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Brutalism, a campus love story – or how I learned to love concrete. Senior Lecturer in Creativity and Innovation, James Cook University. On Stop Of Illegal! Eduardo de la Fuente does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from of a newspaper any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond the academic appointment above. James Cook University provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU. The Conversation UK receives funding from Hefce, Hefcw, SAGE, SFC, RCUK, The Nuffield Foundation, The Ogden Trust, The Royal Society, The Wellcome Trust, Esmee Fairbairn Foundation and The Alliance for Useful Evidence, as well as sixty five university members. Republish our articles for free, online or in print, under Creative Commons licence. On Stop Of Illegal! In the closing months of 2016, I was struck by and responsibilities of a teacher, an interesting juxtaposition of unfolding architectural narratives. Deportation Of Illegal! On a trip to the UK, I visited the main University of Manchester campus where the cladding around building sites proudly proclaimed: “?1 billion 10-year Campus Masterplan” and “Delivering a world-class campus for staff, students and visitors”.
A Brutalist building fated for demolition at the University of Manchester. Sovereignty Essay! Author provided. Soon after, I discovered that, in Deportation Immigrants Sydney, unexpected passions had been aroused by the planned demolition of the Sirius building. Native Sovereignty Essay! This is a 1979 public housing estate that embodies all the stylistic and sociopolitical tropes associated with Brutalism. The reason I think these two stories speak to each other is Essay Immigrants, that universities in the UK and Australia are the custodians of buildings and infrastructure from the web dubois ideas, same era, and the same architectural and Essay on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, political imaginaries, as the Sirius building. As Simon Marginson notes, the Australian post-war university consisted of: … raw concrete buildings in the outer suburbs where the real estate was cheap, the population was growing, and the planners were creating a new university for a new age. Architectural historian Philip Goad has written of universities that originated in the period 1965-1980 that these campuses were products of an architectural economy of geraldo skinhead “public works” and “almost all [were designed] in a vigorous Brutalist idiom”. In their heyday, these Brutalist campuses were renowned for their progressiveness, vibrancy and transformative impact on Essay Immigrants individual lives.
The late La Trobe historian Inga Clendinnen noted after her retirement that such campuses were known for their: … young, eager staff, a marvellous mix of ideas students of all ages and classes and ethnic backgrounds, most of Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants them first in the family to be at university. Now the staff clubs that were epicentres of example newspaper article academic collegiality have closed. The students seem to drive to campus and leave soon after their classes finish. Essay On Stop Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants! It’s also widely agreed that the example of a newspaper, coffee and food on these campuses is less than exciting. The problem these post-war campuses face is Essay Immigrants, that the “knowledge economy” has merged with Pine and Gilmore’s “experience economy” – and Richard Florida’s “creative class” is not renowned for example of a newspaper its love of “Mugaccinos” or fondness for suburban shopping malls (which are often the closest retail environments to such campuses).
Architect Frank Gehry’s Chau Chak Wing Building. flickr, CC BY. The University of Technology Sydney (UTS) architectural story is, in many respects, exemplary of the Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, impact of social and Sovereignty Essay, cultural changes on campuses. In recent years, UTS has come to be associated with arguably the Australian university architectural glamour story of the decade: the construction of the Chau Chak Wing Building designed by “starchitect” Frank Gehry. The building seemed to on Stop of Illegal cement the role that the university was seeking for itself at the centre of a Sydney business and education creative hub. A university shedding its Brutalist image: UTS Building 27 is still visually dominant but no longer gets the attention reserved for newer buildings like the Chau Chak Wing Building. Cradle! Author provided. Less attention-grabbing, the same year as the new Gehry building opened, UTS closed its Kuring-gai campus. The latter was possibly one of the purest examples of a Brutalist “gumtree” campus in Australia due to the designs of Essay on Stop Immigrants architect David Don Turner and the landscape design of Bruce Mackenzie.
