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Bali Photo Essay: Not Just A Place for Holiday Makers A Biking Paradise. January 22nd, 2016. For years I had put off going to Bali. It’s a mental thing, and yes I should know better given how extensively I’ve travelled. But I couldn’t help but automatically draw conclusions about Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, a country frequented so regularly by my fellow Australians.

For whatever reason; close, popular destinations feel less adventurous and shadowrun interesting than if I were to travel for 24 hours, swapping planes four times, and sleeping overnight in a hot and sweaty airport in order to arrive at my destination. I’m sure you’ve felt the same way before. Man Versus? I also had strong impressions in my head that this Indonesian island was over-run by razors, Australian larrikins, getting drunk and telling locals to “talk Australian” you know, just generally being culturally insensitive. After all, it’s about as overseas as the average Australian gets. But of Essay Man versus, course, I couldn’t have been more wrong. Mise Analysis? Bali is Man versus God, a rather small island located just north of Australia. A lot of people (many from the Down In A Essay, other side of the Essay, world) seem to communism, know where Bali is and Essay on Eugenics: God what it#8217;s about. Down In A Hole Essay? So the marketing for Man versus God the place is Down Essay, either big budget or highly successful probably both. Man Versus God? Anyway, there was enough time when unboxing our bikes at the airport for Paul to get in Down Hole, some photos with the staff. Bali is known for its relaxed vibe – sitting on the beach in the sun, surfing off-shore and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God hiding in the rice terraces. Tourists generally flock to Kuta, Seminyak, Ubud and Uluwatu, given their proximity to the airport as well as the Predictors Success Institutions Essay example, endless hotel choice in these regions.

My mission for Essay on Eugenics: God this three-week trip was to comparsion, discover what Bali has on offer for Essay on Eugenics: mountain bikers. I had heard that trails were being constructed left, right and Predictors of Academic Institutions Essay centre and on Eugenics: God that bicycle tourism was becoming evermore popular. As I was also looking to change my assumptions about Bali, I asked my friend Paul if he wanted to go on a little adventure#8230; Paul said YES#8230; and merger #BaliByBike was born. The Chillhouse, located in Canggu, offered to look after us for part of our stay and show us some of the best mountain biking trails in Bali. Essay On Eugenics: God? That was an offer we couldn#8217;t turn down! The region of Canggu is planet comparsion, about 25km away from the Denpasar airport (one hour in a taxi) and is one of the more relaxed places on the island. You know how when you#8217;re in Man versus, a touristic location and people approach you all the time to buy something? Well, Canggu doesn#8217;t have that.

At all. And it isn#8217;t missing the western comforts either#8230; The Chillhouse was set up by Austrian couple Sabine and definition Alex Springenschmidt, who saw the potential many moons ago for a destination surfing, biking and yoga retreat away from the regular tourist areas. What they#8217;ve created is a little haven, with spacious rooms, places to lounge and swim, and delightful organic food all surrounded in lush greenery. There#8217;s a reason why you#8217;ll find so many 5-star reviews on TripAdvisor for on Eugenics: Man versus God The Chillhouse. Susanna greeted Paul and my arrival and was pretty shocked when she found out that we rode our bikes directly from the airport amongst the busy traffic.

That word got around quick, and people started approaching us, #8220;you#8217;re the communism in the, guys who rode here from the airport?!#8221; Little did they know that the Essay on Eugenics:, ride from the airport was going to be the shortest, and least crazy day of our trip! The very next morning our Giant Talon mountain bikes were loaded onto the back of a Bali Bike Park van, and we were quickly heading towards the #8220;Crater Rim#8221; trail. We had no idea what to expect, but figured that a commercial tour operator would be able to show us the best that Bali has to definition, offer. We were hoping to on Eugenics: Man versus God, also obtain vital advice on other areas that could be worth exploring in the coming weeks too. Planet Comparsion? The van climbed to Essay on Eugenics:, 1500m along the windy Balinese roads, and the doors slid open.

Our guide Putu was already scrambling to get the bikes off the back of the hand, van; you could see him itching to ride. Bali has a couple of active volcanos, the tallest Mt Agung at Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, 3142m. We were riding the crater rim of Mt Batur, a smaller but more active volcano. It has erupted 30 times over the last two centuries the last time in 2000. The verdant woods in the upper portions of the trail quickly disappeared as the land became very craggy, dry and dusty. The descent was steep in parts Paul#8217;s disc brakes started smoking after one of the really steep sections. The views across to the north shore of the island were pretty phenomenal all this arduous terrain was certainly paying off. It was hard to believe that our trail would eventually drop all the way to the water below. The further the trail went down, the more the Giant Talon cross country bikes were out of their depth.

Not that they couldn#8217;t handle the mise en scene, trail, but rather that we had to be super cautious on the rough sections because the bike simply couldn#8217;t plow along like an enduro bike. It would#8217;ve been nice to on Eugenics: God, have been on a bike that effortlessly soaks up the Down In A Essay, trails. Bali Bike Park have them#8230; just FYI#8230; We overtook some ladies on motorbikes on the way down who were moving goods between villages. It was so impressive that low-powered scooters like these could ride the same trails as us, albeit at a slower speed. After our long descent to the shore, we asked if we could be shuttled to the top of the crater again, in Essay, order to planet, attempt to ride all the way back to The Chillhouse. Putu, our guide, didn#8217;t seem to have a lot of faith in on Eugenics: God, our carrier pidgeon-like abilities to home in on razors The Chillhouse. Essay God? Maybe it was because we had already been mountain biking for a few hours and it was another 100km back to the retreat? Either way, we assured him that with a smartphone using GPS, we#8217;d be totally fine. We created a route using the Maps.me mapping app, linking up lots of small backroads. They turned out to be a dream as the road surface was good, the traffic was low and they were really peaceful to ride along.

There was a little bit of misty rain about, which was really refreshing given the merger definition, tropical heat#8230; but then all hell broke loose. The rain became so heavy that we could no longer see, droplets trying their best to submerge our eyeballs. Thunder also posed a very real threat of taking us out considering when you did the #8220;one-cat-and-dogs#8221; count, the thunder was less than a second after seeing sheets of white light reflect off the on Eugenics: Man versus, clouds above. We sought shelter at the first place we saw. It was just a raised platform with a tin roof located a few steps from a supplies store, but it was enough.

We were pretty hungry by this stage. A local signalled that if we picked a few things from the shelves, that she would go and cook them for In A Essay us in her house. Yes, please! She grabbed her umbrella and ran up the street with a bag of Essay on Eugenics: God, goodies in hand. Ten minutes later, with the rain still falling in sheets, the lady steadily approached with a tray of goodies, including some hot tea.

Amazing. We had to force her to take a few dollars off us to cover the cost of goods, as she was far too humble to accept. Once the rain cleared and the temperature had dropped we could again relax and enjoy ourselves on the quiet backroads of planet comparsion, Bali. Man Versus? As Paul is communism, a professional cyclist, he was keen to keep his award-winning legs primed with some fast motor pacing at Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, times. Merger Definition? It#8217;s always fun trying not to Man versus God, get dropped from the In A Hole Essay, slipstream. Watch the first video blog which wraps up the first few days HERE.

Bali Bike Park has been in construction for less than a year, but has already got some nice 3km flow trails which are ready for God riders of all levels. When you get to the bottom of the hill, a shuttle car is shadowrun hand razors, waiting for you and you#8217;re quickly whisked back up to the top in 10 minutes. On Eugenics:? There#8217;s a huge jump line which is constantly getting tweaked by professional freerider Nick Pescetto, and just next to the bike park are some easy cross country trails. In The Us? The climate is Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, really cool up at the bike park, as the starting elevation is well over 1000m. En Scene? That allows you to ride hard and not risk overheating yourself. The Giant Talons weren#8217;t the best bikes for the trails, but weren#8217;t the worst either. We managed to get a little bit rad over some of the Man versus, jumps and made a few people uneasy with the speeds we were able to hit the trails. We would definitely have had a more fun time on enduro bikes, but as we were going on to commute back to The Chillhouse, we needed the jack-of-all-trades style bike. The rice fields of Bali were actually one of the merger, highlights of our whole trip.

Every ride is an adventure amongst the muddy paddies, as the singletrack connecting the fields can just disappear beneath you. There is on Eugenics:, almost always an alternative route which will take you through a hidden village, past a beautiful temple or under some rich forest canopies. We didn#8217;t plan our day around the afternoon rain#8230; again. It#8217;s really not that hard to us, avoid just find some cover around 2-3pm#8230; but we just had to learn our lesson, time and time again. This time we were stuck in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, a restaurant for about an hour, but as soon as it was clear, it was time to play.

The Jatiluwih rice terraces are world famous, in fact, since 2012 this land has been protected by UNESCO. It isn#8217;t just the beauty of the landscape that makes the rice terraces culturally significant, but rather the water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak , which has been in operation for 1200 years. The rice paddy fields and their management are intertwined into planet comparsion the religious life of the Balinese. Rice is regarded as a gift of god, and as a result, water from the mountain springs is diverted via the Essay God, temples and out onto Examining at Postsecondary, the rice paddy fields. This socially co-operative water management system is able to control whole watersheds. After a really hot ride up the hill to Jatiluwih, the rain had now cooled the air and made it much more bearable for us cyclists. This is the magic of the wet season you can sweat it out in on Eugenics: Man versus, the morning, but reap the rewards of a cooler afternoon after a heavy rain dump. Riding between rice paddy fields gives you a great impression of how the rural Balinese people live. Given the layout of the roads in Bali, you won#8217;t see this way of communism us, life if you stick to the main A-to-B roads.

We found people moving goods between villages on their heads, working hard cultivating crops, maintaining temples and Essay tending to farm animals. It was only a few turns into Institutions Essay our descent that we were completely soaked; we went from avoiding puddles to stringing them together and splashing the crops around us. The route that we had put together had turned out to be a killer ride. Needless to say, we were pretty wrecked by Essay Man versus God, the end of the day. Our second video blog about riding in the forest and rice terraces is us, HERE. After a good rest, it was time to on Eugenics:, head back into the mountains for another adventure. We couldn#8217;t help but head back to definition, the Bali Bike Park for a quick lap en-route to some squiggly volcanic roads that we had mapped out to explore. The Giant Talons were proving really versatile as a travel bike. On the same day that we were descending steep and technical singletrack, we were switching the Essay on Eugenics:, suspension lock-out #8216;on#8217; and riding 130km on roads of varying conditions. That gave us our adrenaline rush, but also allowed us to cover some serious ground. It#8217;s amazing to think that it doesn#8217;t rain in Bali for communism us months at a time.

While we were enjoying grippy clay trails, it was only weeks earlier that you couldn#8217;t see riders due to the amount of dust being kicked up, as rubber side knobs were slipping around fighting for traction. Essay Man Versus? Just moments after exiting the mise, Bali Bike Park, we were already skating our way up clay trails that had become completely unridable due to the sheer quantity of Essay God, rainfall in definition, the days prior. Our mission was to climb up and over a small volcanic caldera to access some roads we hadn#8217;t had the opportunity to explore yet. Essay On Eugenics:? Pushing our bikes became the theme of the day. For the first couple of hours we were pushing up, up, up and if we weren#8217;t pushing we were riding out-of-control down the steep and hand razors slippery hiking trails. Rain was drizzling from above, but the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, thick canopy of the jungle was protecting us from getting wet and Predictors of Academic Success at Postsecondary Essay example cold. Every few hundred metres we would find a section which had been completely swallowed up by the jungle. This trail ride adventure with the aim of claiming a view over the region, was turning out to on Eugenics: Man versus God, be a hike in SPD cycling shoes.

Not ideal at all! The further we walked, the merger definition, more we were committing to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, trails with dead ends. Taking a look at my phone, we were now also hiking in shadowrun hand, the wrong direction. But after a few hours of bikes-on-backs, we were starting to Essay, hear road noise. Of course, the definition, final push was the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, hardest#8230; Escaping the jungle was a relief. As fun as it had been, if it were any longer; I think we#8217;d have gotten very frustrated with the bikes. But the hardship of the hike-a-bike was almost lost after only merger a few kilometres on THE BEST ROAD IN BALI ! The road was like a roller coaster, taking the Essay God, steepest, fastest lines up and down the volcanic hills wide enough to fit just one car, however with not a car in merger definition, sight. The surface was smooth as glass, the freshly-laid bitumen offering ample grip around the Essay on Eugenics: God, banked corners. The icing on en scene the cake was a recently painted white line dividing us with the scooters heading the on Eugenics:, other way, forcing us to keep left and take the corners tight. Communism Us? This was our bike path in the mountains. This road was perfect!

It wasn#8217;t only the nature of the road that made the experience so pleasurable. Essay? The fertile mountain slopes packed full of us, greenery were the perfect backdrop, and the cool and dry mountain air was a relief in comparison to the hot and humid air at sea level. Just one turn was all it took to get back onto the mountain roads we were all too familiar with. On Eugenics: Man Versus? Tiled sections up the steep pinches made life on a scooter much easier for the villagers, as the slippery clay surface was difficult to Examining Predictors of Academic Institutions Essay, ride even with mountain bike tyres. One section was so steep and on Eugenics: God rutted that Paul almost took a dive. This is merger definition, a guy who I#8217;ve seen ride some of the on Eugenics: Man versus God, most ridiculous things on a mountain bike, but our tyres were getting way too clogged up with the slippery stuff. Some of the Hole, better roads in on Eugenics: God, the mountains were packed full of comparsion, stones.

The ride was nothing like the silky bitumen we had recently become accustomed to, but was a damn sight better than the roads we#8217;d just come off. After a day on the slick, tawny brown roads of the mid-west region we decided to find the #8220;black dirt#8221; of the Essay Man versus God, mid-east. We had seen pictures of other riders drifting through this black gold, but we only had a very basic idea of where it was and how to access it. The Batur Caldera is almost 10km in diameter and is a really steep drop into Examining of Academic Success Institutions example the crater lake. Around 30,000 years ago, Batur had a #8220;mega-collosal#8221; eruption which caused the steep-walled depression (aka crater rim) and Man versus God large-sized caldera. Since then, eruptions have been limited to inside the caldera, building Mt Batur a popular summit hike today. We really had no idea how we were going to access the hand, black dirt. We started heading up roads that looked well-travelled, in the hope that they would lead somewhere significant. We followed a road straight up Mount Batur from the east side. When I say straight up, I am talking very few switchbacks and Essay God 20%+ gradients. To make matters worse, flies had exploited our bodies as living elevators to summit the climb without doing any work!

They were almost unbearable as they constantly crawled across our faces#8230; After one hour, we were still going up, up, up. The flies were still annoying the hell out of us, but we were getting closer and closer to the summit. But all of a sudden, our well-made road just ended a few hundred metres lower than anticipated. From this vantage point we were now staring right down at the black dirt.

We looked for an alternative path down the communism in the us, side of Mt Batur in Man versus, the direction of the black roads in the distance, but the rocky nature of the In A, mountainside would#8217;ve been near impossible to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, traverse with the bikes. We sucked it up, and went straight down the very road we had spent so much time riding up. In a matter of merger, minutes we were back at the base, and wondering what our next move should be. Now that we had some idea of the direction we needed to go, we opted to utilise a small farming road to take a direct line towards the volcanic rock. It was risky, but it#8217;s all about the journey, not the destination#8230; right? After another hour wading through fields of Essay Man versus, volcanic rock and wiry grass, climbing ravine after ravine#8230; we made it! Paul was so stocked that we had made it, he celebrated in the same way that many world champions do when the cross the line in first place after fighting it out for hours on the bike.

The terrain on mise en scene the west side of Mt Batur is on Eugenics: Man versus, out of this world. Piles of black volcanic rubble formed a unique landscape that I#8217;d simply never encountered before. There was very little green amongst the merger, black, giving the impression that we were riding our bikes on another planet. The rocks varied in size, but most were about that of a fist. On our mountain bikes, it wasn#8217;t too difficult to ride along the compacted 4?4 tracks, but as soon as we went a little off-track it was really hard to keep balance.

The rocks cracking together under our weight made very interesting sounds. It was really easy to get lost amongst this landscape. Like our hike the day prior, dead ends were inevitable given the difficulty of the terrain. Luckily, with the combination of spray-can arrows and a route already marked in my smartphone we got out without too many issues. In one section, the volcanic rocks were bigger than the couch in your living room.

That made for some dramatic imagery! Once we had escaped, we were back to the base of the crater rim. Like the road we had descended in on, the road was unbelievably steep to go back up. On Eugenics: Man Versus God? That resulted in in the us, trucks ascending just faster than walking pace. We discovered that if we grabbed onto the side of a truck and pedal along, it made for a much easier climb without too much strain on our arms. Watch our third video blog about hiking with our bikes and riding in volcanos HERE.

Nearing the end of our time in Bali, we had cycled multiple times through the mountainous centre, as well as in many rice fields nearer to the shore. Despite having ridden hundreds of roads by now, we had no idea what was on Man versus the east, north and west shores of the island so we set aside four days to complete a circumnavigation. We had heard that the planet comparsion, western region of the island was pretty dull, but after asking around a fair bit we had discovered that no-one we#8217;d met had actually been! The city traffic is pretty hectic around Denpasar, but it#8217;s all over almost as quick as it starts. On Eugenics: Man Versus God? The traffic rules are really simple in Bali: give way to anyone in front. This works because the traffic speeds are so slow that people normally have enough time to slow down as people chop-in in Examining Predictors of Academic Institutions, front of them. The coastal road doesn#8217;t follow the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, coastline that closely at all. Instead it meanders up and down the hills in an attempt to link up the coastal towns and villages.

In a lot of sections, the coast is simply too steep to build a road. The best section of coastal road, by far, is between Karangasem and Amed but you have to work for it. It#8217;s a narrow road which is carved into the side of the hill with uninterrupted sea views for over 30km straight. To sweeten the deal, there is very little traffic moving along it. As I was climbing up one of the Down Hole, hills, my crank arm simply fell off. I can only Essay Man versus God assume that my pinch-bolts were not done up enough, allowing the crank arm to wiggle its way off the axle. With the help of some tools from a motorbike mechanic, Paul managed to get my crank arm back on razors and torqued up appropriately.

We ended up finding a small #8220;buddha#8221; retreat to on Eugenics:, stay the night. One of their key selling points on their sign was that they were free from the internet a rare feature for accommodation of the 21st century. We would#8217;ve preferred internet to be honest, but it sounded like their kitchen was going to be able to cook up a storm and we were hungry! The next morning we discovered that Mt Agung is shadowrun hand, a complete giant when you#8217;re riding along the base. Agung is the highest point on Bali and has a really huge influence on the weather surrounding it. One side of the mountain is largely jungle, the other stripped bare of on Eugenics: God, a lot of In A Hole Essay, vegetation due to receiving far less rain. We came across interesting vehicles and lots of kind Balinese people during our circumnavigation.

But to Essay Man versus God, be honest, the coastal road was a bit of a let down. Down? It is full of God, traffic, is littered with industry, it has very few small backroad options and at Postsecondary Institutions example doesn#8217;t offer any new or different environments to what we#8217;d already seen. We did love the attention to detail whenever arriving or departing from a town or village, however. It#8217;s incredible that almost every populated area featured statues as intricate as these to signify that you are now in their territory. Essay Man Versus? Whenever given the opportunity, we were off the main highway. The best roads in Bali are, without doubt, the small back roads. Sometimes they will disappear to almost nothing, other times they are perfect tarmac. Our favourite style was the #8220;double track#8221; which left a perfect strip for our tyres to run along through the rice fields. With no cars, no noise and Hole Essay no pollution we were so glad to on Eugenics: Man versus God, explore these beautiful roads.

Sometimes the conditions aren#8217;t great for vehicles, but they#8217;re perfect for mountain bikes. The small backroads string together all of the towns that tourists don#8217;t normally get to see. You#8217;ll find beautiful temples with stacks on planet comparsion stacks on on Eugenics: stacks, and Examining Predictors of Academic Success example little market stalls on the side of the main streets. One would assume that rice production is the primary source of income for most people here. We had finally completed our uninspiring, but good-to-know lap of the island, but chose to make our way to one region we hadn#8217;t yet explored Uluwatu and surrounds. We were again battling the heavy traffic of Denpasar and Kuta. The best way to deal with it is to think of it as a computer game. Uluwatu is surprisingly laid-back given its proximity to the main airport. Many people are there for surfing, others are there to do yoga and some people just want to drink every night. Either way, you get to enjoy the phenomenal cliff top views over the ocean. It was a pleasure sitting down, having a beer and on Eugenics: Man versus looking out over Examining Institutions Essay example, the deep serene!

HERE is the fourth video in our #BaliByBike series, on our circumnavigation of the island. With the waves lapping up on the rocks below, that brings this photo essay to a close. Bali is a very deserving place for a biking holiday and a destination which comes highly recommended. I was blown away with how easy it is to escape other tourists and on Eugenics: Man versus God get our explore on. The landscapes are wonderfully diverse, the mise analysis, nature of the Balinese people is inspiring and the cycling is God, fun and interesting.

In the coming weeks I will put together a complete resource for Bali, including where to go, what to explore and analysis how go about conducting your own holiday there. Essay God? Alee LOVES bikes and travel. So much so he once sold everything he owned to planet, ride through 30 countries to learn a bit about himself and the world. On Eugenics:? Check out his book Bicycle Touring in shadowrun, One Hour to do the same: http://cyclingabout.com/bicycle-touring-book/ Guide: Mountain Biking Bali - MTB Rides, Cycling Destinations, Bike Tours, Accommodation. Cycling the 1000km Munda Biddi Trail In Australia. Story Blog: A Bike Ride Along The 900km Offroad Mawson Trail in Australia. #BaliByBike: A Mountain Biking Holiday. #BaliByBike 4: The Full Lap of Bali Island Video. #BaliByBike 1: Finding the Holy Trail Video. Rural Bali is really amazing. I loved finding all of the waterfalls in June and your trip went through so many cool places also. This is such a cool article! We loved having you at The Chillhouse and hearing about all your adventures!

Video: Unpacking Jesse Carlsson's Curve GMX and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus Bikepacking Kit. Shadowrun Hand Razors? The New 2018 Co-Op Cycles ADV 4.2 Offroad Touring Bike. All About The Best Dynamo USB Chargers For Bicycle Touring and Bikepacking. The New 2018 Specialized Sequoia Light Touring Bikes. On Eugenics: God? All About The Best Dynamo Hub Cache Batteries and communism in the Buffer Batteries. We are a bicycle travel website creating content that enables you to see the world in on Eugenics: Man versus, a different way.

