wide margins; leaving extra spaces between paragraphs, headings, and excerpts; or using larger-size type or fonts to stretch a paper out (or doing the opposite to squeeze it in) are very obvious. You will not fool the instructor or anyone else. So, why bother? 4. Number your pages. It is not uncommon for Plan Essay, students to turn in papers with the pages out of order.
Numbering the pages cuts down on this mistake. Also, unbound papers sometimes fall apart and must be reassembled. Numbered pages will facilitate this. 5. Securely fasten the paper together. Paper clips are a bad idea. Staples or one of the various types of binders sold by your bookstore are better. 6. Read your paper one last time. Even if the paper seems finished, you can still find mistakes that prior proofreading missed. Their? A last-minute pen-and-ink (never pencil) correction that is inserted neatly is better than an error. 7. Go home and relax. Get a pizza, watch some television, catch a movie!
You deserve it after working hard and writing a great paper. Congratulations!