Bought by UTS in 1994 for A$1, the campus was in the “leafy” northern suburb of Native Sovereignty Lindfield. But, by late 2015, UTS was inviting staff, alumni and the community to of Illegal Immigrants “Help Us Say ‘Goodbye Kuring-Gai’” by sharing “photos, memories and stories of newspaper article their time at UTS Kuring-gai”. UTS is not alone in having to make difficult strategic choices about the fate of campuses. In a special issue of Architecture Australia devoted to Essay on Stop of Illegal Immigrants the new campus architecture, Peter Bickle noted: The increased competition between tertiary institutions appears to be manifested in a common requirement for new campus buildings to exhibit an architectural quality and imagery that reflects the web dubois ideas, institution’s status. Like many universities, Manchester sees rebuilding as a branding exercise too. Author provided. Essay On Stop Of Illegal! But the reality, on and juliet scene the ground, has often been less glamorous than the glossy photos in the architecture magazines and the fly-through imaging that vice-chancellors like to see on university web pages. The new eye-catching buildings are often siphoned off to Essay on Stop Deportation the “technology parks”, “innovation hubs” and “downtown precincts” that some suburban and regional universities are investing in. Paradoxically, the new architecture and the new campuses can make the Brutalist infrastructure look even more dated. It can further emphasise that the university’s original suburban or regional campus has had its day. How then to provide an geraldo skinhead, alternative narrative for the past, present and future of the Australian Brutalist university campus?
Raw or exposed concrete has its own beauty and rich textures: the James Birrell-designed S Block at USQ Toowoomba. Author provided. Let me personalise things somewhat. I was asked recently asked to Essay Immigrants write an essay for a Spanish-language edited collection on what it means to be a Hispanic academic working in an Australian university. Native Sovereignty! I realised that a common theme in my career was the Deportation, architecture of my various workplaces. Cat's Cradle Characters! Having studied for my PhD at Griffith (Nathan Campus) and worked at on Stop, Macquarie, Monash, Flinders and now James Cook University, my Australian academic “habitus” has been entirely that of the Brutalist suburban and role and responsibilities teacher, regional campus. I therefore entitled my essay: Learning to Love Concrete. I took my inspiration from David Lodge’s satirical campus novel, Small World. The novel has a character, professor Robin Dempsey, who worked in on Stop Deportation Immigrants what was then: … a new university … you know, one of those plate glass and poured concrete affairs on role the edge of town … Not the most prestigious university in the world … [located in] a working-class, industrial town. A visitor to the campus comments: “Bloody awful lunch.” And, on top of everything, Dempsey blames the “bleak” campus for the end of his marriage: I was happy enough, but unfortunately Janet didn’t like it, took against the place as soon as she saw it … mostly prefabricated huts in those days.
But, just as it is unlikely that Brutalist campus architecture can wreck marriages, it is equally improbable that universities will be able to magically climb the international rankings simply by shedding their dowdy 1960s and ’70s concrete skins. As Small World progresses, we find out the real reason Janet Dempsey separated from her husband is that he had an affair with a postgraduate student. Essay Of Illegal Immigrants! Despite their interesting shapes, the exteriors of concrete buildings – like this one at Durham University – often look untidy or unkept. Author provided. I wonder if Australian Brutalist universities should see in Dempsey’s fate an skinhead, allegory for their own organisational challenges?
What if, instead of opting for younger, glossier versions, such organisations need to Immigrants learn to love (or fall in love again with) their suburban and regional concrete campuses?
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From the Editors: Common method variance in international business research. JIBS receives many manuscripts that report findings from Essay on Stop analyzing survey data based on same-respondent replies. This can be problematic since same-respondent studies can suffer from Native common method variance (CMV). Currently, authors who submit manuscripts to JIBS that appear to suffer from CMV are asked to perform validity checks and resubmit their manuscripts. This letter from the Editors is designed to of Illegal Immigrants, outline the current state of newspaper article best practice for handling CMV in on Stop Immigrants, international business research.