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Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God

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Our writers are graduated students from the best Universities of the on Eugenics: Man versus God, world. Lucille Ball Essay, Research Paper. On April 26, 1989, the Down In A Hole Essay, world lost an Essay Man versus God extremely talented comic genius, Lucille Ball. There are so many things to learn about Examining Predictors Essay this extraordinary woman: her childhood, her acting career, and her unfortunate death. On Eugenics: God? Lucille Ball will most surely be known as a premiere comedienne of the 20th century. Lucille Ball was born in definition, Jamestown, New York on August 6, 1911. She spent her first few years in Anaconda, Montana and on Eugenics: God Wyandotte, Michigan. When Lucy was three and a half her mother, Desiree, was pregnant with her second child and her father, Had, was stricken with typhoid fever. On February 28, 1915, Had died of Hole his illness.

This left Lucy without a single recollection of God what he was like. Kathleen Brady in shadowrun hand, her book The Life of Lucille Ball quotes Lucy, I do remember everything that happened. . . hanging out the window, begging to play with the kids next door who had the measles. . . the doctor coming, my mother weeping. I remember a bird that flew in the window, a picture that fell off the wall (Brady, 7). That bird became a haunting reminder and Man versus God decades later stagehands on the I Love Lucy show learned never to put birds on shadowrun hand the set; for she would panic in on Eugenics: Man versus, anger. A month before her fourth birthday on July 3, 1915 her little brother, Fred was born.

A few years later Desiree married again. Planet? This time to Ed Peterson on September 17, 1918. Essay Man Versus? Ed did not like children and wouldn’t allow Lucy or Fred to call him ?daddy?. When Lucy was in first grade, Desiree left Lucy with Ed?s parents and Fred with her own. Mise En Scene? While Lucy was staying with Sophia Peterson, she was ridiculed the Essay Man versus God, way she looked, spoke, and merger walked. With her long slender legs, her oversized feet, crooked teeth, and a high shrill voice she was easy to mock. Grandma Peterson would dress her in dresses long enough so she would grow into them and Essay Man versus shoes so hard that they squeaked. Grandma would also part her hair right down the middle and pull it back so tightly that she had the Down Hole, look of perpetual shock. Since mirrors encouraged vanity, Sophia banned them, except for one in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, the bathroom where she once found Lucy staring at her face.

Lucy was then assigned chores as punishment for her self-importance. Money was so scarce that she did not have a pencil in school, a shame so searing that in her forties she hoarded pencils that were meant for her employees to Examining Success Essay example, use. Essay God? When she was confronted by an executive that asked her where the pencils were going she took him to a back closet and showed him the mise en scene analysis, packages of Essay on Eugenics: Man versus unwrapped pencils. She only surrendered them when he told her that she owned all the pencils in the company and that she was only stealing from herself. The most important influence on Lucy?s early years was Celeron Park. She would go there with her family and ride on roller coasters or visit the Zoological Garden. In 1919, when Lucy was eight she was known as a hyperactive child. She was afraid of gypsies who set up their camp under the maple trees at the edge of the park every summer.

It was said in merger definition, Celeron that the gypsies would kidnap local children and on Eugenics: Man versus God take them off to their campgrounds. Then their parents would have to pay the gypsies a silver dollar to make them return the kids they had snatched. One day Lucy came home and told that the gypsies took her away to us, their camp, but she screamed so loud that they were forced to let her go. This caused paranoia in the family. In 1920, she was sent off to on Eugenics: Man versus God, study singing, piano, and dancing at merger definition, the Chautauqua Institute of Music. On Eugenics: God? After Lucy came back from school her maternal grandmother, Florabelle, died of cancer of the uterus on July 1, 1922. Even though Ed had been cruel and en scene analysis wouldn’t have anything to do with raising Lucy, he encouraged her to perform. Since Ed belonged to the Shriners, he arranged for her to act, dance, and sing at their conventions. In 1923, Ed and Essay Man versus God Desiree took her to see the celebrated monologist Julius Tannen who was performing in the area. After seeing his performance Lucy said, Tannen was magic. . . just this voice, and this magnificent man enthralling you with his stories. . Planet? . his intonations. . . which I never, never forgot!

He changed my life. I knew it was a very serious, wonderful thing to be able to make people laugh and cry, to be able to play on their emotions. . Essay Man Versus God? . (Higham, 23). Hand? Because Lucy was inspired by Essay God, Tannen she auditioned for and obtained a part in a local musical given by the Masonic Club. While doing a scene her partner accidentally threw her so violently across the stage that she dislocated her shoulder. For the rest of planet her life she had trouble with that shoulder. When she was twelve and a half she took a bus to God, New York and communism us got a job as a chorus girl in on Eugenics: Man versus God, the Schubert Musical Stepping Stones.

She was soon fired and sent home when her true age was discovered. At the age of merger definition 14, Lucy was tall and excessively thin and Essay on Eugenics: leggy for her age. She was overly energetic and In A Hole Essay her friends remember her diving into every activity she could think of from ice-skating to horseback riding. In 1925, she entered Celeron High School. Essay On Eugenics:? There she began organizing a dramatic club and a school band. She directed and starred in plays and musicals. On July 3, 1927, it was Fred?s twelfth birthday and the eve of the merger, 4th of July. Grandpa Hunt decided to Essay Man versus, have a Fourth-of-July-Eve-Party for Predictors of Academic Institutions example, some of the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, neighboring children as well as a visiting girl from a neighboring town, Joanna Ottinger. Grandpa had bought that afternoon a .22 caliber rifle and foolishly gave it to the kids. Merger Definition? It had bullets in it to practice with in the backyard. Fred fired some shots at a tin can.

Lucy then followed and finally Joanna picked up the gun. On Eugenics: Man Versus God? At that exact moment, the eight-year-old son of the next door neighbor, Warner Erickson, ran out from definition his yard into the line of fire. Joanna was firing and the bullet from the gun went through Warner?s back and Essay Man versus God lodged in his left lung. He fell to the ground screaming and bleeding. His lower limbs, back, and arms were paralyzed. Fred Hunt was terrified; he, Lucy, Fred, and Joanna rushed forward to do what they could. Then Erickson?s parents came out hysterical with rage and charged Grandpa with having deliberately telling Joanna to fire at their son. Policed were called and a harrowing ordeal followed. Warner was hurried to the hospital unable to move.

The boy?s father, Einer Erickson, filed a complaint at his attorney?s office, charging Grandpa with deliberately and willfully giving orders to kill. Einer was insisting on In A $5,000 so it would fully cover the hospital, legal, and doctor fees. Grandpa was not charged with murder, but he was put in prison until the trial took place. The trial was a tribulation for everyone in concern, since all the Man versus God, children had to Essay, give evidence. Even thought the shooting had been an accident, Grandpa?s irresponsibility was punished appropriately. Since Fred Hunt?s capital was only a few hundred dollars and his only on Eugenics: God, asset was the house, Einer Erickson could not be fully awarded.

The house was sold at an auction to the highest bidders on communism in the September 14, 1928. This left Lucy and her family homeless until they were able to find an apartment. After this incident it was a total shock to everyone and Lucy was ostracized and that gave her the feeling of nervousness and paranoia about life. After the shooting, Ed?s sister Lola died of cancer and Lucy returned to on Eugenics: God, New York to try find work in Vaudeville. She was not very successful. She struggled as an artist?s model and posed as a Chesterfield cigarette Girl while living at the Kimberly Hotel on 74th and Broadway. Later she worked for shadowrun, Hattie Carnegie who specialized in well- tailored costumes. Many celebrated women came into Hattie?s salon. Among those women was Joan Bennett.

For some reason, Hattie decided that Lucy resembled Joan. Essay On Eugenics:? From then on Lucy modeled clothes for communism in the us, her. Lucy even dyed her hair platinum blond to match Joan?s hair color. One day Lucy was walking across the floor in a new costume and fell to Essay on Eugenics:, the floor with severe pains in razors, her legs in front of the costumers and staff. Hattie insisted that she see her own physician. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? The doctor said her condition was serious and that she should be sent to Down Hole, the Schuster Clinic on 113th Street. Essay On Eugenics: God? She was diagnosed with early signs of rheumatoid arthritis. Shadowrun Razors? This was quite rare at her age of seventeen. At that time, Professor Schuster was experimenting with a pregnant horse serum and asked Lucy if she would like to try it. She accepted in an instant. later she credited this treatment for Man versus God, having saved her from being permanently taken over by the disease.

She still had to give up her modeling and go home. Predictors Success At Postsecondary Institutions? She spent most of her time in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, bed or in a wheelchair. Her legs were so out of whack that she had to have twenty pound weights on planet comparsion each foot to straighten them out. For the next two years she was in constant pain. She wondered if she would be able to pursue her acting career again.

Lucy?s best friend in those days was a hair dresser named Gertrude Foote, known as Footie asked if she could go along with Lucy back to New York as Lucy was going to work with Hattie Carnegie again. Essay Man Versus? At almost twenty, Lucy lost her awkward leggy look and was strikingly attractive. Her hair was a mousy brown and her eyes were an intense blazing blue. A designer, Rose Ruth, who was a favorite at Hattie?s was walking with Lucy when she ran into a friend, Sylvia Hahlo, an actors? agent. Sylvia was very impressed with Lucy at various fashion shows and asked her if she would like to go to California. Lucy asked what she would do there. Sylvia told her that James Mulvey, of the Samuel Goldwyn office in new York was seeking models and showgirls for the film Roman Scandals, starring the comedian Eddie Cantor. These girls would be added to the galaxy of beauties known as the ?Goldwyn Girls?, who were chosen for their looks and Down In A Hole Essay popularity at Essay God, the time. While Lucy was hesitating with her decision she was offered a tiny, one-day job as a walk-on in the film Broadway Thru a Keyhole.

Sylvia rushed shots of Lucy in merger definition, the film to Goldwyn. Essay Man Versus? The representatives in New York signed her to a contract. Communism In The? But when Goldwyn ran tests on Man versus her in Hollywood he didn?t like her at definition, all. By chance the dance director, Busby Berkeley who was hired to choreograph the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, film insisted that Goldwyn hire her. If it hadn?t been for mise analysis, Berkeley, Lucy may have never came to Hollywood. Another break came when a mother of twelve girls refused to Essay God, let one of her daughters appear in a Hollywood movie. At the same time Lucy was starting out so was Betty Grable. Betty could sing or pretend to quite effectively, but Lucy couldn?t and that made her feel inferior.

Since Betty was more talented then Lucy, Lucy tried to imitate her by dying her hair blond. When Lucy wasn?t working on In A a picture she would hang around the set trying to secure better parts for herself. During this time Lucy was dating Mack Gray a friend of George Raft. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? Gray was Raft?s bodyguard-companion because Raft was a front man for the Mafia in New York. In A? Raft also lent her money responding to the pleas that she was float broke. He allowed her to ride in his limousine with a chauffeur. On Eugenics: God? Years later she tried to repay him but he wouldn?t hear of it.

Roman Scandals was directed by Frank Tuttle in 1933, which Lucy appeared with Kay Harvey. As Kay Harvey remembers one day, I came on the set one day to find ?Queen Lucy,? as we called her, riding a beautiful brown horse. She was wearing a scanty costume, with a long blond wig floating around her shoulders. The crew dubbed her Lady Godiva as she elegantly rode that poor, tired horse back and forth before cameras while we were lighted for a shot (Kay Harvey). Kay also remembers that while she was riding she almost accidentally crushed a chorus girl who fell in front of the analysis, horse. After she completed several more Goldwyn films she was not exactly miserable, but she was not pleased either. She wasn?t happy with her next film, Blood Money, directed by Rowland Brown. After that picture she was loaned to God, United Artists for a tiny part as a chorus girl in definition, the Constance Bennett picture Moulin Rouge. She took no interest in her next few pictures: Bottoms Up, Hold That Girl, Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back, The Affairs of Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God Cellini, or Kid Millions.

Lucy very badly wanted to go to Columbia, the studio that specialized in knock about in the us comedies. She felt that she could grow there. As an act to get fired she would purposely be late getting to the set from break time in Kid Millions. Lucy finally got her interview with Harry Cohn at Columbia. Essay On Eugenics:? The casting director looked at her and decided right on the spot she would be perfect as ?a dumb broad.? Instead of being cast in that feature she was thrown into merger, a short twenty minute part in Perfectly Mismatched. In 1934, she found a modest frame house located at 1344 North Ogden Drive in Hollywood. She borrowed the down payment of $65 from George Raft.

She hit rock bottom in Man versus God, Three Little Pigskins, starring the Three Stooges, whose idea of comedy was tweaking noses, smashing pies into en scene, peoples faces, and Essay on Eugenics: God dumping cans of paint on to people?s heads. She didn?t like this kind of comedy. By this time Lucy was unhappy in Hollywood. Examining Of Academic? Columbia had only on Eugenics: Man versus God, signed a contract with her to do bits. She decided to wire her family in Jamestown to tell them to planet comparsion, come to Hollywood. She told them that she had no career and on Eugenics: God that she was still poor. They packed their bags and were off to Predictors at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example, live with Lucy. She sent the fares for everyone and was relieved that Ed Peterson would not be joining then and that her mother and Essay Man versus God him were divorced. Mise? No sooner had the family came that Columbia decided to disbanded the comedy team to do more prestigous films. Man Versus? While Lucy was out taking a walk on the street, she ran into a friend, Dick Gree, who said there was an opening for a showgirl at RKO and were paying $50 a week.

RKO needed her to play a model in a fashion show sequence for the Fred Astair/Ginger Rogers picture. Even though she only had to walk down an isle wearing ostrich feathers, it was an honor to analysis, her to appear in one of on Eugenics: their pictures. Emerging at mise, the same time was Lucy?s RKO rival, Betty Grable, who was more talented than her. To compete with her Lucy dyed her hair red. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? Not knowing what she was doing on Down Hole Essay March 19, 1936, Lucy registered with the Los Angeles County Registrar of Voters to Essay God, affiliate with the Communist Party. From this decision, years later during the McCarthy era she was put into definition, the threat of Essay on Eugenics: professional ruin and public exposure. She always said that decision was only to please her grandfather.

As Lucy managed to obtain a leave from her contract from RKO she landed a role in a stage musical that was bound for Broadway, Hey Diddle Diddle. After the opening on January 21, 1937 of Hey Diddle Diddle at the McCarter Theater in Princeton, New Jersey she received remarks from the Variety saying: ?Miss Ball fattens a fat part and almost walks off with the play. She outlines a consistent character and continuously gives it logical substance. Has a sense of timing and, with a few exceptions, keeps her comedy under control.? (Higgings, 43) After the production closed Lucy returned to at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example, Hollywood and found herself cast in a movie with exceptional quality, Stage Door. Essay On Eugenics:? The director, Gregory La Cava, was an alcoholic and every day the communism, crew wondered if he would mess up the production. It wasn?t until she played in 47 films that she met Desi Arnaz on the set of Dance, Girl, Dance in 1940. Desi and Lucy didn?t hit it off at first, but soon they fell in love with each other and were married in Greenich, Connecticut. Essay Man Versus God? From 1940 on she continued to play in movies and films. Sometimes she would be cast with Bob Hope, Henry Fonda, Ginger Rogers, or Katharine Hepburn. Her more successful films include: The Big Street, Du Barry Was a Lady, Best Foot Forward, Ziegfeld Follies, and Lured.

While Lucy was on tour of Dream Girl the cast came down with a virus and could not perform on razors Christmas 1947. In generosity Lucy paid for the casts hospital bills and God wages. By the time she got to southern California for opening night, she too was stricken with the virus. Examining Predictors Institutions Example? It was of her own will power that she got through her performance on January 5, 1948. The review by the Los Angeles Time?s Edwin Schallert was favorable and Man versus he wrote: Here is a young lady of the films who could, if she would, have a dazzling footlight career. And what is more‹ though this may be a brash statement to make‹ she is, in a sense, wasting her talents in pictures. . . Miss Ball is a striking presence in the footlight world. She has efficiency as a comedienne. She can tinge a scene delicately with pathos.

She has special facility in dealing with sharp-edged repartee. She apparently never overdoes the sentimental side of a role. . Shadowrun Razors? . (Higham, 89#038;90). After that review Lucy went on to complete eight more films before the tragic death of a dear friend of Essay Man versus God hers. Merger Definition? In the Essay on Eugenics:, spring of 1951, S. Sylvan Simon at Examining Predictors of Academic at Postsecondary Institutions Essay, the age of forty-one committed suicide for unknown reasons. Lucy told that it was he who inspired the crazy comedy that led to ?I Love Lucy.? Lucy and Essay God Desi went on to start their own television series. They came up with ideas, but television studios would not accept the show.

After taking out loans, Lucy and mise en scene analysis Desi founded ?Desilu Productions.? I Love Lucy became the most popular television series of its decade running continuously from 1951 to Man versus God, 1957. In 1960, Lucy divorced Desi. Planet? Later she became head of two major television companies and did more ?Lucy? series; The Lucy show (1962-69), Here?s Lucy (1968-74), and last and the least successful 1986 series Life with Lucy. On May 10, 1988, after her television career was finished, Lucy woke up and went to the bathroom. Suddenly she felt a heavy object fall into her lap. When she picked it up she realized it was her arm and that she had had a stroke.

Her then husband, Gary rushed her to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God she spent a few hours in intensive care. She was then released and a nurse, Trudi Arcudi moved in with her. For the next few months she worked on her partially paralyzed right side and her speech. After her recovery she was pleased to en scene analysis, be invited to appear with Bob Hope at the Oscars in late March 1989 to Essay Man versus, introduce a salute to young performers. Planet? Over the next few weeks she felt tired and on Eugenics: Man versus sluggish, and one morning she woke up with terrible chest pains. She was driven to the hospital by Gary. There doctors performed a six-and-a-half-hour emergency open-heart surgery to replace a torn section of her aorta and a weakened valve.

As people heard about the news they phoned the hospital of her condition. She received flowers and shadowrun hand cards by the ton. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God? As she was making a remarkable recovery she was thrilled to hear about all the cards and calls she had received. On April 26, 1989, just before she was due to go home, she awoke with a pain in her back. Only Trudi Arcudi was with her as her patched aorta burst and her life came to an end.

Now you know the fascinating life Lucille Ball led being one of the most famous women in television history. Down? Although her childhood may be shocking to Essay on Eugenics: God, you. Of Academic At Postsecondary Institutions Example? It was far from what you think a wonderful lady like her would have been raised. But even the Man versus, misfortunate live to be extraordinary people. The most important thing to Lucille Ball was that she wanted everyone to love her because she didn?t receive that kind of love as a child. Lucy did die knowing that everyone loved her after all. On April 26, 1989, the Down Essay, world lost an extremely talented comic genius, Lucille Ball. Essay Man Versus God? There are so many things to learn about this extraordinary woman: her childhood, her acting career, and her unfortunate death.

Lucille Ball will most surely be known as a premiere comedienne of the 20th century. Lucille Ball was born in Jamestown, New York on August 6, 1911. Shadowrun? She spent her first few years in Anaconda, Montana and Wyandotte, Michigan. When Lucy was three and a half her mother, Desiree, was pregnant with her second child and her father, Had, was stricken with typhoid fever. Essay God? On February 28, 1915, Had died of his illness. This left Lucy without a single recollection of what he was like. Kathleen Brady in definition, her book The Life of Lucille Ball quotes Lucy, I do remember everything that happened. . Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? . hanging out the window, begging to Examining Predictors of Academic Success at Postsecondary Institutions, play with the kids next door who had the measles. . . the doctor coming, my mother weeping. I remember a bird that flew in the window, a picture that fell off the wall (Brady, 7). That bird became a haunting reminder and decades later stagehands on the I Love Lucy show learned never to put birds on the set; for she would panic in anger. A month before her fourth birthday on Essay on Eugenics: July 3, 1915 her little brother, Fred was born.

A few years later Desiree married again. This time to Ed Peterson on September 17, 1918. Ed did not like children and wouldn’t allow Lucy or Fred to call him ?daddy?. When Lucy was in first grade, Desiree left Lucy with Ed?s parents and Fred with her own. While Lucy was staying with Sophia Peterson, she was ridiculed the way she looked, spoke, and walked. With her long slender legs, her oversized feet, crooked teeth, and a high shrill voice she was easy to mock.

Grandma Peterson would dress her in dresses long enough so she would grow into them and shoes so hard that they squeaked. Grandma would also part her hair right down the shadowrun hand razors, middle and pull it back so tightly that she had the on Eugenics: Man versus, look of perpetual shock. Since mirrors encouraged vanity, Sophia banned them, except for one in the bathroom where she once found Lucy staring at her face. Lucy was then assigned chores as punishment for her self-importance. Shadowrun Hand Razors? Money was so scarce that she did not have a pencil in school, a shame so searing that in her forties she hoarded pencils that were meant for Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, her employees to use. When she was confronted by an executive that asked her where the pencils were going she took him to a back closet and showed him the Down In A Hole Essay, packages of unwrapped pencils. She only surrendered them when he told her that she owned all the pencils in the company and that she was only stealing from herself. The most important influence on Lucy?s early years was Celeron Park.

She would go there with her family and ride on roller coasters or visit the Zoological Garden. In 1919, when Lucy was eight she was known as a hyperactive child. On Eugenics:? She was afraid of gypsies who set up their camp under the hand, maple trees at the edge of the park every summer. It was said in Celeron that the gypsies would kidnap local children and take them off to their campgrounds. Then their parents would have to pay the gypsies a silver dollar to on Eugenics: Man versus, make them return the kids they had snatched. One day Lucy came home and communism told that the gypsies took her away to their camp, but she screamed so loud that they were forced to let her go. This caused paranoia in the family. In 1920, she was sent off to study singing, piano, and dancing at the Chautauqua Institute of Music. Essay Man Versus God? After Lucy came back from school her maternal grandmother, Florabelle, died of cancer of the uterus on planet July 1, 1922.

Even though Ed had been cruel and wouldn’t have anything to do with raising Lucy, he encouraged her to perform. Since Ed belonged to the Shriners, he arranged for God, her to act, dance, and sing at their conventions. In 1923, Ed and Desiree took her to see the celebrated monologist Julius Tannen who was performing in the area. After seeing his performance Lucy said, Tannen was magic. Down Essay? . . just this voice, and this magnificent man enthralling you with his stories. . On Eugenics: God? . his intonations. Down Hole Essay? . . which I never, never forgot! He changed my life. I knew it was a very serious, wonderful thing to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, be able to make people laugh and cry, to be able to communism us, play on their emotions. . . On Eugenics: Man Versus God? (Higham, 23). Because Lucy was inspired by Tannen she auditioned for and obtained a part in a local musical given by the Masonic Club.

While doing a scene her partner accidentally threw her so violently across the mise en scene, stage that she dislocated her shoulder. For the God, rest of her life she had trouble with that shoulder. When she was twelve and a half she took a bus to en scene analysis, New York and got a job as a chorus girl in the Schubert Musical Stepping Stones. She was soon fired and sent home when her true age was discovered. God? At the age of 14, Lucy was tall and excessively thin and leggy for her age. She was overly energetic and her friends remember her diving into every activity she could think of from ice-skating to horseback riding. In 1925, she entered Celeron High School. There she began organizing a dramatic club and a school band. She directed and starred in en scene analysis, plays and musicals.

On July 3, 1927, it was Fred?s twelfth birthday and the eve of the 4th of July. Grandpa Hunt decided to have a Fourth-of-July-Eve-Party for some of the neighboring children as well as a visiting girl from a neighboring town, Joanna Ottinger. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God? Grandpa had bought that afternoon a .22 caliber rifle and foolishly gave it to the kids. Merger Definition? It had bullets in on Eugenics: God, it to practice with in the backyard. Analysis? Fred fired some shots at a tin can. Lucy then followed and finally Joanna picked up the on Eugenics:, gun. At that exact moment, the eight-year-old son of the next door neighbor, Warner Erickson, ran out from planet comparsion his yard into the line of fire. Joanna was firing and the bullet from the gun went through Warner?s back and Man versus God lodged in his left lung. He fell to the ground screaming and bleeding. His lower limbs, back, and arms were paralyzed. Fred Hunt was terrified; he, Lucy, Fred, and communism Joanna rushed forward to do what they could.

Then Erickson?s parents came out Man versus God hysterical with rage and charged Grandpa with having deliberately telling Joanna to fire at their son. Policed were called and a harrowing ordeal followed. Warner was hurried to the hospital unable to move. Shadowrun Razors? The boy?s father, Einer Erickson, filed a complaint at his attorney?s office, charging Grandpa with deliberately and willfully giving orders to Man versus God, kill. In A Hole Essay? Einer was insisting on $5,000 so it would fully cover the hospital, legal, and doctor fees. Grandpa was not charged with murder, but he was put in prison until the trial took place. The trial was a tribulation for on Eugenics: God, everyone in concern, since all the children had to give evidence. Even thought the shooting had been an accident, Grandpa?s irresponsibility was punished appropriately. Since Fred Hunt?s capital was only a few hundred dollars and his only merger definition, asset was the Essay Man versus, house, Einer Erickson could not be fully awarded.

The house was sold at an auction to the highest bidders on September 14, 1928. This left Lucy and her family homeless until they were able to find an apartment. After this incident it was a total shock to everyone and Predictors Success at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example Lucy was ostracized and that gave her the feeling of nervousness and paranoia about life. After the shooting, Ed?s sister Lola died of cancer and Lucy returned to New York to try find work in Vaudeville. She was not very successful. She struggled as an artist?s model and posed as a Chesterfield cigarette Girl while living at the Kimberly Hotel on 74th and Broadway. Later she worked for Hattie Carnegie who specialized in on Eugenics: God, well- tailored costumes. Many celebrated women came into Hattie?s salon. Merger? Among those women was Joan Bennett. For some reason, Hattie decided that Lucy resembled Joan. From then on Lucy modeled clothes for her.

Lucy even dyed her hair platinum blond to match Joan?s hair color. One day Lucy was walking across the floor in Man versus, a new costume and fell to the floor with severe pains in her legs in front of the costumers and communism staff. Essay Man Versus God? Hattie insisted that she see her own physician. The doctor said her condition was serious and that she should be sent to the Schuster Clinic on 113th Street. She was diagnosed with early signs of rheumatoid arthritis. This was quite rare at her age of Examining example seventeen. At that time, Professor Schuster was experimenting with a pregnant horse serum and asked Lucy if she would like to try it. She accepted in an instant. later she credited this treatment for having saved her from being permanently taken over by the disease. She still had to give up her modeling and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus go home. She spent most of her time in bed or in a wheelchair.

Her legs were so out of whack that she had to have twenty pound weights on communism us each foot to straighten them out. Essay Man Versus? For the next two years she was in constant pain. She wondered if she would be able to pursue her acting career again. Lucy?s best friend in those days was a hair dresser named Gertrude Foote, known as Footie asked if she could go along with Lucy back to New York as Lucy was going to work with Hattie Carnegie again. Communism In The Us? At almost twenty, Lucy lost her awkward leggy look and Essay Man versus God was strikingly attractive. In The Us? Her hair was a mousy brown and her eyes were an Essay on Eugenics: Man versus intense blazing blue.

A designer, Rose Ruth, who was a favorite at Hattie?s was walking with Lucy when she ran into a friend, Sylvia Hahlo, an mise en scene actors? agent. Sylvia was very impressed with Lucy at various fashion shows and asked her if she would like to go to California. Lucy asked what she would do there. Sylvia told her that James Mulvey, of the Man versus, Samuel Goldwyn office in new York was seeking models and showgirls for the film Roman Scandals, starring the comedian Eddie Cantor. These girls would be added to the galaxy of beauties known as the ?Goldwyn Girls?, who were chosen for their looks and popularity at comparsion, the time. While Lucy was hesitating with her decision she was offered a tiny, one-day job as a walk-on in Essay on Eugenics:, the film Broadway Thru a Keyhole. Communism? Sylvia rushed shots of Lucy in the film to Goldwyn.

The representatives in New York signed her to a contract. God? But when Goldwyn ran tests on her in Hollywood he didn?t like her at all. Shadowrun Razors? By chance the dance director, Busby Berkeley who was hired to choreograph the film insisted that Goldwyn hire her. If it hadn?t been for Berkeley, Lucy may have never came to Hollywood. Another break came when a mother of twelve girls refused to let one of her daughters appear in a Hollywood movie.

At the same time Lucy was starting out so was Betty Grable. Betty could sing or pretend to quite effectively, but Lucy couldn?t and that made her feel inferior. Since Betty was more talented then Lucy, Lucy tried to imitate her by Essay on Eugenics:, dying her hair blond. Mise Analysis? When Lucy wasn?t working on Man versus a picture she would hang around the set trying to secure better parts for hand razors, herself. During this time Lucy was dating Mack Gray a friend of George Raft. Gray was Raft?s bodyguard-companion because Raft was a front man for the Mafia in New York. Raft also lent her money responding to the pleas that she was float broke. He allowed her to ride in his limousine with a chauffeur.

Years later she tried to repay him but he wouldn?t hear of it. Roman Scandals was directed by Frank Tuttle in 1933, which Lucy appeared with Kay Harvey. Essay On Eugenics: God? As Kay Harvey remembers one day, I came on the set one day to find ?Queen Lucy,? as we called her, riding a beautiful brown horse. Communism Us? She was wearing a scanty costume, with a long blond wig floating around her shoulders. The crew dubbed her Lady Godiva as she elegantly rode that poor, tired horse back and forth before cameras while we were lighted for a shot (Kay Harvey).

Kay also remembers that while she was riding she almost accidentally crushed a chorus girl who fell in front of the horse. After she completed several more Goldwyn films she was not exactly miserable, but she was not pleased either. She wasn?t happy with her next film, Blood Money, directed by Rowland Brown. Essay God? After that picture she was loaned to shadowrun hand razors, United Artists for a tiny part as a chorus girl in the Constance Bennett picture Moulin Rouge. She took no interest in her next few pictures: Bottoms Up, Hold That Girl, Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back, The Affairs of Cellini, or Kid Millions. Essay On Eugenics:? Lucy very badly wanted to go to Columbia, the Hole Essay, studio that specialized in knock about comedies. She felt that she could grow there. As an act to get fired she would purposely be late getting to the set from break time in Kid Millions.

Lucy finally got her interview with Harry Cohn at Columbia. The casting director looked at Essay Man versus, her and decided right on the spot she would be perfect as ?a dumb broad.? Instead of merger being cast in that feature she was thrown into on Eugenics:, a short twenty minute part in Down In A Essay, Perfectly Mismatched. In 1934, she found a modest frame house located at 1344 North Ogden Drive in Hollywood. She borrowed the Man versus, down payment of $65 from George Raft. She hit rock bottom in planet, Three Little Pigskins, starring the Three Stooges, whose idea of on Eugenics: Man versus comedy was tweaking noses, smashing pies into peoples faces, and dumping cans of paint on to people?s heads.

She didn?t like this kind of comedy. Us? By this time Lucy was unhappy in Hollywood. Columbia had only signed a contract with her to do bits. She decided to wire her family in Jamestown to tell them to come to Hollywood. She told them that she had no career and that she was still poor. They packed their bags and were off to live with Lucy. She sent the fares for everyone and was relieved that Ed Peterson would not be joining then and that her mother and him were divorced. God? No sooner had the family came that Columbia decided to disbanded the comedy team to do more prestigous films. Mise En Scene? While Lucy was out taking a walk on Essay on Eugenics: God the street, she ran into in the, a friend, Dick Gree, who said there was an opening for a showgirl at RKO and were paying $50 a week.

RKO needed her to Essay God, play a model in a fashion show sequence for the Fred Astair/Ginger Rogers picture. Even though she only Predictors of Academic Success Institutions Essay example, had to Essay, walk down an Hole isle wearing ostrich feathers, it was an God honor to her to appear in one of their pictures. Emerging at the same time was Lucy?s RKO rival, Betty Grable, who was more talented than her. To compete with her Lucy dyed her hair red. Not knowing what she was doing on March 19, 1936, Lucy registered with the Los Angeles County Registrar of Voters to In A Hole, affiliate with the Communist Party. From this decision, years later during the McCarthy era she was put into the threat of professional ruin and public exposure. She always said that decision was only to please her grandfather.

As Lucy managed to obtain a leave from her contract from RKO she landed a role in a stage musical that was bound for Broadway, Hey Diddle Diddle. After the opening on January 21, 1937 of Hey Diddle Diddle at the McCarter Theater in Princeton, New Jersey she received remarks from the Variety saying: ?Miss Ball fattens a fat part and almost walks off with the play. God? She outlines a consistent character and continuously gives it logical substance. Has a sense of timing and, with a few exceptions, keeps her comedy under control.? (Higgings, 43) After the production closed Lucy returned to Hollywood and found herself cast in a movie with exceptional quality, Stage Door. The director, Gregory La Cava, was an alcoholic and every day the crew wondered if he would mess up the production. It wasn?t until she played in 47 films that she met Desi Arnaz on razors the set of Dance, Girl, Dance in 1940.

Desi and Lucy didn?t hit it off at first, but soon they fell in on Eugenics: Man versus, love with each other and were married in Greenich, Connecticut. Planet Comparsion? From 1940 on she continued to play in movies and films. Sometimes she would be cast with Bob Hope, Henry Fonda, Ginger Rogers, or Katharine Hepburn. Her more successful films include: The Big Street, Du Barry Was a Lady, Best Foot Forward, Ziegfeld Follies, and Essay on Eugenics: Lured. While Lucy was on tour of Dream Girl the cast came down with a virus and could not perform on Christmas 1947. In generosity Lucy paid for the casts hospital bills and wages. By the time she got to planet comparsion, southern California for opening night, she too was stricken with the Essay on Eugenics: God, virus. It was of Examining of Academic at Postsecondary Institutions example her own will power that she got through her performance on January 5, 1948. The review by God, the Los Angeles Time?s Edwin Schallert was favorable and he wrote: Here is a young lady of the films who could, if she would, have a dazzling footlight career. And what is Down, more‹ though this may be a brash statement to make‹ she is, in a sense, wasting her talents in pictures. . . Miss Ball is a striking presence in the footlight world. Man Versus God? She has efficiency as a comedienne.

She can tinge a scene delicately with pathos. She has special facility in dealing with sharp-edged repartee. She apparently never overdoes the sentimental side of a role. . Predictors At Postsecondary Example? . (Higham, 89#038;90). After that review Lucy went on to complete eight more films before the tragic death of Man versus a dear friend of hers. In the spring of 1951, S. Analysis? Sylvan Simon at on Eugenics:, the age of forty-one committed suicide for unknown reasons. Communism In The? Lucy told that it was he who inspired the crazy comedy that led to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, ?I Love Lucy.? Lucy and Examining Predictors of Academic Success at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example Desi went on to start their own television series.

They came up with ideas, but television studios would not accept the show. On Eugenics: God? After taking out loans, Lucy and Desi founded ?Desilu Productions.? I Love Lucy became the most popular television series of its decade running continuously from 1951 to 1957. In 1960, Lucy divorced Desi. Later she became head of two major television companies and did more ?Lucy? series; The Lucy show (1962-69), Here?s Lucy (1968-74), and last and the least successful 1986 series Life with Lucy. On May 10, 1988, after her television career was finished, Lucy woke up and went to the bathroom.

Suddenly she felt a heavy object fall into her lap. Shadowrun Hand Razors? When she picked it up she realized it was her arm and that she had had a stroke. Her then husband, Gary rushed her to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and on Eugenics: Man versus God she spent a few hours in intensive care. She was then released and a nurse, Trudi Arcudi moved in with her. Predictors Institutions Essay Example? For the Essay on Eugenics:, next few months she worked on her partially paralyzed right side and her speech. After her recovery she was pleased to be invited to appear with Bob Hope at the Oscars in late March 1989 to introduce a salute to young performers. Over the Hole Essay, next few weeks she felt tired and sluggish, and one morning she woke up with terrible chest pains. She was driven to the hospital by Gary.

There doctors performed a six-and-a-half-hour emergency open-heart surgery to replace a torn section of her aorta and a weakened valve. As people heard about the news they phoned the hospital of her condition. She received flowers and cards by the ton. Man Versus? As she was making a remarkable recovery she was thrilled to hear about all the Down Essay, cards and calls she had received. On April 26, 1989, just before she was due to go home, she awoke with a pain in her back.

Only Trudi Arcudi was with her as her patched aorta burst and her life came to an end. Now you know the fascinating life Lucille Ball led being one of the most famous women in television history. Although her childhood may be shocking to you. It was far from what you think a wonderful lady like her would have been raised. But even the misfortunate live to be extraordinary people. The most important thing to Essay Man versus, Lucille Ball was that she wanted everyone to love her because she didn?t receive that kind of shadowrun hand love as a child. Lucy did die knowing that everyone loved her after all. On April 26, 1989, the Essay God, world lost an extremely talented comic genius, Lucille Ball. There are so many things to learn about us this extraordinary woman: her childhood, her acting career, and her unfortunate death. Lucille Ball will most surely be known as a premiere comedienne of the 20th century.

Lucille Ball was born in Jamestown, New York on August 6, 1911. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God? She spent her first few years in Anaconda, Montana and Wyandotte, Michigan. When Lucy was three and en scene a half her mother, Desiree, was pregnant with her second child and on Eugenics: Man versus her father, Had, was stricken with typhoid fever. On February 28, 1915, Had died of his illness. This left Lucy without a single recollection of analysis what he was like. Kathleen Brady in God, her book The Life of Lucille Ball quotes Lucy, I do remember everything that happened. Us? . . hanging out the window, begging to on Eugenics: Man versus God, play with the kids next door who had the measles. . . the doctor coming, my mother weeping. Planet Comparsion? I remember a bird that flew in the window, a picture that fell off the Essay Man versus God, wall (Brady, 7). That bird became a haunting reminder and decades later stagehands on the I Love Lucy show learned never to put birds on the set; for In A Essay, she would panic in anger. A month before her fourth birthday on Essay God July 3, 1915 her little brother, Fred was born. Planet Comparsion? A few years later Desiree married again.

This time to God, Ed Peterson on September 17, 1918. Ed did not like children and wouldn’t allow Lucy or Fred to call him ?daddy?. When Lucy was in first grade, Desiree left Lucy with Ed?s parents and Fred with her own. While Lucy was staying with Sophia Peterson, she was ridiculed the Predictors at Postsecondary Institutions example, way she looked, spoke, and walked. With her long slender legs, her oversized feet, crooked teeth, and a high shrill voice she was easy to mock. Grandma Peterson would dress her in dresses long enough so she would grow into them and shoes so hard that they squeaked. Grandma would also part her hair right down the middle and pull it back so tightly that she had the look of perpetual shock. Since mirrors encouraged vanity, Sophia banned them, except for one in the bathroom where she once found Lucy staring at her face. Lucy was then assigned chores as punishment for her self-importance. Money was so scarce that she did not have a pencil in school, a shame so searing that in on Eugenics: God, her forties she hoarded pencils that were meant for her employees to Down In A Hole, use.

When she was confronted by an executive that asked her where the pencils were going she took him to a back closet and showed him the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, packages of unwrapped pencils. She only surrendered them when he told her that she owned all the pencils in the company and that she was only stealing from herself. The most important influence on Lucy?s early years was Celeron Park. She would go there with her family and ride on roller coasters or visit the comparsion, Zoological Garden. In 1919, when Lucy was eight she was known as a hyperactive child. She was afraid of gypsies who set up their camp under the maple trees at the edge of the park every summer. It was said in Celeron that the gypsies would kidnap local children and God take them off to their campgrounds. Then their parents would have to pay the gypsies a silver dollar to make them return the kids they had snatched. One day Lucy came home and told that the gypsies took her away to their camp, but she screamed so loud that they were forced to let her go. This caused paranoia in the family.

In 1920, she was sent off to study singing, piano, and dancing at the Chautauqua Institute of Music. After Lucy came back from school her maternal grandmother, Florabelle, died of cancer of the communism in the, uterus on July 1, 1922. Even though Ed had been cruel and wouldn’t have anything to do with raising Lucy, he encouraged her to on Eugenics:, perform. Since Ed belonged to the Shriners, he arranged for her to act, dance, and sing at their conventions. Planet Comparsion? In 1923, Ed and Desiree took her to see the celebrated monologist Julius Tannen who was performing in the area.

After seeing his performance Lucy said, Tannen was magic. . . Man Versus God? just this voice, and this magnificent man enthralling you with his stories. . . his intonations. . . which I never, never forgot! He changed my life. I knew it was a very serious, wonderful thing to shadowrun razors, be able to make people laugh and cry, to be able to play on their emotions. . Essay? . (Higham, 23). Hand Razors? Because Lucy was inspired by Tannen she auditioned for and obtained a part in a local musical given by on Eugenics: Man versus God, the Masonic Club. While doing a scene her partner accidentally threw her so violently across the stage that she dislocated her shoulder. For the rest of her life she had trouble with that shoulder. Planet? When she was twelve and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God a half she took a bus to communism us, New York and got a job as a chorus girl in the Schubert Musical Stepping Stones. She was soon fired and Essay on Eugenics: God sent home when her true age was discovered.

At the age of 14, Lucy was tall and planet excessively thin and leggy for her age. She was overly energetic and her friends remember her diving into every activity she could think of from Essay Man versus ice-skating to horseback riding. In 1925, she entered Celeron High School. There she began organizing a dramatic club and a school band. She directed and starred in plays and musicals. On July 3, 1927, it was Fred?s twelfth birthday and the eve of the 4th of July.

Grandpa Hunt decided to have a Fourth-of-July-Eve-Party for some of the neighboring children as well as a visiting girl from a neighboring town, Joanna Ottinger. Grandpa had bought that afternoon a .22 caliber rifle and foolishly gave it to the kids. It had bullets in In A, it to practice with in the backyard. Fred fired some shots at a tin can. Lucy then followed and finally Joanna picked up the Essay God, gun.

At that exact moment, the eight-year-old son of the next door neighbor, Warner Erickson, ran out from his yard into the line of fire. Joanna was firing and the bullet from the gun went through Warner?s back and lodged in his left lung. He fell to the ground screaming and bleeding. His lower limbs, back, and arms were paralyzed. Fred Hunt was terrified; he, Lucy, Fred, and Joanna rushed forward to do what they could.

Then Erickson?s parents came out hysterical with rage and charged Grandpa with having deliberately telling Joanna to definition, fire at their son. Policed were called and Essay Man versus a harrowing ordeal followed. Warner was hurried to the hospital unable to move. Analysis? The boy?s father, Einer Erickson, filed a complaint at his attorney?s office, charging Grandpa with deliberately and willfully giving orders to kill. Einer was insisting on $5,000 so it would fully cover the on Eugenics:, hospital, legal, and doctor fees. Grandpa was not charged with murder, but he was put in prison until the trial took place. The trial was a tribulation for everyone in concern, since all the children had to give evidence. Hand? Even thought the shooting had been an on Eugenics: Man versus God accident, Grandpa?s irresponsibility was punished appropriately. Success Example? Since Fred Hunt?s capital was only on Eugenics: Man versus God, a few hundred dollars and shadowrun hand his only on Eugenics: Man versus God, asset was the house, Einer Erickson could not be fully awarded. The house was sold at an auction to the highest bidders on September 14, 1928. Planet Comparsion? This left Lucy and her family homeless until they were able to find an apartment.

After this incident it was a total shock to everyone and Lucy was ostracized and that gave her the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, feeling of nervousness and paranoia about life. Razors? After the shooting, Ed?s sister Lola died of cancer and Lucy returned to New York to try find work in Vaudeville. She was not very successful. Essay? She struggled as an artist?s model and posed as a Chesterfield cigarette Girl while living at the Kimberly Hotel on shadowrun hand 74th and Broadway. Later she worked for Hattie Carnegie who specialized in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, well- tailored costumes. Many celebrated women came into Hattie?s salon. Razors? Among those women was Joan Bennett. For some reason, Hattie decided that Lucy resembled Joan. From then on Lucy modeled clothes for Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, her. Lucy even dyed her hair platinum blond to match Joan?s hair color.

One day Lucy was walking across the floor in a new costume and fell to the floor with severe pains in her legs in front of the costumers and merger definition staff. Hattie insisted that she see her own physician. The doctor said her condition was serious and that she should be sent to the Schuster Clinic on 113th Street. She was diagnosed with early signs of rheumatoid arthritis. This was quite rare at her age of seventeen.

At that time, Professor Schuster was experimenting with a pregnant horse serum and asked Lucy if she would like to try it. She accepted in Essay on Eugenics:, an instant. later she credited this treatment for en scene analysis, having saved her from being permanently taken over by the disease. She still had to give up her modeling and go home. She spent most of her time in bed or in a wheelchair. Her legs were so out of whack that she had to have twenty pound weights on each foot to straighten them out. For the next two years she was in on Eugenics: God, constant pain. Success At Postsecondary Institutions Example? She wondered if she would be able to pursue her acting career again.

Lucy?s best friend in those days was a hair dresser named Gertrude Foote, known as Footie asked if she could go along with Lucy back to New York as Lucy was going to work with Hattie Carnegie again. At almost twenty, Lucy lost her awkward leggy look and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God was strikingly attractive. Her hair was a mousy brown and her eyes were an intense blazing blue. A designer, Rose Ruth, who was a favorite at Hattie?s was walking with Lucy when she ran into In A Essay, a friend, Sylvia Hahlo, an actors? agent. Essay God? Sylvia was very impressed with Lucy at various fashion shows and asked her if she would like to go to California. Lucy asked what she would do there. Sylvia told her that James Mulvey, of the Samuel Goldwyn office in new York was seeking models and showgirls for the film Roman Scandals, starring the comedian Eddie Cantor. Planet Comparsion? These girls would be added to the galaxy of beauties known as the ?Goldwyn Girls?, who were chosen for on Eugenics: God, their looks and popularity at In A Hole Essay, the time. While Lucy was hesitating with her decision she was offered a tiny, one-day job as a walk-on in the film Broadway Thru a Keyhole. Sylvia rushed shots of Lucy in the film to Goldwyn. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? The representatives in New York signed her to Down In A Hole, a contract.

But when Goldwyn ran tests on her in Hollywood he didn?t like her at Essay Man versus, all. By chance the of Academic Institutions, dance director, Busby Berkeley who was hired to choreograph the film insisted that Goldwyn hire her. If it hadn?t been for Berkeley, Lucy may have never came to Hollywood. Another break came when a mother of twelve girls refused to let one of her daughters appear in a Hollywood movie. At the same time Lucy was starting out so was Betty Grable. Betty could sing or pretend to Essay Man versus God, quite effectively, but Lucy couldn?t and that made her feel inferior. Examining Predictors Essay? Since Betty was more talented then Lucy, Lucy tried to imitate her by dying her hair blond. When Lucy wasn?t working on a picture she would hang around the set trying to secure better parts for herself.

During this time Lucy was dating Mack Gray a friend of George Raft. Gray was Raft?s bodyguard-companion because Raft was a front man for the Mafia in New York. Raft also lent her money responding to the pleas that she was float broke. He allowed her to ride in his limousine with a chauffeur. Years later she tried to on Eugenics:, repay him but he wouldn?t hear of it.

Roman Scandals was directed by razors, Frank Tuttle in on Eugenics: Man versus, 1933, which Lucy appeared with Kay Harvey. As Kay Harvey remembers one day, I came on communism in the the set one day to find ?Queen Lucy,? as we called her, riding a beautiful brown horse. Essay Man Versus God? She was wearing a scanty costume, with a long blond wig floating around her shoulders. The crew dubbed her Lady Godiva as she elegantly rode that poor, tired horse back and forth before cameras while we were lighted for a shot (Kay Harvey). Kay also remembers that while she was riding she almost accidentally crushed a chorus girl who fell in merger, front of the Essay Man versus, horse. After she completed several more Goldwyn films she was not exactly miserable, but she was not pleased either.

She wasn?t happy with her next film, Blood Money, directed by comparsion, Rowland Brown. After that picture she was loaned to United Artists for Essay on Eugenics:, a tiny part as a chorus girl in the Constance Bennett picture Moulin Rouge. She took no interest in en scene, her next few pictures: Bottoms Up, Hold That Girl, Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back, The Affairs of Cellini, or Kid Millions. Lucy very badly wanted to Essay on Eugenics:, go to Columbia, the studio that specialized in knock about In A Hole Essay comedies. God? She felt that she could grow there.

As an act to get fired she would purposely be late getting to en scene, the set from break time in Kid Millions. Lucy finally got her interview with Harry Cohn at Columbia. The casting director looked at her and decided right on the spot she would be perfect as ?a dumb broad.? Instead of being cast in that feature she was thrown into on Eugenics: Man versus God, a short twenty minute part in Perfectly Mismatched. In 1934, she found a modest frame house located at 1344 North Ogden Drive in planet, Hollywood. She borrowed the God, down payment of $65 from George Raft. She hit rock bottom in planet comparsion, Three Little Pigskins, starring the Three Stooges, whose idea of comedy was tweaking noses, smashing pies into peoples faces, and dumping cans of paint on to people?s heads. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God? She didn?t like this kind of comedy. By this time Lucy was unhappy in Hollywood. Columbia had only signed a contract with her to do bits. She decided to wire her family in Jamestown to tell them to come to Hollywood.

She told them that she had no career and that she was still poor. Examining Predictors Of Academic Success Essay? They packed their bags and were off to live with Lucy. Essay Man Versus God? She sent the fares for everyone and was relieved that Ed Peterson would not be joining then and that her mother and him were divorced. No sooner had the family came that Columbia decided to disbanded the comedy team to mise en scene, do more prestigous films. While Lucy was out taking a walk on the street, she ran into a friend, Dick Gree, who said there was an Essay on Eugenics: Man versus opening for a showgirl at RKO and were paying $50 a week.

RKO needed her to play a model in a fashion show sequence for the Fred Astair/Ginger Rogers picture. Even though she only shadowrun hand razors, had to walk down an Essay Man versus isle wearing ostrich feathers, it was an honor to her to appear in one of their pictures. Emerging at the same time was Lucy?s RKO rival, Betty Grable, who was more talented than her. To compete with her Lucy dyed her hair red. Not knowing what she was doing on March 19, 1936, Lucy registered with the Los Angeles County Registrar of Voters to merger, affiliate with the Communist Party. From this decision, years later during the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, McCarthy era she was put into shadowrun hand razors, the threat of professional ruin and public exposure. She always said that decision was only to Man versus, please her grandfather.

As Lucy managed to obtain a leave from shadowrun hand her contract from RKO she landed a role in a stage musical that was bound for Broadway, Hey Diddle Diddle. On Eugenics: Man Versus? After the communism, opening on January 21, 1937 of Hey Diddle Diddle at Essay, the McCarter Theater in Princeton, New Jersey she received remarks from the Variety saying: ?Miss Ball fattens a fat part and almost walks off with the merger definition, play. She outlines a consistent character and continuously gives it logical substance. Has a sense of timing and, with a few exceptions, keeps her comedy under control.? (Higgings, 43) After the production closed Lucy returned to Hollywood and found herself cast in a movie with exceptional quality, Stage Door. On Eugenics: Man Versus? The director, Gregory La Cava, was an alcoholic and every day the crew wondered if he would mess up the production. It wasn?t until she played in 47 films that she met Desi Arnaz on the set of merger Dance, Girl, Dance in 1940. Desi and Lucy didn?t hit it off at first, but soon they fell in on Eugenics: God, love with each other and Down Essay were married in Greenich, Connecticut. Essay Man Versus God? From 1940 on she continued to play in movies and films.

Sometimes she would be cast with Bob Hope, Henry Fonda, Ginger Rogers, or Katharine Hepburn. Communism In The Us? Her more successful films include: The Big Street, Du Barry Was a Lady, Best Foot Forward, Ziegfeld Follies, and Lured. While Lucy was on tour of Dream Girl the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, cast came down with a virus and could not perform on Christmas 1947. In generosity Lucy paid for planet, the casts hospital bills and wages. By the time she got to southern California for opening night, she too was stricken with the virus. It was of her own will power that she got through her performance on January 5, 1948. Essay Man Versus? The review by planet, the Los Angeles Time?s Edwin Schallert was favorable and he wrote: Here is a young lady of the on Eugenics:, films who could, if she would, have a dazzling footlight career. And what is more‹ though this may be a brash statement to make‹ she is, in a sense, wasting her talents in pictures. . . Miss Ball is a striking presence in the footlight world. She has efficiency as a comedienne. She can tinge a scene delicately with pathos. She has special facility in dealing with sharp-edged repartee.

She apparently never overdoes the communism, sentimental side of on Eugenics: God a role. . . (Higham, 89#038;90). After that review Lucy went on planet comparsion to complete eight more films before the tragic death of a dear friend of hers. In the Essay God, spring of 1951, S. Hand Razors? Sylvan Simon at on Eugenics: Man versus God, the age of forty-one committed suicide for unknown reasons. Lucy told that it was he who inspired the crazy comedy that led to ?I Love Lucy.? Lucy and Desi went on en scene analysis to start their own television series.

They came up with ideas, but television studios would not accept the show. After taking out loans, Lucy and Desi founded ?Desilu Productions.? I Love Lucy became the most popular television series of God its decade running continuously from 1951 to 1957. In 1960, Lucy divorced Desi. Later she became head of two major television companies and did more ?Lucy? series; The Lucy show (1962-69), Here?s Lucy (1968-74), and last and the least successful 1986 series Life with Lucy. On May 10, 1988, after her television career was finished, Lucy woke up and went to the bathroom. Suddenly she felt a heavy object fall into definition, her lap. On Eugenics: God? When she picked it up she realized it was her arm and Essay that she had had a stroke.

Her then husband, Gary rushed her to Essay Man versus God, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and she spent a few hours in intensive care. She was then released and a nurse, Trudi Arcudi moved in with her. For the next few months she worked on her partially paralyzed right side and her speech. After her recovery she was pleased to be invited to appear with Bob Hope at the Oscars in late March 1989 to introduce a salute to young performers. Over the next few weeks she felt tired and sluggish, and one morning she woke up with terrible chest pains. She was driven to the hospital by Gary. There doctors performed a six-and-a-half-hour emergency open-heart surgery to replace a torn section of her aorta and a weakened valve. As people heard about the news they phoned the hospital of her condition. She received flowers and cards by shadowrun, the ton.

As she was making a remarkable recovery she was thrilled to hear about all the cards and calls she had received. Essay? On April 26, 1989, just before she was due to go home, she awoke with a pain in her back. Only Trudi Arcudi was with her as her patched aorta burst and her life came to communism in the us, an end. Now you know the fascinating life Lucille Ball led being one of the most famous women in television history. Man Versus? Although her childhood may be shocking to shadowrun hand, you. It was far from what you think a wonderful lady like her would have been raised. But even the misfortunate live to be extraordinary people. The most important thing to Lucille Ball was that she wanted everyone to love her because she didn?t receive that kind of Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God love as a child.

Lucy did die knowing that everyone loved her after all. On April 26, 1989, the world lost an extremely talented comic genius, Lucille Ball. There are so many things to learn about this extraordinary woman: her childhood, her acting career, and her unfortunate death. Lucille Ball will most surely be known as a premiere comedienne of the 20th century. Lucille Ball was born in Jamestown, New York on August 6, 1911. She spent her first few years in Anaconda, Montana and Wyandotte, Michigan. When Lucy was three and a half her mother, Desiree, was pregnant with her second child and comparsion her father, Had, was stricken with typhoid fever. On February 28, 1915, Had died of his illness.

This left Lucy without a single recollection of Man versus what he was like. Kathleen Brady in her book The Life of Lucille Ball quotes Lucy, I do remember everything that happened. . . hanging out the window, begging to play with the kids next door who had the communism in the, measles. . . the doctor coming, my mother weeping. I remember a bird that flew in on Eugenics: Man versus, the window, a picture that fell off the wall (Brady, 7). Communism In The? That bird became a haunting reminder and decades later stagehands on Essay Man versus God the I Love Lucy show learned never to hand, put birds on Essay Man versus the set; for she would panic in anger. Planet? A month before her fourth birthday on July 3, 1915 her little brother, Fred was born.

A few years later Desiree married again. This time to Ed Peterson on September 17, 1918. Ed did not like children and wouldn’t allow Lucy or Fred to call him ?daddy?. When Lucy was in first grade, Desiree left Lucy with Ed?s parents and Fred with her own. While Lucy was staying with Sophia Peterson, she was ridiculed the way she looked, spoke, and walked. With her long slender legs, her oversized feet, crooked teeth, and a high shrill voice she was easy to mock. Grandma Peterson would dress her in dresses long enough so she would grow into them and Essay on Eugenics: God shoes so hard that they squeaked. Grandma would also part her hair right down the comparsion, middle and pull it back so tightly that she had the Essay Man versus God, look of perpetual shock. Since mirrors encouraged vanity, Sophia banned them, except for one in hand razors, the bathroom where she once found Lucy staring at her face. Lucy was then assigned chores as punishment for her self-importance.

Money was so scarce that she did not have a pencil in school, a shame so searing that in on Eugenics: Man versus God, her forties she hoarded pencils that were meant for shadowrun hand razors, her employees to on Eugenics: God, use. When she was confronted by an executive that asked her where the communism in the, pencils were going she took him to a back closet and showed him the packages of unwrapped pencils. She only surrendered them when he told her that she owned all the pencils in the company and on Eugenics: that she was only stealing from herself. The most important influence on Lucy?s early years was Celeron Park. She would go there with her family and ride on roller coasters or visit the Zoological Garden. In 1919, when Lucy was eight she was known as a hyperactive child. She was afraid of gypsies who set up their camp under the maple trees at the edge of the park every summer. It was said in Celeron that the gypsies would kidnap local children and take them off to their campgrounds. Examining Of Academic Success At Postsecondary Institutions? Then their parents would have to God, pay the gypsies a silver dollar to make them return the kids they had snatched.

One day Lucy came home and In A Hole Essay told that the gypsies took her away to their camp, but she screamed so loud that they were forced to let her go. This caused paranoia in the family. In 1920, she was sent off to study singing, piano, and dancing at the Chautauqua Institute of Man versus God Music. After Lucy came back from school her maternal grandmother, Florabelle, died of cancer of the hand razors, uterus on July 1, 1922. Even though Ed had been cruel and wouldn’t have anything to do with raising Lucy, he encouraged her to perform. Since Ed belonged to the Shriners, he arranged for her to act, dance, and sing at their conventions. In 1923, Ed and on Eugenics: Man versus God Desiree took her to see the celebrated monologist Julius Tannen who was performing in the area. After seeing his performance Lucy said, Tannen was magic. . Mise Analysis? . just this voice, and this magnificent man enthralling you with his stories. . . his intonations. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus? . . which I never, never forgot! He changed my life. I knew it was a very serious, wonderful thing to be able to make people laugh and cry, to Hole Essay, be able to play on their emotions. . . (Higham, 23). Because Lucy was inspired by Tannen she auditioned for and obtained a part in a local musical given by the Masonic Club.

While doing a scene her partner accidentally threw her so violently across the stage that she dislocated her shoulder. For the God, rest of of Academic at Postsecondary Essay example her life she had trouble with that shoulder. On Eugenics: Man Versus? When she was twelve and Down Hole a half she took a bus to New York and Essay on Eugenics: got a job as a chorus girl in the Schubert Musical Stepping Stones. She was soon fired and sent home when her true age was discovered. At the age of 14, Lucy was tall and excessively thin and leggy for merger, her age. She was overly energetic and her friends remember her diving into every activity she could think of from ice-skating to horseback riding. In 1925, she entered Celeron High School.

There she began organizing a dramatic club and a school band. On Eugenics: God? She directed and starred in hand, plays and musicals. On July 3, 1927, it was Fred?s twelfth birthday and the eve of the 4th of July. Grandpa Hunt decided to have a Fourth-of-July-Eve-Party for some of the neighboring children as well as a visiting girl from Essay on Eugenics: a neighboring town, Joanna Ottinger. Grandpa had bought that afternoon a .22 caliber rifle and foolishly gave it to the kids. It had bullets in of Academic, it to practice with in the backyard. Fred fired some shots at a tin can. Essay On Eugenics:? Lucy then followed and finally Joanna picked up the gun. At that exact moment, the eight-year-old son of the next door neighbor, Warner Erickson, ran out from his yard into the line of fire.

Joanna was firing and the bullet from the gun went through Warner?s back and lodged in his left lung. He fell to planet comparsion, the ground screaming and bleeding. His lower limbs, back, and Essay on Eugenics: God arms were paralyzed. Fred Hunt was terrified; he, Lucy, Fred, and Joanna rushed forward to do what they could. Then Erickson?s parents came out hysterical with rage and charged Grandpa with having deliberately telling Joanna to fire at their son. Policed were called and a harrowing ordeal followed.

Warner was hurried to the hospital unable to move. The boy?s father, Einer Erickson, filed a complaint at his attorney?s office, charging Grandpa with deliberately and willfully giving orders to comparsion, kill. Einer was insisting on Essay on Eugenics: God $5,000 so it would fully cover the hospital, legal, and doctor fees. Grandpa was not charged with murder, but he was put in prison until the trial took place. Mise? The trial was a tribulation for everyone in concern, since all the children had to give evidence.

Even thought the Man versus, shooting had been an en scene analysis accident, Grandpa?s irresponsibility was punished appropriately. On Eugenics: God? Since Fred Hunt?s capital was only a few hundred dollars and his only asset was the house, Einer Erickson could not be fully awarded. The house was sold at comparsion, an auction to the highest bidders on September 14, 1928. This left Lucy and her family homeless until they were able to find an apartment. After this inci.

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The Responsibility of Intellectuals. TWENTY-YEARS AGO, Dwight Macdonald published a series of articles in Politics on the responsibility of peoples and, specifically, the responsibility of intellectuals. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God! I read them as an undergraduate, in the years just after the war, and had occasion to read them again a few months ago. They seem to me to have lost none of their power or persuasiveness. Macdonald is concerned with the planet comparsion, question of war guilt. He asks the question: To what extent were the German or Japanese people responsible for the atrocities committed by their governments? And, quite properly, he turns the question back to us: To what extent are the British or American people responsible for the vicious terror bombings of Essay on Eugenics: God civilians, perfected as a technique of warfare by the Western democracies and reaching their culmination in Hiroshima and planet comparsion Nagasaki, surely among the most unspeakable crimes in history. To an undergraduate in on Eugenics: God, 1945-46—to anyone whose political and moral consciousness had been formed by the horrors of the us, 1930s, by Essay on Eugenics: Man versus the war in Ethiopia, the Russian purge, the “China Incident,” the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi atrocities, the Western reaction to these events and, in part, complicity in them—these questions had particular significance and poignancy. With respect to the responsibility of intellectuals, there are still other, equally disturbing questions.

Intellectuals are in a position to expose the lies of communism in the us governments, to analyze actions according to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, their causes and planet comparsion motives and often hidden intentions. In the Western world, at least, they have the power that comes from Essay on Eugenics: political liberty, from Predictors Success Essay access to information and freedom of expression. For a privileged minority, Western democracy provides the leisure, the facilities, and the training to seek the Man versus, truth lying hidden behind the veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and hand razors class interest, through which the events of current history are presented to us. The responsibilities of intellectuals, then, are much deeper than what Macdonald calls the “responsibility of people,” given the unique privileges that intellectuals enjoy. The issues that Macdonald raised are as pertinent today as they were twenty years ago.

We can hardly avoid asking ourselves to what extent the American people bear responsibility for the savage American assault on a largely helpless rural population in Vietnam, still another atrocity in what Asians see as the “Vasco da Gama era” of world history. As for those of us who stood by in silence and apathy as this catastrophe slowly took shape over Essay Man versus the past dozen years—on what page of history do we find our proper place? Only the most insensible can escape these questions. I want to return to them, later on, after a few scattered remarks about the responsibility of intellectuals and how, in practice, they go about meeting this responsibility in the mid-1960s. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of intellectuals to speak the truth and to expose lies. Merger Definition! This, at least, may seem enough of a truism to pass over Man versus without comment. Not so, however. For the razors, modern intellectual, it is not at all obvious. Thus we have Martin Heidegger writing, in Essay Man versus God, a pro-Hitler declaration of 1933, that “truth is the shadowrun hand razors, revelation of that which makes a people certain, clear, and strong in its action and knowledge”; it is Essay on Eugenics:, only this kind of “truth” that one has a responsibility to speak. Americans tend to be more forthright.

When Arthur Schlesinger was asked by The New York Times in November, 1965, to analysis, explain the contradiction between his published account of the Bay of Pigs incident and the story he had given the press at the time of the attack, he simply remarked that he had lied; and a few days later, he went on to compliment the Times for also having suppressed information on the planned invasion, in “the national interest,” as this term was defined by the group of arrogant and deluded men of whom Schlesinger gives such a flattering portrait in his recent account of the Kennedy Administration. On Eugenics: God! It is of no particular interest that one man is definition, quite happy to lie in behalf of a cause which he knows to be unjust; but it is on Eugenics:, significant that such events provoke so little response in the intellectual community—for example, no one has said that there is something strange in the offer of a major chair in In A Essay, the humanities to a historian who feels it to be his duty to persuade the world that an American-sponsored invasion of a nearby country is nothing of the sort. On Eugenics: Man Versus God! And what of the incredible sequence of lies on the part of hand our government and its spokesmen concerning such matters as negotiations in Vietnam? The facts are known to all who care to know. Man Versus! The press, foreign and domestic, has presented documentation to refute each falsehood as it appears. But the planet, power of the on Eugenics: God, government’s propaganda apparatus is such that the citizen who does not undertake a research project on the subject can hardly hope to shadowrun razors, confront government pronouncements with fact. [1] The deceit and distortion surrounding the American invasion of Vietnam is by now so familiar that it has lost its power to shock.

It is Essay Man versus, therefore useful to recall that although new levels of cynicism are constantly being reached, their clear antecedents were accepted at home with quiet toleration. It is a useful exercise to compare Government statements at the time of the invasion of Guatemala in 1954 with Eisenhower’s admission—to be more accurate, his boast—a decade later that American planes were sent “to help the invaders” ( New York Times , October 14, 1965). Nor is it only in moments of crisis that duplicity is mise en scene analysis, considered perfectly in order. On Eugenics: God! “New Frontiersmen,” for example, have scarcely distinguished themselves by a passionate concern for historical accuracy, even when they are not being called upon to provide a “propaganda cover” for comparsion, ongoing actions. For example, Arthur Schlesinger ( New York Times , February 6, 1966) describes the bombing of North Vietnam and the massive escalation of military commitment in early 1965 as based on a “perfectly rational argument”: so long as the Essay, Vietcong thought they were going to win the war, they obviously would not be interested in any kind of negotiated settlement. The date is important. Had this statement been made six months earlier, one could attribute it to ignorance. But this statement appeared after the UN, North Vietnamese, and Soviet initiatives had been front-page news for months. It was already public knowledge that these initiatives had preceeded the escalation of February 1965 and, in in the us, fact, continued for several weeks after the bombing began.

Correspondents in Washington tried desperately to find some explanation for on Eugenics: God, the startling deception that had been revealed. Chalmers Roberts, for example, wrote in merger, the Boston Globe on November 19 with unconscious irony: [late February, 1965] hardly seemed to Washington to be a propitious moment for negotiations [since] Mr. On Eugenics: Man Versus God! Johnson…had just ordered the first bombing of Examining Predictors of Academic Institutions Essay example North Vietnam in an effort to bring Hanoi to a conference table where the bargaining chips on both sides would be more closely matched. Coming at that moment, Schlesinger’s statement is less an example of deceit than of contempt—contempt for an audience that can be expected to tolerate such behavior with silence, if not approval. [2] TO TURN TO SOMEONE closer to on Eugenics:, the actual formation and implementation of policy, consider some of the mise analysis, reflections of Walt Rostow, a man who, according to Schlesinger, brought a “spacious historical view” to the conduct of foreign affairs in the Kennedy administration. [3] According to Man versus God, his analysis, the guerrilla warfare in en scene, Indo-China in 1946 was launched by Stalin, [4] and on Eugenics: Man versus Hanoi initiated the communism, guerrilla war against South Vietnam in 1958 ( The View from the Seventh Floor pp. 39 and 152). Similarly, the Communist planners probed the “free world spectrum of defense” in Northern Azerbaijan and Greece (where Stalin “supported substantial guerrilla warfare”— ibid ., pp. 36 and 148), operating from plans carefully laid in 1945.

And in Essay Man versus, Central Europe, the Soviet Union was not “prepared to accept a solution which would remove the dangerous tensions from Central Europe at the risk of even slowly staged corrosion of merger Communism in East Germany” ( ibid ., p. 156). It is interesting to compare these observations with studies by scholars actually concerned with historical events. Essay Man Versus God! The remark about Stalin’s initiating the Down Hole Essay, first Vietnamese war in 1946 does not even merit refutation. As to Hanoi’s purported initiative of 1958, the situation is more clouded. But even government sources [5] concede that in 1959 Hanoi received the first direct reports of what Diem referred to [6] as his own Algerian war and Essay on Eugenics: God that only after this did they lay their plans to communism us, involve themselves in this struggle. In fact, in December, 1958, Hanoi made another of its many attempts—rebuffed once again by Essay God Saigon and the United States—to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with the Saigon government on en scene analysis, the basis of the status quo. Man Versus God! [7] Rostow offers no evidence of Stalin’s support for the Greek guerrillas; in fact, though the Examining of Academic Success Institutions, historical record is far from clear, it seems that Stalin was by Man versus God no means pleased with the adventurism of the Greek guerrillas, who, from his point of view, were upsetting the satisfactory post-war imperialist settlement. [8] Rostow’s remarks about In A Hole Essay, Germany are more interesting still. He does not see fit to mention, for Essay Man versus God, example, the Russian notes of razors March-April, 1952, which proposed unification of Germany under internationally supervised elections, with withdrawal of on Eugenics: God all troops within a year, if there was a guarantee that a reunified Germany would not be permitted to join a Western military alliance. [9] And he has also momentarily forgotten his own characterization of the Down, strategy of the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, Truman and Eisenhower administrations: “to avoid any serious negotiation with the Soviet Union until the Examining Predictors Success at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example, West could confront Moscow with German rearmament within an organized European framework, as a fait accompli “ [10] —to be sure, in Essay on Eugenics:, defiance of the Potsdam agreements. But most interesting of Examining Predictors of Academic Essay all is Rostow’s reference to Iran.

The facts are that there was a Russian attempt to impose by Essay God force a pro-Soviet government in Northern Azerbaijan that would grant the Soviet Union access to Iranian oil. This was rebuffed by superior Anglo-American force in 1946, at shadowrun razors which point the more powerful imperialism obtained full rights to Iranian oil for itself, with the Essay on Eugenics: God, installation of a pro-Western government. We recall what happened when, for a brief period in the early 1950s, the only Iranian government with something of a popular base experimented with the curious idea that Iranian oil should belong to the Iranians. What is interesting, however, is the description of Northern Azerbaijan as part of “the free world spectrum of defense.” It is pointless, by razors now, to comment on the debasement of the phrase “free world.” But by on Eugenics: Man versus what law of nature does Iran, with its resources, fall within Western dominion? The bland assumption that it does is most revealing of deep-seated attitudes toward the conduct of foreign affairs. IN ADDITION to hand razors, this growing lack of concern for truth, we find, in recent published statements, a real or feigned naivete about American actions that reaches startling proportions.

For example, Arthur Schlesinger, according to the Times , February 6, 1966, characterized our Vietnamese policies of 1954 as “part of our general program of international goodwill.” Unless intended as irony, this remark shows either a colossal cynicism, or the inability, on a scale that defies measurement, to comprehend elementary phenomena of contemporary history. Similarly, what is one to make of the testimony of Essay God Thomas Schelling before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, January 27, 1965, in which he discusses two great dangers if all Asia “goes Communist”? [11] First, this would exclude “the United States and what we call Western civilization from a large part of the world that is poor and colored and potentially hostile.” Second, “a country like the United States probably cannot maintain self-confidence if just about the greatest thing it ever attempted, namely to create the basis for decency and prosperity and democratic government in the underdeveloped world, had to be acknowledged as a failure or as an attempt that we wouldn’t try again.” It surpasses belief that a person with even a minimal acquaintance with the record of planet American foreign policy could produce such statements. It surpasses belief, that is, unless we look at on Eugenics: God the matter from a more historical point of shadowrun view, and place such statements in the context of the hypocritical moralism of the past; for example, of Woodrow Wilson, who was going to teach the Latin Americans the art of good government, and who wrote (1902) that it is “our peculiar duty” to teach colonial peoples “order and self-control…[and]…the drill and habit of law and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God obedience….” Or of the missionaries of the 1840s, who described the hideous and degrading opium wars as “the result of a great design of Providence to comparsion, make the wickedness of men subserve his purposes of mercy toward China, in breaking through her wall of Essay on Eugenics: Man versus exclusion, and bringing the empire into more immediate contact with western and Christian nations.” Or, to approach the present, of A.A. Berle, who, in shadowrun razors, commenting on the Dominican intervention, has the impertinence to attribute the on Eugenics: Man versus, problems of the Caribbean countries to imperialism— Russian imperialism. [12] AS A FINAL EXAMPLE of this failure of of Academic Success at Postsecondary Essay skepticism, consider the remarks of Henry Kissinger in his concluding remarks at Essay on Eugenics: the Harvard-Oxford television debate on America’s Vietnam policies. He observed, rather sadly, that what disturbs him most is that others question not our judgment, but our motives—a remarkable comment by a man whose professional concern is political analysis, that is, analysis of the actions of communism in the governments in terms of motives that are unexpressed in official propaganda and perhaps only dimly perceived by on Eugenics: Man versus God those whose acts they govern. Mise Analysis! No one would be disturbed by an analysis of the political behavior of the Russians, French, or Tanzanians questioning their motives and interpreting their actions by the long-range interests concealed behind their official rhetoric.

But it is an Essay article of faith that American motives are pure, and communism in the us not subject to analysis (see note 1 ). Although it is nothing new in American intellectual history—or, for Essay Man versus God, that matter, in the general history of imperialist apologia—this innocence becomes increasingly distasteful as the planet, power it serves grows more dominant in God, world affairs, and merger more capable, therefore, of the unconstrained viciousness that the mass media present to us each day. We are hardly the first power in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, history to combine material interests, great technological capacity, and an utter disregard for the suffering and misery of the lower orders. The long tradition of naivete and self-righteousness that disfigures our intellectual history, however, must serve as a warning to the third world, if such a warning is needed, as to how our protestations of sincerity and en scene benign intent are to be interpreted. The basic assumptions of the “New Frontiersmen” should be pondered carefully by those who look forward to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, the involvement of academic intellectuals in politics. Planet Comparsion! For example, I have referred above to Essay God, Arthur Schlesinger’s objections to shadowrun hand, the Bay of Man versus Pigs invasion, but the mise en scene, reference was imprecise. True, he felt that it was a “terrible idea,” but “not because the notion of sponsoring an exile attempt to overthrow Castro seemed intolerable in itself.” Such a reaction would be the merest sentimentality, unthinkable to a tough-minded realist. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! The difficulty, rather, was that it seemed unlikely that the en scene, deception could succeed. The operation, in his view, was ill-conceived but not otherwise objectionable. [13] In a similar vein, Schlesinger quotes with approval Kennedy’s “realistic” assessment of the situation resulting from Trujillo’s assassination:

There are three possibilities in descending order of Essay preference: a decent democratic regime, a continuation of the Trujillo regime or a Castro regime. We ought to aim at the first, but we really can’t renounce the second until we are sure that we can avoid the third [p. 769]. The reason why the third possibility is merger definition, so intolerable is explained a few pages later (p. 774): “Communist success in Latin America would deal a much harder blow to the power and influence of the God, United States.” Of course, we can never really be sure of avoiding the third possibility; therefore, in practice, we will always settle for the second, as we are now doing in Brazil and planet comparsion Argentina, for on Eugenics: Man versus, example. [14] Or consider Walt Rostow’s views on American policy in Asia. [15] The basis on shadowrun, which we must build this policy is that “we are openly threatened and Man versus we feel menaced by Communist China.” To prove that we are menaced is in the, of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in Essay Man versus God, good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and in the us their power on this continent,” making use of on Eugenics: Man versus God “the somewhat elastic concept of the Monroe doctrine” and, of course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands…. Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of post-war occupation…represented the formulation of American security interests in Europe and Asia.” So much for planet, our heritage. As to our interests, the matter is equally simple. Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and strengthen those elements in their respective cultures that elevate and protect the dignity of the Essay God, individual against the state.” At the same time, we must counter the “ideological threat,” namely “the possibility that the Chinese Communists can prove to planet, Asians by progress in China that Communist methods are better and faster than democratic methods.” Nothing is said about those people in Essay, Asian cultures to whom our “conception of the proper relation of the individual to the state” may not be the shadowrun hand razors, uniquely important value, people who might, for on Eugenics: Man versus God, example, be concerned with preserving the Down Hole Essay, “dignity of the individual” against concentrations of foreign or domestic capital, or against semi-feudal structures (such as Trujillo-type dictatorships) introduced or kept in power by American arms.

All of on Eugenics: this is shadowrun razors, flavored with allusions to “our religious and ethical value systems” and to our “diffuse and complex concepts” which are to the Asian mind “so much more difficult to grasp” than Marxist dogma, and are so “disturbing to some Asians” because of “their very lack of dogmatism.” Such intellectual contributions as these suggest the need for on Eugenics: Man versus, a correction to Predictors Institutions example, De Gaulle’s remark, in his Memoirs , about the American “will to power, cloaking itself in Essay on Eugenics: God, idealism.” By now, this will to Examining Success at Postsecondary Institutions, power is not so much cloaked in idealism as it is Essay on Eugenics: God, drowned in fatuity. And academic intellectuals have made their unique contribution to this sorry picture. LET US, HOWEVER, RETURN to the war in Vietnam and comparsion the response that it has aroused among American intellectuals. A striking feature of the recent debate on on Eugenics: Man versus, Southeast Asian policy has been the distinction that is commonly drawn between “responsible criticism,” on communism in the, the one hand, and “sentimental,” or “emotional,” or “hysterical” criticism, on Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, the other. There is much to be learned from a careful study of the merger definition, terms in which this distinction is drawn. The “hysterical critics” are to be identified, apparently, by their irrational refusal to accept one fundamental political axiom, namely that the United States has the right to extend its power and control without limit, insofar as is feasible. Responsible criticism does not challenge this assumption, but argues, rather, that we probably can’t “get away with it” at this particular time and place. A distinction of this sort seems to be what Irving Kristol, for example, has in Man versus, mind in Predictors of Academic Success at Postsecondary Institutions Essay, his analysis of the protest over Vietnam policy ( Encounter , August, 1965). He contrasts the Essay God, responsible critics, such as Walter Lippmann, the Times , and Senator Fulbright, with the Hole, “teach-in movement.” “Unlike the university protesters,” he points out, “Mr.

Lippmann engages in no presumptuous suppositions as to ‘what the Vietnamese people really want’—he obviously doesn’t much care—or in legalistic exegesis as to whether, or to what extent, there is ‘aggression’ or ‘revolution’ in South Vietnam. His is on Eugenics:, a realpolitik point of hand razors view; and he will apparently even contemplate the possibility of a nuclear war against China in extreme circumstances.” This is commendable, and contrasts favorably, for God, Kristol, with the talk of the “unreasonable, ideological types” in the teach-in movement, who often seem to merger definition, be motivated by such absurdities as “simple, virtuous ‘anti-imperialism,’ “who deliver “harangues on Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, ‘the power structure,’ ” and who even sometimes stoop so low as to read “articles and reports from the foreign press on the American presence in in the us, Vietnam.” Furthermore, these nasty types are often psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, or philosophers (just as, incidentally, those most vocal in protest in the Soviet Union are generally physicists, literary intellectuals, and Essay Man versus others remote from the exercise of power), rather than people with Washington contacts, who, of course, realize that “had they a new, good idea about Vietnam, they would get a prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington. I am not interested here in whether Kristol’s characterization of protest and dissent is accurate, but rather in the assumptions on which it rests. Down Essay! Is the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, purity of American motives a matter that is beyond discussion, or that is irrelevant to discussion? Should decisions be left to “experts” with Washington contacts—even if we assume that they command the necessary knowledge and principles to make the “best” decision, will they invariably do so?

And, a logically prior question, is “expertise” applicable—that is, is there a body of theory and of relevant information, not in the public domain, that can be applied to the analysis of foreign policy or that demonstrates the In A Hole Essay, correctness of God present actions in some way that psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, and philosophers are incapable of comprehending? Although Kristol does not examine these questions directly, his attitude presupposes answers, answers which are wrong in all cases. Definition! American aggressiveness, however it may be masked in pious rhetoric, is a dominant force in Essay Man versus God, world affairs and must be analyzed in terms of its causes and motives. There is no body of theory or significant body of relevant information, beyond the comprehension of the layman, which makes policy immune from criticism. To the extent that “expert knowledge” is applied to world affairs, it is surely appropriate—for a person of any integrity, quite necessary—to question its quality and the goals it serves. These facts seem too obvious to require extended discussion. A CORRECTIVE to Kristol’s curious belief in the Administration’s openness to new thinking about Down In A Hole Essay, Vietnam is provided by McGeorge Bundy in Essay Man versus God, a recent issue of Foreign Affairs (January, 1967). As Bundy correctly observes, “on the main stage…the argument on communism us, Viet Nam turns on tactics, not fundamentals,” although, he adds, “there are wild men in the wings.” On stage center are, of course, the President (who in his recent trip to Asia had just “magisterially reaffirmed” our interest “in the progress of the people across the Pacific”) and his advisers, who deserve “the understanding support of those who want restraint.” It is these men who deserve the credit for the fact that “the bombing of the North has been the Essay God, most accurate and the most restrained in Down Hole Essay, modern warfare”—a solicitude which will be appreciated by the inhabitants, or former inhabitants of Nam Dinh and Phu Ly and Vinh.

It is these men, too, who deserve the credit for Essay God, what was reported by Malcolm Browne as long ago as May, 1965: In the South, huge sectors of the nation have been declared “free bombing zones,” in which anything that moves is a legitimate target. Tens of thousands of tons of bombs, rockets, napalm and cannon fire are poured into these vast areas each week. If only by the laws of chance, bloodshed is believed to be heavy in these raids. Fortunately for the developing countries, Bundy assures us, “American democracy has no taste for imperialism,” and “taken as a whole, the stock of merger American experience, understanding, sympathy and on Eugenics: Man versus simple knowledge is now much the most impressive in the world.” It is true that “four-fifths of all the foreign investing in the world is now done by Americans” and that “the most admired plans and policies…are no better than their demonstrable relation to the American interest”—just as it is planet comparsion, true, so we read in the same issue of Foreign Affairs , that the plans for armed action against Cuba were put into motion a few weeks after Mikoyan visited Havana, “invading what had so long been an almost exclusively American sphere of influence.” Unfortunately, such facts as these are often taken by unsophisticated Asian intellectuals as indicating a “taste for imperialism.” For example, a number of Indians have expressed their “near exasperation” at the fact that “we have done everything we can to attract foreign capital for fertilizer plants, but the American and the other Western private companies know we are over a barrel, so they demand stringent terms which we just cannot meet” ( Christian Science Monitor , November 26), while “Washington…doggedly insists that deals be made in on Eugenics: Man versus, the private sector with private enterprise” ( ibid ., December 5). [16] But this reaction, no doubt, simply reveals, once again, how the Asian mind fails to comprehend the “diffuse and complex concepts” of Western thought.

IT MAY BE USEFUL to study carefully the “new, good ideas about Vietnam” that are receiving a “prompt and shadowrun hand respectful hearing” in Washington these days. The US Government Printing Office is an endless source of insight into the moral and intellectual level of this expert advice. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God! In its publications one can read, for example, the testimony of Professor David N. Rowe, Director of Graduate Studies in mise analysis, International Relations at Yale University, before the House Committee on Essay on Eugenics: God, Foreign Affairs (see note 11 ). Professor Rowe proposes (p. 266) that the United States buy all surplus Canadian and Australian wheat, so that there will be mass starvation in China. These are his words: Mind you, I am not talking about this as a weapon against definition the Chinese people. Essay On Eugenics:! It will be. Examining At Postsecondary Essay Example! But that is Essay Man versus, only incidental. The weapon will be a weapon against communism us the Government because the internal stability of that country cannot be sustained by an unfriendly Government in the face of general starvation. Professor Rowe will have none of the God, sentimental moralism that might lead one to compare this suggestion with, say, the Ostpolitik of Hitler’s Germany. [17] Nor does he fear the impact of such policies on planet comparsion, other Asian nations, for Essay God, example, Japan. Planet! He assures us, from his “very long acquaintance with Japanese questions,” that “the Japanese above all are people who respect power and determination.” Hence “they will not be so much alarmed by American policy in Vietnam that takes off from a position of power and God intends to seek a solution based upon the imposition of our power upon local people that we are in Examining Predictors of Academic Essay example, opposition to.” What would disturb the Japanese is “a policy of indecision, a policy of refusal to face up to the problems [in China and Vietnam] and to meet our responsibilities there in a positive way,” such as the Essay on Eugenics: God, way just cited.

A conviction that we were “unwilling to use the power that they know we have” might “alarm the Japanese people very intensely and shake the degree of en scene analysis their friendly relations with us.” In fact, a full use of American power would be particularly reassuring to Man versus God, the Japanese, because they have had a demonstration “of the tremendous power in action of the United States…because they have felt our power directly.” This is surely a prime example of the healthy, “ realpolitik point of view” that Irving Kristol so much admires. But, one may ask, why restrict ourselves to such indirect means as mass starvation? Why not bombing? No doubt this message is implicit in the remarks to the same committee of the Reverend R.J. de Jaegher, Regent of the Institute of planet Far Eastern Studies, Seton Hall University, who explains that like all people who have lived under Communism, the North Vietnamese “would be perfectly happy to be bombed to be free” (p. 345). Of course, there must be those who support the Communists. But this is really a matter of small concern, as the Hon Walter Robertson, Assistant Secretary of Essay on Eugenics: God State for Far Eastern Affairs from 1953-59, points out in his testimony before the same committee. He assures us that “The Peiping regime…represents something less than 3 per cent of the population” (p. Communism Us! 402). Consider, then, how fortunate the Essay on Eugenics: God, Chinese Communist leaders are, compared to the leaders of the Vietcong, who, according to Arthur Goldberg ( New York Times , February 6, 1966), represent about “one-half of one percent of the population of South Vietnam,” that is, about one-half the number of new Southern recruits for the Vietcong during 1965, if we can credit Pentagon statistics. [18] In the planet comparsion, face of such experts as these, the scientists and philosophers of whom Kristol speaks would clearly do well to continue to draw their circles in the sand.

HAVING SETTLED THE ISSUE of the political irrelevance of the protest movement, Kristol turns to the question of what motivates it—more generally, what has made students and junior faculty “go left,” as he sees it, amid general prosperity and under liberal, Welfare State administrations. This, he notes, “is a riddle to which no sociologist has as yet come up with an answer.” Since these young people are well-off, have good futures, etc., their protest must be irrational. It must be the result of boredom, of too much security, or something of this sort. Other possibilities come to mind. It may be, for example, that as honest men the Essay on Eugenics:, students and junior faculty are attempting to find out the truth for shadowrun hand razors, themselves rather than ceding the responsibility to “experts” or to government; and it may be that they react with indignation to what they discover. These possibilities Kristol does not reject.

They are simply unthinkable, unworthy of consideration. More accurately, these possibilities are inexpressible; the categories in which they are formulated (honesty, indignation) simply do not exist for on Eugenics: Man versus, the tough-minded social scientist. IN THIS IMPLICIT DISPARAGEMENT of traditional intellectual values, Kristol reflects attitudes that are fairly widespread in academic circles. I do not doubt that these attitudes are in part a consequence of the desperate attempt of the social and behavioral sciences to imitate the surface features of sciences that really have significant intellectual content. But they have other sources as well. Anyone can be a moral individual, concerned with human rights and problems; but only a college professor, a trained expert, can solve technical problems by “sophisticated” methods. Ergo, it is only problems of the latter sort that are important or real. Responsible, non-ideological experts will give advice on tactical questions; irresponsible, “ideological types” will “harangue” about principle and trouble themselves over moral issues and human rights, or over the traditional problems of at Postsecondary man and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God society, concerning which “social and behavioral science” has nothing to Hole Essay, offer beyond trivalities. Obviously, these emotional, ideological types are irrational, since, being well-off and having power in their grasp, they shouldn’t worry about Essay God, such matters.

At times this pseudo-scientific posing reaches levels that are almost pathological. Consider the phenomenon of Herman Kahn, for merger, example. Kahn has been both denounced as immoral and lauded for his courage. By people who should know better, his On Thermonuclear War has been described “without qualification…[as]…one of the great works of our time” (Stuart Hughes). The fact of the matter is that this is on Eugenics: Man versus God, surely one of the merger, emptiest works of our time, as can be seen by applying to it the intellectual standards of any existing discipline, by tracing some of its “well-documented conclusions” to Essay God, the “objective studies” from which they derive, and by following the line of argument, where detectable. Kahn proposes no theories, no explanations, no factual assumptions that can be tested against their consequences, as do the sciences he is merger definition, attempting to mimic.

He simply suggests a terminology and provides a facade of rationality. When particular policy conclusions are drawn, they are supported only by ex cathedra remarks for which no support is even suggested (e.g., “The civil defense line probably should be drawn somewhere below $5 billion annually” to keep from provoking the Russians—why not $50 billion, or $5.00?). What is more, Kahn is quite aware of this vacuity; in his more judicious moments he claims only that “there is no reason to believe that relatively sophisticated models are more likely to be misleading than the simpler models and analogies frequently used as an aid to judgment.” For those whose humor tends towards the macabre, it is on Eugenics: Man versus, easy to play the game of “strategic thinking” a la Kahn, and to prove what one wishes. For example, one of Kahn’s basic assumptions is that. an all-out surprise attack in which all resources are devoted to counter-value targets would be so irrational that, barring an hand razors incredible lack of sophistication or actual insanity among Soviet decision makers, such an Essay attack is highly unlikely. A simple argument proves the opposite. Premise 1: American decision-makers think along the lines outlined by Herman Kahn. Premise 2 : Kahn thinks it would be better for everyone to be red than for everyone to analysis, be dead. Premise 3 : if the Americans were to respond to an all-out countervalue attack, then everyone would be dead. Conclusion : the Americans will not respond to an all-out countervalue attack, and therefore it should be launched without delay. Of course, one can carry the argument a step further.

Fact : the Russians have not carried out an all-out countervalue attack. It follows that they are not rational. If they are not rational, there is no point in Essay on Eugenics: God, “strategic thinking.” Therefore,…. Of course this is all nonsense, but nonsense that differs from Kahn’s only in the respect that the in the, argument is of slightly greater complexity than anything to on Eugenics:, be discovered in his work. Down In A Hole! What is Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, remarkable is communism, that serious people actually pay attention to these absurdities, no doubt because of the facade of tough-mindedness and pseudo-science. IT IS A CURIOUS and depressing fact that the “anti-war movement” falls prey all too often to similar confusions. In the fall of 1965, for example, there was an on Eugenics: International Conference on planet comparsion, Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam, which circulated a pamphlet to potential participants stating its assumptions. The plan was to Essay God, set up study groups in which three “types of intellectual tradition” will be represented: (1) area specialists; (2) “social theory, with special emphasis on theories of the international system, of social change and development, of conflict and conflict resolution, or of revolution”; (3) “the analysis of public policy in terms of basic human values, rooted in various theological, philosophical and humanist traditions.” The second intellectual tradition will provide “general propositions, derived from social theory and tested against historical, comparative, or experimental data”; the third “will provide the framework out of which fundamental value questions can be raised and in terms of which the moral implications of shadowrun societal actions can be analyzed.” The hope was that “by approaching the questions [of Vietnam policy] from the moral perspectives of Essay Man versus God all great religions and philosophical systems, we may find solutions that are more consistent with fundamental human values than current American policy in Vietnam has turned out to be.” In short, the experts on values (i.e., spokesmen for the great religions and philosophical systems) will provide fundamental insights on moral perspectives, and the experts on planet, social theory will provide general empirically validated propositions and “general models of conflict.” From this interplay, new policies will emerge, presumably from Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God application of the Predictors of Academic at Postsecondary Institutions Essay, canons of scientific method.

The only debatable issue, it seems to me, is whether it is more ridiculous to turn to experts in social theory for general well-confirmed propositions, or to the specialists in the great religions and philosophical systems for insights into fundamental human values. There is much more that can be said about this topic, but, without continuing, I would simply like to emphasize that, as is Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, no doubt obvious, the cult of the experts is both self-serving, for those who propound it, and fraudulent. Obviously, one must learn from razors social and behavioral science whatever one can; obviously, these fields should be pursued as seriously as possible. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! But it will be quite unfortunate, and highly dangerous, if they are not accepted and judged on their merits and according to their actual, not pretended, accomplishments. In particular, if there is a body of theory, well-tested and verified, that applies to the conduct of foreign affairs or the resolution of domestic or international conflict, its existence has been kept a well-guarded secret. In the case of Vietnam, if those who feel themselves to be experts have access to principles or information that would justify what the American government is doing in that unfortunate country, they have been singularly ineffective in comparsion, making this fact known. To anyone who has any familiarity with the social and behavioral sciences (or the “policy sciences”), the Essay on Eugenics:, claim that there are certain considerations and principles too deep for the outsider to comprehend is simply an absurdity, unworthy of comment. WHEN WE CONSIDER the responsibility of intellectuals, our basic concern must be their role in the creation and analysis of ideology. And, in fact, Kristol’s contrast between the unreasonable ideological types and the responsible experts is formulated in terms that immediately bring to mise analysis, mind Daniel Bell’s interesting and Essay Man versus God influential “The End of Ideology,” an essay which is as important for what it leaves unsaid as for its actual content. [19] Bell presents and discusses the Marxist analysis of ideology as a mask for class interest, quoting Marx’s well-known description of the belief of the bourgeoisie “that the special conditions of its emancipation are the general conditions through which alone modern society can be saved and the class struggle avoided.” He then argues that the age of ideology is en scene analysis, ended, supplanted, at least in the West, by a general agreement that each issue must be settled in its own terms, within the framework of a Welfare State in which, presumably, experts in the conduct of public affairs will have a prominent role.

Bell is quite careful, however, to characterize the precise sense of on Eugenics: Man versus God “ideology” in which “ideologies are exhausted.” He is referring to ideology only mise, as “the conversion of ideas into social levers,” to ideology as “a set of on Eugenics: Man versus God beliefs, infused with passion,…[which] …seeks to transform the whole of a way of life.” The crucial words are “transform” and “convert into social levers.” Intellectuals in the West, he argues, have lost interest in converting ideas into social levers for the radical transformation of society. Now that we have achieved the Hole Essay, pluralistic society of the Welfare State, they see no further need for a radical transformation of society; we may tinker with our way of God life here and there, but it would be wrong to in the, try to Essay, modify it in shadowrun razors, any significant way. With this consensus of intellectuals, ideology is dead. There are several striking facts about Bell’s essay. First, he does not point out the extent to which this consensus of the intellectuals is self-serving. He does not relate his observation that, by and large, intellectuals have lost interest in “transforming the whole of a way of life” to the fact that they play an increasingly prominent role in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, running the us, Welfare State; he does not relate their general satisfaction with the Welfare State to the fact that, as he observes elsewhere, “America has become an Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God affluent society, offering place…and prestige…to the Examining Predictors of Academic Success at Postsecondary example, onetime radicals.” Secondly, he offers no serious argument to show that intellectuals are somehow “right” or “objectively justified” in reaching the consensus to which he alludes, with its rejection of the notion that society should be transformed. Indeed, although Bell is fairly sharp about the empty rhetoric of the “new left,” he seems to have a quite utopian faith that technical experts will be able to cope with the few problems that still remain; for example, the fact that labor is treated as a commodity, and the problems of “alienation.” It seems fairly obvious that the classical problems are very much with us; one might plausibly argue that they have even been enhanced in severity and scale. For example, the classical paradox of poverty in Essay on Eugenics: God, the midst of Success Institutions Essay example plenty is Essay Man versus God, now an merger definition ever-increasing problem on an international scale. Whereas one might conceive, at least in Man versus, principle, of a solution within national boundaries, a sensible idea of transforming international society to cope with vast and perhaps increasing human misery is hardly likely to develop within the framework of the intellectual consensus that Bell describes.

THUS IT WOULD SEEM NATURAL to describe the consensus of In A Hole Bell’s intellectuals in somewhat different terms from his. Using the terminology of the first part of Essay his essay, we might say that the Welfare State technician finds justification for In A, his special and prominent social status in his “science,” specifically, in the claim that social science can support a technology of social tinkering on Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, a domestic or international scale. He then takes a further step, ascribing in a familiar way a universal validity to what is in fact a class interest: he argues that the special conditions on which his claim to power and authority are based are, in fact, the only general conditions by which modern society can be saved; that social tinkering within a Welfare State framework must replace the commitment to the “total ideologies” of the past, ideologies which were concerned with a transformation of society. Having found his position of power, having achieved security and affluence, he has no further need for comparsion, ideologies that look to radical change. The scholar-expert replaces the “free-floating intellectual” who “felt that the wrong values were being honored, and rejected the society,” and who has now lost his political role (now, that is, that the right values are being honored). Conceivably, it is correct that the technical experts who will (or hope to) manage the “industrial society” will be able to cope with the classical problems without a radical transformation of society. It is conceivably true that the bourgeoisie was right in regarding the special conditions of its emancipation as the only general conditions by which modern society would be saved. In either case, an argument is in order, and Man versus skepticism is justified when none appears. Within the same framework of general utopianism, Bell goes on to pose the issue between Welfare State scholar-experts and third-world ideologists in razors, a rather curious way. He points out, quite correctly, that there is no issue of Essay Man versus Communism, the content of that doctrine having been “long forgotten by friends and foes alike.” Rather, he says,

the question is an older one: whether new societies can grow by building democratic institutions and allowing people to make choices—and sacrifices—voluntarily, or whether the new elites, heady with power, will impose totalitarian means to transform their societies. THE QUESTION is an interesting one. It is odd, however, to see it referred to as “an older one.” Surely he cannot be suggesting that the mise en scene analysis, West chose the democratic way—for example, that in England during the Man versus God, industrial revolution, the farmers voluntarily made the choice of leaving the land, giving up cottage industry, becoming an industrial proletariat, and voluntarily decided, within the framework of the In A Essay, existing democratic institutions, to make the Essay on Eugenics:, sacrifices that are graphically described in the classic literature on nineteenth-century industrial society. One may debate the question whether authoritarian control is comparsion, necessary to permit capital accumulation in the underdeveloped world, but the Man versus God, Western model of development is hardly one that we can point to with any pride. It is perhaps not surprising to find Walt Rostow referring to “the more humane processes [of industrialization] that Western values would suggest” ( An American Policy in Asia ). In A! Those who have a serious concern for on Eugenics: Man versus, the problems that face backward countries, and for the role that advanced industrial societies might, in principle, play in development and modernization, must use somewhat more care in interpreting the significance of the Western experience. Returning to the quite appropriate question, whether “new societies can grow by building democratic institutions” or only by totalitarian means, I think that honesty requires us to recognize that this question must be directed more to American intellectuals than to third-world ideologists. The backward countries have incredible, perhaps insurmountable problems, and In A few available options; the Man versus God, United States has a wide range of In A Hole Essay options, and has the economic and technological resources, though, evidently, neither the intellectual nor moral resources, to confront at least some of these problems. It is easy for an American intellectual to God, deliver homilies on shadowrun hand, the virtues of freedom and liberty, but if he is really concerned about, say, Chinese totalitarianism or the burdens imposed on the Chinese peasantry in forced industrialization, then he should face a task that is infinitely more important and challenging—the task of creating, in the United States, the intellectual and moral climate, as well as the on Eugenics: Man versus, social and economic conditions, that would permit this country to participate in hand, modernization and development in a way commensurate with its material wealth and technical capacity. Large capital gifts to Cuba and China might not succeed in God, alleviating the authoritarianism and terror that tend to accompany early stages of capital accumulation, but they are far more likely to have this effect than lectures on democratic values. It is possible that even without “capitalist encirclement” in analysis, its various manifestations, the truly democratic elements in revolutionary movements—in some instances, soviets and collectives—might be undermined by an “elite” of bureaucrats and technical intelligentsia.

But it is almost certain that capitalist encirclement itself, which all revolutionary movements now have to face, will guarantee this result. The lesson, for those who are concerned to strengthen the democratic, spontaneous, and popular elements in developing societies, is quite clear. Man Versus! Lectures on in the, the two-party system, or even on the really substantial democratic values that have been in part realized in Western society, are a monstrous irrelevance, given the effort required to raise the level of culture in Western society to the point where it can provide a “social lever” for both economic development and the development of true democratic institutions in the third world—and, for that matter, at home. A GOOD CASE CAN BE MADE for Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, the conclusion that there is indeed something of a consensus among intellectuals who have already achieved power and affluence, or who sense that they can achieve them by “accepting society” as it is and promoting the values that are “being honored” in this society. It is also true that this consensus is most noticeable among the scholar-experts who are replacing the free-floating intellectuals of the past. In the university, these scholar-experts construct a “value-free technology” for the solution of technical problems that arise in contemporary society, [20] taking a “responsible stance” towards these problems, in the sense noted earlier. This consensus among the responsible scholar-experts is the domestic analogue to that proposed, internationally, by those who justify the application of American power in Asia, whatever the human cost, on the grounds that it is necessary to contain the Hole, “expansion of Essay China” (an “expansion” which is, to be sure, hypothetical for the time being) [21] —that is, to translate from State Department Newspeak, on the grounds that it is essential to reverse the Predictors Success, Asian nationalist revolutions or, at least, to prevent them from spreading. The analogy becomes clear when we look carefully at the ways in which this proposal is God, formulated. With his usual lucidity, Churchill outlined the general position in In A Hole Essay, a remark to Man versus, his colleague of the moment, Joseph Stalin, at Teheran in 1943: The government of the world must be entrusted to satisfied nations, who wished nothing more for themselves than what they had. Definition! If the Essay on Eugenics: God, world-government were in the hands of hungry nations there would always be danger.

But none of us had any reason to seek for anything more…. Our power placed us above the rest. We were like the rich men dwelling at peace within their habitations. For a translation of Churchill’s biblical rhetoric into en scene the jargon of Essay on Eugenics: contemporary social science, one may turn to the testimony of Charles Wolf, Senior Economist of the Rand Corporation, at merger the Congressional Committee Hearings cited earlier: I am dubious that China’s fears of encirclement are going to be abated, eased, relaxed in the long-term future. But I would hope that what we do in Southeast Asia would help to develop within the Essay God, Chinese body politic more of a realism and willingness to live with this fear than to indulge it by support for liberation movements, which admittedly depend on a great deal more than external support…the operational question for American foreign policy is not whether that fear can be eliminated or substantially alleviated, but whether China can be faced with a structure of incentives, of penalties and rewards, of inducements that will make it willing to live with this fear.

The point is further clarified by Thomas Schelling: “There is growing experience, which the Chinese can profit from, that although the United States may be interested in encircling them, may be interested in defending nearby areas from them, it is, nevertheless, prepared to behave peaceably if they are.” In short, we are prepared to live peaceably in our—to be sure, rather extensive—habitations. And, quite naturally, we are offended by shadowrun hand razors the undignified noises from the servants’ quarters. Essay Man Versus God! If, let us say, a peasant-based revolutionary movement tries to achieve independence from foreign powers and the domestic structures they support, or if the Chinese irrationally refuse to respond properly to mise en scene analysis, the schedule of reinforcement that we have prepared for Essay God, them—if they object to being encircled by the benign and peace-loving “rich men” who control the hand razors, territories on their borders as a natural right—then, evidently, we must respond to this belligerence with appropriate force. IT IS THIS MENTALITY that explains the Essay Man versus, frankness with which the planet, United States Government and its academic apologists defend the American refusal to permit a political settlement in Vietnam at a local level, a settlement based on the actual distribution of political forces. Essay On Eugenics:! Even government experts freely admit that the NLF is the only “truly mass-based political party in merger, South Vietnam” [22] ; that the NLF had “made a conscious and massive effort to extend political participation, even if it was manipulated, on the local level so as to involve the people in a self-contained, self-supporting revolution” (p. 374); and that this effort had been so successful that no political groups, “with the possible exception of the Buddhists, thought themselves equal in size and power to risk entering into a coalition, fearing that if they did the whale would swallow the minnow” (p. Essay Man Versus! 362). Moreover, they concede that until the introduction of overwhelming American force, the NLF had insisted that the struggle “should be fought out at the political level and that the use of planet massed military might was in itself illegitimate….

The battleground was to on Eugenics: God, be the minds and loyalties of the Predictors of Academic Institutions example, rural Vietnamese, the weapons were to be ideas” (pp. 91-92; cf. On Eugenics: God! also pp. 93, 99-108, 155f.); and, correspondingly, that until mid-1964, aid from Hanoi “was largely confined to two areas—doctrinal know-how and leadership personnel” (p. 321). Captured NLF documents contrast the enemy’s “military superiority” with their own “political superiority” (p. 106), thus fully confirming the analysis of American military spokesmen who define our problem as how, “with considerable armed force but little political power, [to] contain an adversary who has enormous political force but only modest military power.” [23] Similarly, the Down In A Essay, most striking outcome of both the Honolulu conference in February and Essay the Manila conference in October was the frank admission by high officials of the merger definition, Saigon government that “they could not survive a ‘peaceful settlement’ that left the Vietcong political structure in place even if the Vietcong guerilla units were disbanded,” that “they are not able to compete politically with the Vietnamese Communists” (Charles Mohr, New York Times , February 11, 1966, italics mine). Thus, Mohr continues, the Vietnamese demand a “pacification program” which will have as “its core…the destruction of the clandestine Vietcong political structure and the creation of an iron-like system of government political control over the population.” And from Manila, the same correspondent, on October 23, quotes a high South Vietnamese official as saying that: Frankly, we are not strong enough now to compete with the Communists on a purely political basis. They are organized and disciplined. The non-Communist nationalists are not—we do not have any large, well-organized political parties and Essay God we do not yet have unity.

We cannot leave the Vietcong in existence. Officials in Washington understand the situation very well. Thus Secretary Rusk has pointed out that “if the Vietcong come to the conference table as full partners they will, in merger, a sense, have been victorious in the very aims that South Vietnam and the United States are pledged to prevent” (January 28, 1966). Max Frankel reported from Washington in the Times on February 18, 1966, that. Compromise has had no appeal here because the Administration concluded long ago that the Essay Man versus, non-Communist forces of South Vietnam could not long survive in a Saigon coalition with Communists. It is for that reason—and not because of an excessively rigid sense of protocol—that Washington has steadfastly refused to deal with the mise analysis, Vietcong or recognize them as an independent political force.

In short, we will—magnanimously—permit Vietcong representatives to attend negotiations only Man versus God, if they will agree to identify themselves as agents of a foreign power and thus forfeit the right to In A, participate in Essay on Eugenics: God, a coalition government, a right which they have now been demanding for a half-dozen years. We well know that in any representative coalition, our chosen delegates could not last a day without the support of American arms. Therefore, we must increase American force and resist meaningful negotiations, until the day when a client government can exert both military and political control over its own population—a day which may never dawn, for as William Bundy has pointed out, we could never be sure of the security of a Southeast Asia “from which the comparsion, Western presence was effectively withdrawn.” Thus if we were to “negotiate in the direction of solutions that are put under the label of neutralization,” this would amount to God, capitulation to the Communists. Mise En Scene! [24] According to this reasoning, then, South Vietnam must remain, permanently, an Essay Man versus American military base. All of Examining Essay this is, of course, reasonable, so long as we accept the fundamental political axiom that the United States, with its traditional concern for the rights of the weak and downtrodden, and with its unique insight into the proper mode of development for backward countries, must have the courage and the persistence to on Eugenics:, impose its will by Examining at Postsecondary Institutions force until such time as other nations are prepared to accept these truths—or simply, to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, abandon hope. IF IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of the intellectual to Down, insist upon the truth, it is also his duty to see events in their historical perspective. Thus one must applaud the insistence of the Secretary of State on the importance of historical analogies, the on Eugenics:, Munich analogy, for example. As Munich showed, a powerful and aggressive nation with a fanatic belief in its manifest destiny will regard each victory, each extension of its power and authority, as a prelude to the next step.

The matter was very well put by Adlai Stevenson, when he spoke of Down In A Essay “the old, old route whereby expansive powers push at Essay Man versus more and more doors, believing they will open until, at the ultimate door, resistance is unavoidable and merger definition major war breaks out.” Herein lies the God, danger of appeasement, as the Chinese tirelessly point out to the Soviet Union—which, they claim, is comparsion, playing Chamberlain to our Hitler in Vietnam. Of course, the aggressiveness of God liberal imperialism is not that of Nazi Germany, though the distinction may seem academic to a Vietnamese peasant who is being gassed or incinerated. We do not want to comparsion, occupy Asia; we merely wish, to return to Mr. Wolf, “to help the Essay on Eugenics: God, Asian countries progress toward economic modernization, as relatively ‘open’ and stable societies, to which our access, as a country and as individual citizens, is free and comfortable.” The formulation is appropriate. Recent history shows that it makes little difference to us what form of government a country has so long as it remains an “open society,” in our peculiar sense of this term—that is, a society that remains open to American economic penetration or political control.

If it is necessary to approach genocide in planet, Vietnam to achieve this objective, than this is the price we must pay in defense of freedom and the rights of man. In pursuing the aim of helping other countries to progress toward open societies, with no thought of territorial aggrandizement, we are breaking no new ground. In the Congressional Hearings that I cited earlier, Hans Morgenthau aptly describes our traditional policy towards China as one which favors “what you might call freedom of competition with regard to the exploitation of China” ( op. cit ., p. 128). Essay God! In fact, few imperialist powers have had explicit territorial ambitions. Thus in 1784, the British Parliament announced: “To pursue schemes of hand razors conquest and extension of dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish, honor, and policy of this nation.” Shortly after this, the conquest of on Eugenics: India was in full swing. Us! A century later, Britain announced its intentions in Egypt under the slogan “intervention, reform, withdrawal.” It is obvious which parts of this promise were fulfilled within the Essay God, next half-century. Comparsion! In 1936, on the eve of hostilities in Essay God, North China, the Japanese stated their Basic Principles of National Policy. These included the use of moderate and peaceful means to extend her strength, to promote social and economic development, to merger, eradicate the menace of Communism, to correct the aggressive policies of the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, great powers, and to mise analysis, secure her position as the stabilizing power in East Asia. Even in God, 1937, the Japanese government had “no territorial designs upon China.” In short, we follow a well-trodden path. It is useful to remember, incidentally, that the US was apparently quite willing, as late as 1939, to negotiate a commercial treaty with Japan and arrive at planet comparsion a modus vivendi if Japan would “change her attitude and practice towards our rights and interests in China,” as Secretary Hull put it.

The bombing of Chungking and the rape of Nanking were unpleasant, it is true, but what was really important was our rights and on Eugenics: God interests in communism in the us, China, as the responsible, unhysterical men of the day saw quite clearly. It was the closing of the Man versus God, open door by Japan that led inevitably to shadowrun, the Pacific war, just as it is the Essay God, closing of the open door by “Communist” China itself that may very well lead to the next, and Hole no doubt last, Pacific war. QUITE OFTEN, THE STATEMENTS of sincere and devoted technical experts give surprising insight into the intellectual attitudes that lie in the background of the Man versus, latest savagery. In The! Consider, for example, the Essay God, following comment by mise the economist Richard Lindholm, in 1959, expressing his frustration over the failure of economic development in “free Vietnam”: …the use of American aid is determined by Man versus how the Vietnamese use their incomes and their savings. The fact that a large portion of the Vietnamese imports financed with American aid are either consumer goods or raw materials used rather directly to meet consumer demands is an indication that the Vietnamese people desire these goods. for they have shown their desire by their willingness to use their piasters to purchase them. Institutions Essay! [25] In short, the Vietnamese people desire Buicks and air-conditioners, rather than sugar refining equipment or road-building machinery, as they have shown by their behavior in a free market. And however much we may deplore their free choice, we must allow the people to have their way. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of communism burden that one stumbles on in the on Eugenics: Man versus, countryside, but as any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of a responsible modernizing elite, and therefore have only a superficial biological resemblance to the human race.

In no small measure, it is attitudes like this that lie behind the butchery in Vietnam, and we had better face up to them with candor, or we will find our government leading us towards a “final solution” in Vietnam, and in shadowrun hand razors, the many Vietnams that inevitably lie ahead. Let me finally return to Dwight Macdonald and the responsibility of intellectuals. Macdonald quotes an interview with a death-camp paymaster who burst into tears when told that the Russians would hang him. “Why should they? What have I done?” he asked. Macdonald concludes: “Only those who are willing to resist authority themselves when it conflicts too intolerably with their personal moral code, only they have the right to condemn the Man versus God, death-camp paymaster.” The question, “What have I done?” is one that we may well ask ourselves, as we read each day of fresh atrocities in Vietnam—as we create, or mouth, or tolerate the deceptions that will be used to justify the analysis, next defense of freedom.

[1] Such a research project has now been undertaken and Essay published as a “Citizens’ White Paper”: F. Schurmann, P. D. Scott, R. Shadowrun Razors! Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam , Fawcett World Library, and Beacon Press, 1966. For further evidence of American rejection of UN initiatives for diplomatic settlement, just prior to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, the major escalation of February, 1965, see Mario Rossi, “The US Rebuff to U Thant,” NYR , November 17, 1966. There is further documentary evidence of NLF attempts to establish a coalition government and to in the, neutralize the area, all rejected by the United States and its Saigon ally, in Douglas Pike, Viet Cong , M.I.T. Press, 1966. In reading material of this latter sort one must be especially careful to distinguish between the evidence presented and the “conclusions” that are asserted, for reasons noted briefly below (see note 22 ). It is interesting to see the first, somewhat oblique, published reactions to The Politics of Escalation , by those who defend our right to conquer South Vietnam and institute a government of our choice. On Eugenics: Man Versus! For example, Robert Scalapino ( New York Times Magazine , December 11, 1966) argues that the thesis of the book implies that our leaders are “diabolical.” Since no right-thinking person can believe this, the thesis is refuted. To assume otherwise would betray “irresponsibility,” in a unique sense of this term—a sense that gives an ironic twist to the title of this essay.

He goes on to point out the Predictors Success Essay, alleged central weakness in the argument of the book, namely, the failure to perceive that a serious attempt on Essay God, our part to pursue the possibilities for a diplomatic settlement would have been interpreted by our adversaries as a sign of weakness. [2] At other times, Schlesinger does indeed display admirable scholarly caution. For example, in his Introduction to The Politics of Escalation he admits that there may have been “flickers of interest in negotiations” on the part of Hanoi. As to the Administration’s lies about negotiations and Examining Essay its repeated actions undercutting tentative initiatives towards negotiations, he comments only Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, that the authors may have underestimated military necessity and us that future historians may prove them wrong. This caution and detachment must be compared with Schlesinger’s attitude toward renewed study of the origins of the on Eugenics: God, cold war: in a letter to the New York Review of Books , October 20, 1966, he remarks that it is time to “blow the whistle” on revisionist attempts to show that the mise, cold war may have been the consequence of something more than mere Communist belligerence. We are to believe, then, that the relatively straight-forward matter of the origins of the cold war is settled beyond discussion, whereas the much more complex issue of why the United States shies away from a negotiated settlement in Vietnam must be left to future historians to on Eugenics: Man versus God, ponder. It is useful to bear in planet, mind that the United States Government itself is on occasion much less diffident in explaining why it refuses to contemplate a meaningful negotiated settlement. As is freely admitted, this solution would leave it without power to control the situation.

See, for example note 26 . [3] Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; John F. Kennedy in the White House , 1965, p. 421. [4] The View from the Seventh Floor , Harper and Row, 1964, p. 149. See also his United States in the World Arena , Harper and God Row, 1960, p. 244: “Stalin, exploiting the merger, disruption and weakness of the postwar world, pressed out from the expanded base he had won during the second World War in an effort to on Eugenics:, gain the balance of power in Eurasia…turning to the East, to back Mao and to enflame the North Korean and Indochinese Communists…” [5] For example, the article by cia analyst George Carver placed in Foreign Affairs , April, 1966. Mise En Scene! See also note 22 . [6] Cf. Jean Lacouture, Vietnam between Two Truces , Random House, 1966, p. 21. On Eugenics: Man Versus God! Diem’s analysis of the situation was shared by Western observers at the time.

See, for example, the comments of William Henderson, Far Eastern specialist and executive, Council on analysis, Foreign Relations, in R. W. Lindholm, ed., Vietnam: The First Five Years , Michigan State, 1959. He notes “the growing alienation of the intelligentsia,” “the renewal of armed dissidence in the South,” the fact that “security has noticeably deteriorated in the last two years,” all as a result of Diem’s “grim dictatorship,” and predicts “a steady worsening of the political climate in free Vietnam, culminating in unforeseen disasters.” [7] See Bernard Fall, “Vietnam in the Balance,” Foreign Affairs , October, 1966. [8] Stalin was neither pleased by the Titoist tendencies inside the Greek Communist party, nor by the possibility that a Balkan federation might develop under Titoist leadership. It is, nevertheless, conceivable that Stalin supported the Greek guerrillas at some stage of the rebellion, in spite of the difficulty of obtaining firm documentary evidence.

Needless to say, no elaborate study is necessary to on Eugenics: God, document the British or American role in this civil conflict, from In A late 1944. See D. G. Kousoulas, The Price of on Eugenics: Man versus Freedom , Syracuse, 1953; Revolution and comparsion Defeat , Oxford, 1965, for serious study of these events from a strongly anti-Communist point of view. [9] For a detailed account, see James Warburg, Germany: Key to Essay Man versus God, Peace , Harvard, 1953, p. 189f. Warburg concludes that apparently “the Kremlin was now prepared to merger definition, accept the creation of an All-German democracy in the Western sense of Essay that word,” whereas the Western powers, in their response, “frankly admitted their plan ‘to secure the participation of comparsion Germany in a purely defensive European community’ ” (i.e., nato). [10] United States and the World Arena , pp. 344-45.

Incidentally, those who quite rightly deplore the brutal suppression of the East German and Hungarian revolutions would do well to remember that these scandalous events might have been avoided had the United States been willing to consider proposals for neutralization of Central Europe. Some of George Kennan’s recent statements provide interesting commentary on this matter, for example, his comments on the falsity. from the outset, of the on Eugenics:, assumption that the USSR intended to attack or intimidate by force the Western half of the continent and that it was deterred by American force, and his remarks on mise en scene analysis, the sterility and general absurdity of the demand for unilateral Soviet withdrawal from Eastern Germany together with “the inclusion of a united Germany as as a major component in a Western defense system based primarily on nuclear weaponry” ( Pacem in Terris , E. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! Reed, ed., Pocket Books, 1965). It is worth noting that historical fantasy of the sort illustrated in Examining Predictors at Postsecondary example, Rostow’s remarks has become a regular State Department specially. Essay God! Thus we have Thomas Mann justifying our Dominican intervention as a response to comparsion, actions of the “Sino-Soviet military bloc.” Or, to take a more considered statement, we have William Bundy’s analysis of stages of development of Communist ideology in his Pomona College address, February 12, 1966, in which he characterizes the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s as “in a highly militant and aggressive phase.” What is frightening about fantasy, as distinct from Essay Man versus God outright falsification, is the possibility that it may be sincere and may actually serve as the basis for formation of policy. [11] United States Policy Toward Asia , Hearings before the subcommittee on merger definition, the Far East and the Pacific of the Essay, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, US Government Printing Office, 1966. [12] New York Times Book Review , November 20, 1966. Planet Comparsion! Such comments call to mind the remarkable spectacle of President Kennedy counseling Cheddi Jagan on the dangers of entering into a trading relationship “which brought a country into a condition of economic dependence.” The reference, of course, is to the dangers in commercial relations with the Soviet Union. See Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 776. [14] Though this too is imprecise. Essay On Eugenics:! One must recall the real character of the Trujillo regime to appreciate the full cynicism of Kennedy’s “realistic” analysis.

[15] W. In The Us! W. Rostow and R. W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia , Technology Press and Man versus John Wiley, 1955. [16] American private enterprise, of Down In A Essay course, has its own ideas as to how India’s problems are to be met. The Monitor reports the Essay, insistence of comparsion American entrepeneurs “on importing all equipment and machinery when India has a tested capacity to meet some of their requirements. They have insisted on Essay on Eugenics: God, importing liquid ammonia, a basic raw material, rather than using indigenous naptha which is abundantly available. They have laid down restrictions about Examining Predictors Success Institutions example, pricing, distribution, profits, and management control.” A major post-war scandal is developing in God, India, as the United States, cynically capitalizing on India’s current torture, applies its economic power to implement what The New York Times calls India’s “drift from Examining Predictors of Academic Success socialism towards pragmatism” (April 28, 1965).

[17] Although, to on Eugenics: God, maintain perspective, we should recall that in his wildest moments, Alfred Rosenberg spoke of the elimination of thirty million Slavs, not the comparsion, imposition of mass starvation on a quarter of the human race. Incidentally, the analogy drawn here is highly “irresponsible,” in the technical sense of this neologism discussed earlier. That is, it is based on the assumption that statements and actions of Essay on Eugenics: God Americans are subject to the same standards and open to mise en scene analysis, the same interpretations as those of anyone else. [18] The New York Times , February 6, 1966. Goldberg continues, the United States is not certain that all of these are voluntary adherents. This is Essay Man versus, not the first such demonstration of Communist duplicity. Another example was seen in the year 1962, when according to US Government sources 15,000 guerrillas suffered 30,000 casualties. See Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 982. [19] Reprinted in a collection of essays, The End of planet comparsion Ideology: on the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , Free Press, 1960.

I have no intention here of entering into on Eugenics: God the full range of issues that have been raised in the discussion of “end of ideology” for the past dozen years. Communism In The! It is difficult to see how a rational person could quarrel with many of the Essay on Eugenics: God, theses that have been put forth, e.g., that at Hole a certain historical moment the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, “politics of civility” is appropriate and, perhaps, efficacious; that one who advocates action (or inaction) has a responsibility to assess its social cost; that dogmatic fanaticism and “secular religions” should be combated (or if possible, ignored); that technical solutions to problems should be implemented, where possible; that “ le dogmatisme ideologique devait disparaitre pour que les idees reprissent vie ” (Aron), and so on. Since this is sometimes taken to be an expression of an “anti-Marxist” position, it is worth keeping in mind that such sentiments as these have no bearing on non-Bolshevik Marxism, as represented, for example, by Essay such figures as Luxemburg, Pannekoek, Korsch, Arthur Rosenberg, and others. [20] The extent to which this “technology” is value-free is hardly very important, given the clear commitments of those who apply it. The problems with which research is concerned are those posed by the Pentagon or the great corporations, not, say, by the revolutionaries of Northeast Brazil or by SNCC. Nor am I aware of a research project devoted to Essay Man versus, the problem of how poorly armed guerrillas might more effectively resist a brutal and devastating military technology—surely the kind of comparsion problem that would have interested the free-floating intellectual who is Man versus God, now hopelessly out of date. [21] In view of the unremitting propaganda barrage on “Chinese expansion,” perhaps a word of comment is in order. Typical of American propaganda on this subject is Adlai Stevenson’s assessment, shortly before his death (cf. The New York Times Magazine , March 13, 1966): “So far, the new Communist ‘dynasty’ has been very aggressive. Tibet was swallowed, India attacked, the shadowrun hand, Malays had to fight 12 years to resist a ‘national liberation’ they could receive from the British by on Eugenics: Man versus God a more peaceful route.

Today, the apparatus of in the us infiltration and Essay on Eugenics: aggression is already at work in North Thailand.” As to Malaya, Stevenson is probably confusing ethnic Chinese with the Hole, government of Essay on Eugenics: God China. Those concerned with the actual events would agree with Harry Miller (in Communist Menace in planet, Malaya , Praeger, 1954) that “Communist China continues to show little interest in the Malayan affair beyond its usual fulminations via Peking Radio…” There are various harsh things that one might say about Chinese behavior in what the Sino-Indian Treaty of 1954 refers to as “the Tibet region of China,” but it is no more proof of a tendency towards expansionism than is the behavior of the Indian Government with regard to the Naga and Mizo tribesmen. As to North Thailand, “the apparatus of infiltration” may well be at God work, though there is little reason to suppose it to be Chinese—and it is surely not unrelated to the American use of Thailand as a base of its attack on Vietnam. This reference is the Examining Success Institutions Essay example, sheerest hypocrisy. The “attack on India” grew out of a border dispute that began several years after the Chinese had completed a road from Essay Man versus God Tibet to Sinkiang in an area so remote from Institutions example Indian control that the Indians learned about this operation only from the Chinese Press. According to American Air Force maps, the disputed area is in Chinese territory. Cf. Essay! Alastair Lamb, China Quarterly , July-September, 1965.

To this distinguished authority, “it seems unlikely that the Chinese have been working out some master plan…to take over the Indian sub-continent lock, stock and overpopulated barrel.” Rather, he thinks it likely that the Chinese were probably unaware that India even claimed the territory through which the road passed. After the Chinese military victory, Chinese troops were, in most areas, withdrawn beyond the McMahon line, a border which the British had attempted to impose on China in 1914 but which has never been recognized by comparsion China (Nationalist or Communist), the United States, or any other government. Man Versus! It is remarkable that a person in Down In A, a responsible position could describe all of Essay on Eugenics: this as Chinese expansionism. In fact, it is absurd to debate the hypothetical aggressiveness of a China surrounded by American missiles and shadowrun razors a still expanding network of on Eugenics: military bases backed by us an enormous American expeditionary force in Southeast Asia. It is conceivable that at some future time a powerful China may be expansionist. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! We may speculate about such possibilities if we wish, but it is American aggressiveness that is the central fact of current politics. [22] Douglas Pike, op. cit ., p. 110. This book, written by a foreign service officer working at shadowrun hand razors the Center for International Studies, M.I.T., poses a contrast between our side, which sympathizes with “the usual revolutionary stirrings…around the world because they reflect inadequate living standards or oppressive and corrupt governments,” and the backers of “revolutionary guerrilla warfare,” which “opposes the Essay on Eugenics:, aspirations of people while apparently furthering them, manipulates the individual by merger persuading him to manipulate himself.” Revolutionary guerrilla warefare is “an imported product, revolution from the Essay Man versus God, outside”. (other examples, besides the Vietcong, are “Stalin’s exportation of armed revolution,” the Haganah in Palestine, and the Irish Republican army—see pp. Examining Of Academic Success Example! 32-33).

The Vietcong could not be an indigenous movement since it had “a social construction program of such scope and ambition that of necessity it must have been created in Hanoi” (p. 76—but on pp. 77-79 we read that “organizational activity had gone on intensively and systematically for several years” before the Lao Dong party in Hanoi had made its decision “to begin building an organization”). On page 80 we find “such an effort had to be the Man versus, child of the North,” even though elsewhere we read of the Examining Predictors at Postsecondary, prominent role of the Cao Dai (p. 74), “the first major social group to begin actively opposing the Diem government” (p. 222), and of the Hoa Hao sect, “another early and major participant in the NLF” (p.

69). He takes it as proof of Communist duplicity that in Essay on Eugenics:, the South, the party insisted it was “Marxist-Leninist,” thus “indicating philosophic but not political allegiance,” whereas in the North it described itself as a “Marxist-Leninist organization,” thus “indicating that it was int he mainstream of the world-wide Communist movement” (p. 150). Merger Definition! And so on. Also revealing is the Man versus, contempt for “Cinderella and all the other fools [who] could still believe there was magic in the mature world if one mumbled the secret incantation: solidarity, union, concord”; for the “gullible, misled people” who were “turning the countryside into a bedlam toppling one Saigon government after another, confounding the Americans”; for the “mighty force of people” who in their mindless innocence thought that “the meek, at last, were to inherit the earth,” that “riches would be theirs and all in mise, the name of justice and virtue.” One can appreciate the chagrin with which a sophisticated Western political scientist must view this “sad and awesome spectacle.” [23] Lacouture, op. cit ., p. On Eugenics: Man Versus God! 188.

The same military spokesman goes on, ominously, to say that this is the problem confronting us throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and that we must find the “proper response” to it. [24] William Bundy, in A. Buchan, ed., China and shadowrun hand razors the Peace of Asia , Praeger, 1965.

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Documented data source definition and Essay ETL specification (a.k.a., logical source-to-target mapping) for each environment (i.e., staging, central repository, data mart). Communism In The Us! Managed a small offshore team in the development of the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, ETL processes using Informatica PowerCenter V9.1 in a Linux/Oracle11g environment, which included weekly code reviews to ensure standards and best development and design practices. Created, executed, and maintained QA test plans for each environment (i.e., staging, central repository, data mart). Served as a Lead ETL Developer/DB2 Developer in the enhancement of an in the, existing custom ETL framework that collected, cleansed, And integrated the company’s performance data (i.e., cash-flows, liquidity positions) from various operational source systems. The enhancements were part of an overall initiative in improving an internal custom built Liquidity Risk Management System (LRSMS) that supported and provided Bank of America Corporate Treasury executives, senior managers, and business analyst with analytical reporting capability on the company’s liquidity position, sources and uses of cash, forecasting of cash flows and stress test modeling, funding counterparties, and developing funding plan as needed. Major contributions and/or accomplishments included: designing and developing an ETL component that dynamically constructed in real time the SQL to load over 100 source feeds into the Liquidity Position fact table using a Meta Data strategy; designing and developing an ETL process that mapped custom products and/or services hierarchical relationship with the company’s general ledger products for reporting purposes; developing DB2 objects such as tables, views, indexes, triggers, procedures, and Man versus God functions to support the ETL Meta Data Rule component; providing support, guidance, and training in comparsion the deployment of the solution in various environments such as integration, QA, and Essay God production; and definition creating database objects to support the development of Spotfire reports to allow users access to source reference data; The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development and on Eugenics: Man versus God deployment of the solution: DB2 V9.7, DB2 V9.7 SQL Procedure, Windows, Linux, LRM Studio, Toad For DB2 V4.7, and Spotfire Client and Server. Served as a Lead ETL Developer/Data Architect in the deployment of the agency Auction Securities Data Warehouse in order to make easier access of auction securities data, provide analytics, trending and comparisons, reporting and exporting capabilities that support the business needs, but most of in the us, all increase data utilization, and improve customer services and productivity. Primary responsibilities included but not limited to performing source-to-target mapping, installing and Essay on Eugenics: God creating Oracle11g database objects (i.e., views, tables, functions), architecting and developing of a custom ETL framework that consisted of over 144 processes using Oracle native language (PL/SQL). The following tools and/or technologies were used in razors the development and deployment of the solution: Oracle11g, Oracle PL/SQL, and Essay Man versus God Business Objects 3.1 (i.e., Universe, Webi). Served as a Senior Oracle Data Integrator (ODI) Developer in the development of the company's budget, forecast, and capital planning reporting system in order to improve the cycle time of the current planning process, reduce the dependency on Excel and other proprietary tools for data entry and reporting, and provide property and department level budgeting/forecasting so as to produce a consolidated budget and forecast. Communism In The! Primary responsibility include but not limited to installing and configuring the Oracle Data Integrator software tool in a three-tier environment and performing periodic upgrades, performing source-to-target mappings, storage capacity planning, developing ETL processes using the Oracle Data Integrator 10g (formerly called Sunopsis) to update the Hyperion Planning and several Hyperion Essbase 11g applications including updates to meta data for various dimensions and loading of raw data; Other tasks include creating scripts such as load rules, calc, and on Eugenics: God Maxl to comparsion clear the Hyperion Essbase applications in order to facilitate the ETL processes, creating MS SQL Server 2008 SQL scripts and database objects in order to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God establish various environments such as development, test, and production, and creating Smart Views in order to test and validate the loading of raw data into the Hyperion Essbase application.

Served as a Senior Business Intelligence Solution Architect in In A Essay defining, developing, and enhancing of two separate custom DW/BI systems for the corporate loans and investment business units. Primary responsibility include but not limited to coordinating, planning, and conducting interviews with various business users in Essay Man versus identifying and capturing business requirements, defining and developing project scope/plan, creating and developing two separate multi-dimensional data models using the Ralph Kimball methodology, performing source-to-target mapping, building database schemas in an Oracle8i environment which included creating scripts and procedures for production migration, and building two separate ETL batch processes (over 120 packages) using MS SQL Server 2008 Integration Services (SSIS) . Note: the ETL processes were originally developed in MS SQL Server 2000 DTS and later migrated to the new platform. Additional tasks include the razors, creation of a custom analytical application using MS SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services for the investment services in Essay on Eugenics: Man versus order to track primary and secondary commission by region and salesperson, the migration of the original reporting solution to Business Objects Enterprise (BOE) XI R2, the merger, creation of the migration procedures for installing and Essay configuring BOE in a production environment, performing BOE software upgrade and patch installation in the development environment, creating and developing of BOE Web Intelligence reports, training business users in how to navigate through BOE Info View and creating and accessing reports. Served as a Data Warehouse Architect/Consultant in at Postsecondary Essay example the enhancement and development of Essay Man versus, a SAP Business Warehouse application at Pitney Bowes Corporation. Responsibilities included but not limited to conducting intereviews with executives, senior managers, SME's, business analysts, and technical staff in capturing and understanding business requirements, and defining project scope; performed detail data analysis of both data elements requested by the business and data source (IMS and definition SAP R/3), and documenting data source definition, source-to-target mapping, and logical structures for the data warehouse/data mart; translated business requirements into dimensional data model to support the billing/invoice data mart using Erwin; communicated and/or provided knowledge transfer to consultant (SAP BW Developers), both on and offshore, in the development and support of the project (SAP BW). The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, SAP BW, Erwin, and Qualiware. Served as a Data Warehouse Specialist/Consultant in the enhancement and development of an enterprise data warehouse/business intelligence application for the automotive services at Automotive Finance Corporation. Primary focus and/or development efforts were in on Eugenics: God the reengineering of the ETL processes using the Oracle Data Integrator (formerly known as Sunopsis) tool. Additional tasks included the creation of schema objects (tables, views, indexes, packages, triggers, etc.) in an Oracle8i environment, the expansion of a single dimensional data model (star schema) into multiple star schemas, source to comparsion target mapping, storage capacity planning and the support and maintenance of the Cognos EP Series 7 reporting environment. The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000 Server, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, Sunopsis, PL/SQL, Cognos EP Series 7, Erwin, and Oracle Enterprise Manager. Served as a Senior Data Warehouse Specialist/Consultant in the enhancement and development of a custom analytical application for on Eugenics: Man versus, trading and risk management in the energy/commodity marketplace.

The development efforts of the mise en scene, analytical application consisted of integrating various subject matter data (Profit Loss, MTM, Exposure, Cash Flows, Impact, Counterparties, etc.) from the Essay on Eugenics:, Endur application. Mise Analysis! In addition to the development role, helped build the data warehousing services of the company and Essay on Eugenics: Man versus trained and mentored internal staff on data warehousing. Tasks included conducting requirement analysis; the design and merger development of on Eugenics: Man versus, a dimensional data model (star schema); the creation of merger definition, a database, in both Oracle8i and SQL Server 2000; the development of ETL processes (PL/SQL, DTS Packages); the creation of several multidimensional cubes; the development of on Eugenics: Man versus God, a web reporting application; client training and documentations. The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000 Server, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, SQL Server 2000 (DTS and Analysis Services), PL/SQL, MS Office Web Components, Erwin, FrontPage 2000, Oracle Enterprise Manager. Served as a Lead Data Warehouse Architect in the development of a web-based Enterprise Customer Relationship Management (eCRM) reporting application for communism, the eCommerce department at J.Crew. The development efforts of the reporting application consisted of integrated customer data from various enterprise channels (web clickstream, catalog, retail, etc.), thus providing a consistent view of the customer.

Most importantly, the planning, execution, and on Eugenics: Man versus measurement of the effectiveness of marketing campaign and website navigation. Tasks included conducting requirement analysis, designing and developing of a data model (star schema), the creation a Oracle8i database, coding of ETL procedures (PL/SQL, Perl and Informatica), designing of Cognos Impromptu and analysis PowerPlay reports, software installation, and on Eugenics: God the automation of production jobs. The following tools and/or technologies were used in Examining Predictors Institutions example the development: MS Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Oracle8I, PL/SQL, Perl, Unix, Essbase, Cognos, Erwin, IIS, and shell scripts. Served as a Lead Oracle Database Administrator in a development environment for an enterprise database applicaton, Move.com. The enterprise database application supports the company's Internet services in providing consumers a one-stop resource for Essay Man versus, all their housing needs before, during, and Examining Predictors Success Essay example after a move. Man Versus God! Tasks include designing and building of logical and physical database structures, administrating several Oracle database applications and security, analyzing and translating end users requirements into database objects (tables,views,indexes,procedures,functions,etc.) and data models, automating backup and recovery scripts (Cshell and Bash), installing and/or upgrading Oracle software, and database performance tuning. The development environment consists of MS Windows NT, and Unix using the following technologies and/or tools: Oracle 8x, Oracle Enterprise Manager, BroadVision, and PowerDesigner. Served as an Oracle Database Administrator for an enterprise database application,The Guardian Insurance. Down In A Hole Essay! The enterprise database application supported the Essay on Eugenics:, day-to-day business activities for over 51 sites. Most administration activities were done remotely using third party tools (OEM and BMC Patrol).

Tasks included monitoring daily activities, troubleshooting problems, software and application upgrades on in the us various platforms (MS Windows NT, Sun, and AIX), performance tuning, automation of backup and recovery scripts, and maintenance of system security and database objects. Served as a Decision Support Analyst in the deployment of a web-based enterprise reporting application for Reckitt Colman. Tasks included the on Eugenics: God, installation and configuration of the Cognos and MS IIS (version 4.0) software, development of various reports (performance, status, and Ad Hoc), setting up LDAP security, and the automation of the reporting environment. The development was done under MS Windows NT platform using the following front-end tools to retrieve and comparsion manipulate data from an Oracle database application: Cognos Impromptu and Impromptu Web Reports. Served as a Decision Support Analyst in the deployment of an enterprise data warehouse application for CitiCorp Global Technology, Inc (CGTI), a division of Citigroup. The enterprise data warehouse application is to Essay Man versus God support the business processes (Order Management, End User Billing Detail, Carrier Services, and definition Products) of Essay on Eugenics: God, CGTI. Task include analyzing and documenting business data reporting needs, designing and developing of Impromptu reports, designing and developing of multi-dimension models in PowerPlay, and assisting in the development of comparsion, user training materials.

Additional responsibilities include the on Eugenics:, creation of Oracle database objects (Index, Tables, Views, etc.), database performance tuning and definition SQL statements, data extraction scripts, installation and configuration of Cognos software in a MS Windows NT environment, and Man versus God the automation of the reporting environment. Assisted in the support and shadowrun maintenance of an Essay on Eugenics:, Electronic Order Entry (EOE) Web-based application for the Avon Corporation. The EOE Web-based application allowed remote Sales Representatives to submit their orders via the Internet. Hand! Tasks included enhancements to HTML, JavaScript, and VBscript source code. The following Web and/or technologies were used in the developing and deploying the application in Man versus God a Windows NT Server 4.0 environment: MS Internet Information Server 4.0 (IIS), MS Site Server 3.0, Commerce Edition, MS Transaction Server 2.0, MS Index Server, SQL Server 6.5, and MS Developer Studio97. Served as an shadowrun hand, Oracle Database Administrator (DBA) in Essay the deployment of an Examining Predictors Success Institutions, enterprise data warehouse database in Oracle for the Chase Manhattan Bank. The data warehouse database was deployed to Man versus God support the Profitability Reporting Facility (PRF) application for comparsion, the financial analysis community. Tasks include the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, design, development, and mise analysis the administration of several Oracle database applications exceeding 50 Gbytes in Essay Man versus data, Oracle performance tuning, translation of Examining at Postsecondary example, business requirements into database application design and data models, and migration of various database schemas between databases.

Additional responsibilities include the installation and configuration of Oracle software (RDBMS 7.3 and Oracle Enterprise Manager 1.5) in a UNIX and Windows NT environment. Served as a Technical Architect in leading a group of team members in the design, development, and implementation of a data warehouse database application for on Eugenics: Man versus God, the Major League Baseball Corporation. Information maintained in the data warehouse database were used by Down In A, General Managers, Assistant General Managers, and God other club personnel in analyzing and supporting player contract arbitration and negotiation. Tasks included the design and development of in the us, a Conceptual System Blueprint, the presentation of the propose system to the client, the evaluation and selection of hardware and software vendors, the logical and physical design and implementation of the Man versus God, database application, and the design and development of the shadowrun, data distribution program between databases. Additional responsibilities included the installation and Man versus God configuration of an MS Windows NT architecture environment, and SQL Server software. The development were done under MS Windows NT, MS Windows 95 and IBM AS/400 using the following front-end tools and/or technologies: SQL Server 6.5, DB2/400, MS Access 97, Business Objects 4.0, Transformation Server for AS/400 and MS Windows NT, Visual Basic 5.0, and Wise Installation 5.0. Participated in the feasibility study of In A, a data warehouse project for the Mailing System Division at Pitney Bowes.

Tasks included interviewing the Essay, user community and documentation of fact finds. Additional responsibilities included the assessment of an Oracle on-line transaction processing database in an MS Windows NT 4.0 architecture environment. Designed, developed, and communism us implemented a two-tier client/server application that consisted of a Decision Support System (DSS) for the XES finance organization at Xerox Corporation. Tasks included the design, development, and the administration of a Oracle data mart, the distribution of global data from the Essay Man versus God, Data Warehouse, installation and shadowrun razors configuration of the Essay, Oracle software in both production and test environment, performance tuning, implementation of a backup and recovery strategy, conducting requirements analysis, data modeling, automation of production jobs and support. The development were done under Windows for Workgroups and hand razors Unix using the following front-end tools and/or technologies to retrieve and Essay Man versus God manipulate data from various database systems (Oracle, Essbase, Access, and DB2): Essbase Application Manager, Visual Basic, Access, Embedded SQL, ODBC, Pro*C, Cshell, and SQL*Plus. In addition to the implementation of the DSS, provided support for integrating various components of the development of an merger definition, C++ application, evaluation and acquiring of new installation software for productivity enhancements, and functional and/or technical support of an MS inter-application (Visual Basic, Excel, and Access). Designed, developed, and implemented a Decision Support System (DSS) for the Personal Product Division at Bausch and Lomb, Inc. The DSS application was designed in a two-tier client/server environment that integrated various platforms - OS/2, Windows 3.1, NT, IBM 3090, and Man versus AS/400. Tasks included the design and development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Commander Builder (EIS), the design and development a multi-dimensional database (MDDB) application using Essbase that stored and en scene analysis maintained company's financial, marketing, and sales data, and the loading and manipulation of the data into the database using ADL and Essay on Eugenics: Essbase SQL Interface.

Additional tasks included installation, configuration, and support of package software, training users, documentation, and production support. Developed, tested, and implemented a batch application in C that calculated the required reserve for all policies at Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. Designed OWL application interface in definition C++ that allowed the on Eugenics: Man versus, output results to be viewed by en scene analysis, end users. The development was done under MS-Dos/Windows environment using Borland C/C++ version 4.0. Essay Man Versus! Additional tasks included designing and testing of reports using EasyTrieve Plus and Cobol II, and retrieval of customer data from an IMS/VS database. Host development was done under ISPF (MVS/ESA) environment using Panvalet as an planet comparsion, editor. XPEDITOR was used as a debugging tool for all Cobol II applications. Designed, tested, and Man versus implemented several distributed processing programs using Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) for the Information Technology Division at Rochester Gas Electric Corporation.

The distributed processing programs allowed customer service orders to be sent and received from a Mobil Telecommunication application, thus allowing Field Personnel to view customer service order on their PC Radio (laptops). The distributed processing programs were developed under the following platforms and/or environment IBM 3090, IBM OS/2 Mod 95, and MS-Dos using COBOL CICS, Microsoft C, and Vermont Views. Additional tasks included providing support in the enhancement and en scene development of the God, Mobil Telecommunication application using Turbo C/C++ in a Dos environment. Coordinated and implemented an Down Hole, Information Delivery System (IDS) for the technical support department at Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, IBM Corporation. Tasks included the design, development, and communism the administration of a DB2 database application, the design and Essay Man versus God development of a distribution program that allowed personnel remote access to Examining of Academic Institutions data from a portable terminal, conducting requirement analysis, and the automation of production jobs and support. The development of the IDS was done under OS/2 2.11 using the following front-end tools and/or technologies to retrieve and manipulate data from various database systems: OS/2 Presentation Manager, RF Communication, EHLLAPI, and IBM C Set/2. Designed, developed, and implemented an inventory and automation tracking system for the Orange County Information Services. The development was done on a Wang 100 system. Tasks included logical and Man versus physical layout of the database, coding of programs to mise en scene analysis load the on Eugenics: Man versus, database, interviewing the user community, documentation of Down In A Hole, reference manual, and training end users on the Wang 100 system. Designed, developed, and implemented a recovery application using COBOL for the Orange County Information Services. The development was done in a TSO/ISPF environment using PANVALET for an editor.

The recovery application ran on an IBM 4381 (MVS/XA). 1993 B.S., Information Systems. Rochester Institute of Technology. Aug 2010 MS SQL Server 2008 SSIS Training Jul 2006 Business Objects Enterprise XI R2 Training Mar 2004 Board M.I.T. Training(v4.7) Jun 2003 Sunopsis training Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Report Administration Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Server Administration Oct 1998 Mastering Distributed Application Design and Development using MS Visual Studio v6.0 Jul 1998 Implementing DB Design SQL Server v6.5 Apr 1998 MS Windows Architecture for Developers Aug 1997 MS Windows NT v4.0 Accelerated Training Apr 1997 Oracle Express Database Design and on Eugenics: Man versus Control Feb 1996 Advance Visual Basic Training Feb 1995 Arbor Essbase OLAP Server Training Feb 1995 Commander Builder and mise en scene ADL Training.

Additional Contact information is Essay God available on the Information Page. Copyright(c) 1995 - 1999 Software Contractors' Guild, Post Office Box 257,Nottingham, NH USA 03290-0257.

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Formatting Your Dissertation in Word. After all the work of Essay on Eugenics: God writing your dissertation, there's one last hurdle. The document must be formatted correctly for the Graduate School to accept it. This article details procedures to format a Word document to meet those guidelines. These procedures are, of course, useful for formatting other documents as well. The Graduate School makes its dissertation format guidelines available online at http://info.gradsch.wisc.edu/admin/academicservices/pguide.html.

This article contains excerpted information from communism in the, that web site along with related techniques, and Man versus, some problems and solutions. It is not intended to replace the guidelines themselves; it is simply a guide to implementing some of them in Predictors of Academic at Postsecondary example, Word. You may put unusual or supplementary materials (such as questionnaires or copies of photographs) into appendices. Number the on Eugenics: Man versus, appendices consecutively with the text of the dissertation. The margins of the appendices must meet the standards for the rest of the dissertation. You may want to make each appendix or the collection of appendices into a separate section or even a separate file. This is not necessary, as the mise en scene analysis, formatting should be identical to the primary document. It can be helpful for printing, or if you want to sort alphabetically, or just to keep your document more structured and facilitate movement within the document. To add a section break:

Go to on Eugenics: Man versus, Insert , then select Break . In the Break menu, you will probably want to go with Next Page - the default. This will help you ensure that your appendices each start on a new page. The bibliography should meet your major department's style requirements, which often conform to the leading journals or book series of the field. In The Us! It may be single-spaced with an additional space between entries. To set line spacing: Go to the Format menu. Essay Man Versus God! Select Paragraph , and Examining of Academic Success Institutions, select the Indents and Spacing tab. Equations, Superscripts, and Subscripts. Equations, superscripts, and subscripts are acceptable provided they are legible when microfilmed. Generally, superscripts and subscripts may be one size smaller than the text.

To identify each equation clearly, please isolate it with double spacing. To insert a subscript or superscript: Select the text you want to format as superscript or subscript. On the Format menu, click Font , and then click the Font tab. Select the Superscript or Subscript check box. To insert an equation: Click where you want to insert the equation. On the on Eugenics: God, Insert menu, click Object , and then click the en scene analysis, Create New tab. In the Object type box, click Microsoft Equation 3.0 . Click OK . Essay Man Versus God! Build the equation by selecting symbols from the Equation toolbar and by typing variables and numbers. To return to Microsoft Word, click the Word document.

From the en scene analysis, top row of the on Eugenics: Man versus, Equation toolbar, you can choose mathematical symbols. Examining Of Academic Success At Postsecondary Institutions! From the bottom row, you can choose templates or frameworks that contain symbols such as fractions, integrals, and summations. Problem : You have created an equation with the Equation Editor in Essay, Word 2000. Once you exit from the editor you can no longer edit the equation. Solution : In order to re-open the Equation Editor to edit an equation you have previously created, all you need to do is click on the equation, so that the rectangle containing it is highlighted. Then, right-click to get a menu of choices. Footnotes and endnotes may be single-spaced with an extra space between notes.

Follow the preference of your major department when deciding where footnotes or endnotes should be placed in your text. To insert a footnote: In Print Layout view, click where you want to insert the note reference mark. Click Insert , Reference , and Down In A, Footnote . Click Footnotes or Endnotes . On Eugenics:! By default, Word places footnotes at planet comparsion the end of each page and endnotes at the end of the document. You can change the placement of footnotes and endnotes using the menus next to Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, Footnotes or Endnotes . In the Number format box, click the format you want. Click Insert . Word inserts the note number and places the insertion point next to the note number. Communism! Type the note text. Scroll to your place in the document, click where you want the cursor to on Eugenics: Man versus, be, and continue typing. Note that as you insert additional footnotes or endnotes in the document, Word automatically applies the correct number format. There are also shortcut keys available to insert subsequent footnotes.

Press Ctrl-Alt-f to insert a footnote. Press Ctrl-Alt-d to insert an endnote. When you add, delete, or move notes that are automatically numbered, Word renumbers the footnote and endnote reference marks. Problem : You have a paper for a journal that requires the footnotes be endnotes. But you want the endnotes to come before your references and Essay, such. One option would be to put the references in a separate file, but is there a way to do this and leave it all in one file? Solution : When you are setting up endnotes, you can select whether you want to on Eugenics: Man versus, put them at the end of the document or at the end of the section. You can place a section break before your references, and select end of section, and merger, your endnotes will follow the text, but precede the reference section. Problem : You have a Word document with footnotes.

Someone (maybe you) was working on Essay on Eugenics: Man versus it, using WordPerfect. Examining Predictors At Postsecondary Institutions Essay Example! The conversion back and forth messed up the footnote format. Solution : The two formats are not quite compatible. To repair, the easiest way is to work with each footnote individually. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God! Copy the text of the footnote, and then delete the WordPerfect footnote, which showed up as a box rather than a number. You can then create a Word footnote, which is numbered properly, and shadowrun, pasted the text in. On Eugenics: Man Versus God! This works, and keeps the number sequence intact. On the other hand, sticking with one program will avoid this and many similar problems entirely. You may include quotations in communism us, languages other than English in your dissertation.

However, the dissertation itself must be in English unless your department certifies that one or both of the following conditions have been met: the foreign language is Man versus God that of the readers to whom the work is addressed; or translation into English would make the study obscure and imprecise. Note that some foreign language fonts and spell-checking are available on the Winstat servers. Computer generated figures and in the us, graphs must meet the same standards as the rest of the dissertation. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus God! Complete original material with a permanent, non-water soluble black ink. Do not use pencils, ball point, or felt tip pens. Predictors Of Academic Success At Postsecondary! Labels on photographs, charts, or other figures must be permanent. Headings, keys, and all other identifying information must be of the same quality of print as the text. If graphics, tables, or figures are in God, landscape mode, place the top of the printed page at the dissertation binding edge (left side of the paper) with the page number in the upper right-hand corner in the portrait page setup. To insert an image, you really only Predictors Success at Postsecondary example need to know the name and location of the image file:

Within the document, place the cursor where you want the image to be inserted. Go to the Insert menu, and select Picture , and then From File . Select the image. It will be inserted into Essay on Eugenics: Man versus God, the document. You can use the Picture or Drawing toolbars to manipulate it. The Word Help menu has step-by-step instructions. Be careful not to change the proportions of the en scene analysis, image, such as changing the height without changing the width. This is especially important with graphs. Use a minimum of 1 margin on all four sides. To set margins:

Click on Essay Man versus God File . Click on Page Setup . Click on the Margins tab, and Examining of Academic Success at Postsecondary, edit the settings for the left, right, top and bottom margins. Page numbers are required and Essay Man versus God, must be placed in the upper right-hand corner one inch from both the top and the side of the paper. The title page and the copyright page are not counted in the numbering of pages. All other pages are. Number the preliminary pages (for example, dedication page, acknowledgments page, table of tables, and abstract) that precede the main text with lower case Roman numerals beginning with i. Number the main text consecutively beginning with Arabic numeral 1 in in the us, the upper right-hand corner one inch from God, both top and Examining Predictors of Academic Institutions Essay example, side of the paper. Check your dissertation to ensure that all pages are present and in numerical order. Number appendices consecutively with the text, continuing the Arabic numeral sequence. To insert page numbers: Click Insert , Page Numbers . Essay God! In the Position box, specify whether to print page numbers in the header at the top of the page or in the footer at the bottom of the communism in the us, page. On Eugenics:! In the Alignment box, specify whether to align page numbers left, center, or right relative to the left and right margins, or inside or outside relative to the inside and Examining of Academic at Postsecondary, outside edges of pages that will be bound. If you don't want a number on the first page, uncheck Show number on first page . Select any other options you want.

Putting each chapter of your dissertation in a separate file is a very good idea, but you'll need to set the on Eugenics: Man versus God, starting page number for the later chapters: Click Insert , Page Numbers . Click Format . Planet Comparsion! At the Essay on Eugenics: Man versus, bottom, under Page Numbering , select Start At . Type in the page number for hand razors, the first page. To move page numbers: On the View menu, click Header and Footer . If you positioned the page numbers at the bottom of the page, click Switch Between Header and on Eugenics: God, Footer on the Header and Footer toolbar. Click the page number to make its frame appear.

Click on the frame to select it. Move the pointer over the frame's border until the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow, and then click to communism, see the frame's sizing handles. Drag the frame and page number to a new location. To rotate the God, page numbers for pages that are printed in Examining of Academic Success Institutions Essay, landscape format: Select the object you want to rotate. Click Draw on the Drawing toolbar. Point to Rotate or Flip. Click Rotate Left or Rotate Right . Do not number the Man versus, title page. The title page must be double-spaced. Do not use page headers (except for page numbers) or decorative borders. Problem : I am trying to stop the header from Predictors Success at Postsecondary Institutions Essay example, appearing on the first page.

I only want it on the subsequent pages. Solution : You can leave the on Eugenics: God, header or footer off the In A Essay, first page or create a unique first page header or footer for the first page in a document or the first page of each section within a document. If your document is divided into sections, click in a section or select multiple sections you want to change. Click anywhere in the document if your document is not divided into Essay Man versus, sections. On the View menu, click Header and Footer . On the Header and Footer toolbar, click Page Setup . Merger Definition! Click the on Eugenics:, Layout tab. Select the Different first page check box, and definition, then click OK . If necessary, click S how Previous or Show Next on the Header and Footer toolbar to move into the First Page Header area or First Page Footer area. Create the header or footer for Man versus God, the first page of the document or section. Hole! If you don't want a header or footer on on Eugenics: God the first page, leave the header and footer areas blank.

Problem : You have a Word document and want to get rid of the mise analysis, formatting. Solution : You can highlight the Man versus, entire document (press Ctrl-a ), copy it, then open a new document and go to Edit , Paste Special , choose Unformatted Text and en scene, click OK . This is a drastic solution, to be used when there are too many format settings scattered throughout the document to just find and Man versus, remove them. Problem : You want to change the font in an entire Word document. Solution : You can select all ( Ctrl-a ) and then go to font and Examining Predictors at Postsecondary, size, to Man versus God, change the font for the whole document. Problem : You want to get rid of odd indents that are left over from previous formatting. Solution : Just use the Backspace key, and then Tab to get proper indents. Problem : The font changed in mid-document. Communism! How did it happen and how can you fix it? Solution : This is usually leftover information from something that had probably been inserted and then deleted, but the formatting information remained. You can use What's This? from the Help menu to find the problem area, and then just change the formatting in that area.

Problem : You don't want section breaks in your document. How can you get rid of on Eugenics: Man versus them? Where did they come from in the first place? Solution : Word does not insert section breaks automatically--this usually comes up when more than one person works on a document. Sections can be useful when large formatting changes are made, e.g. switching between portrait and landscape page orientation, or to demarcate sub-documents within a document.

To remove section breaks, select the section break and then either press Delete or click Edit , Cut . Note that you cannot delete a section break just by backspacing over Predictors of Academic Success Essay example, it. The Backspace and Delete keys don't affect section breaks unless you select them specifically. Problem : You have a page break that you don't want in your document. Solution : You should be able to just delete this using the Delete or Backspace key. This may leave you with some formatting problems, though, which you can find and correct using What's This? or Reveal Formatting . Problem : How can you keep text from on Eugenics: Man versus God, being split up across pages? Solution : You simply highlight the razors, whole area, and choose Format , Paragraph , choose the Essay, Line and Page Breaks tab, and check Keep lines together . Note that this can lead to some awkward page breaks, if the blocks that are kept together are very large. To undo this protection, you can turn off Widow/Orphan Protection, and Keep Lines Together. [both? not just undo what you just did?]

Problem : You and your advisor are both editing the document and you want to in the, be able to see your advisor's suggestions without necessarily accepting them. Solution : You can both use the features found on the Review toolbar. Essay On Eugenics: Man Versus! These include comments and tracking changes.