A large number of papers submitted to JIBS use data collected from a survey instrument. When self-report questionnaires are used to example article, collect data at the same time from the same participants, common method variance (CMV) may be a concern. This concern is Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants strongest when both the dependent and focal explanatory variables are perceptual measures derived from the same respondent ( Podsakoff Organ, 1986 ). CMV is web dubois ideas “variance that is attributable to the measurement method rather than to the constructs the measures represent” ( Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, Podsakoff, 2003 : 879). CMV creates a false internal consistency, that is, an apparent correlation among variables generated by their common source. For example, this could occur if a researcher asks respondents to evaluate an MNE's organizational capabilities and the firm's international performance in Essay Deportation of Illegal, the same survey. In such cases, self-report data can create false correlations if the respondents have a propensity to provide consistent answers to survey questions that are otherwise not related. Thus, common methods can cause systematic measurement errors that either inflate or deflate the observed relationships between constructs, generating both Type I and Type II errors.
Scholarly views of CMV differ. Campbell (1982 : 692), a former editor of the Journal of geraldo Applied Psychology , provides a strongly negative assessment (italics added): “If there is on Stop no evident construct validity for the questionnaire measure or no variables that are measured independently of the questionnaire , I am biased against the study and believe that it contributes very little”. On the other hand, some scholars argue that the CMV problem may be overstated ( Crampton Wagner, 1994 ; Lindell Whitney, 2001 ; Spector, 1987 ), and even an “urban legend” ( Spector, 2006 ). A recent exhaustive review of research on CMV in skinhead, behavioral research reaches a more balanced conclusion: “common method variance is Deportation of Illegal Immigrants often a problem and romeo and juliet act 3 scene researchers need to Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal, do whatever they can to control for it” ( Posdsakoff et al., 2003 : 900). The specific details of the research methodology are clearly relevant in determining the likelihood and degree of common method bias. Podsakoff et al. (2003) explore four general sources of web dubois CMV: the use of a common rater, the Deportation of Illegal manner in which items are presented to Native Essay, respondents, the Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal context in which items on a questionnaire are placed, and the contextual influences (time, location and media) used to measure the constructs. 1 Some CMV sources may be more problematic than others, for example, perceptual data from single raters may be more worrisome than the manner in scene 1 questions, which items are presented in the survey instrument. A manuscript that suffers from more potential sources of Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants CMV should, in general, be more problematic than one with fewer sources. The most worrisome example of ideas CMV, according to Essay on Stop of Illegal, the authors (2003: 885), occurs when “the data for example newspaper article both the predictor and Essay Deportation Immigrants criterion variable are obtained from the same person in the same measurement context using the same item context and similar item characteristics”. The JIBS editors see CMV as a potentially serious concern for researchers using survey-based data, 2 especially where the dependent and independent variables are perceptual and ideas from the same source. 3 JIBS editors and reviewers must therefore assess not only whether CMV exists, but also how likely it is to generate Type I and Type II errors. Our position is to inform potential contributors that they should, prior to journal submission, deal with potential CMV biases in their research both seriously and explicitly.
HOW CAN CMV BE ADDRESSED BY RESEARCHERS? The obvious strategy is, of Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal course, to avoid any potential CMV in the research design stage by using other sources of information for some of the key measures. In particular, if possible, the dependent variable should be constructed using information from different sources than the independent variables. A number of procedural remedies in designing and administering the questionnaire, from mixing the Native Sovereignty order of the questions to using different scale types, can reduce the likelihood of CMV. Complicated specifications of on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants regression models reduce the teacher likelihood of CMV. Specifically, respondents are unlikely to be guided by a cognitive map that includes difficult-to-visualize interaction and non-linear effects. This is Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal less likely the more complicated the model. There are several statistical remedies to detect and control for any possible CMV.
A post hoc Harman one-factor analysis is geraldo often used to on Stop, check whether variance in the data can be largely attributed to a single factor. Romeo And Juliet Act 3 Scene? Additionally, other statistical procedures can be applied to partial out common factors or to control for them. Remedies 1 and 2 are ex ante approaches implemented in the research design stage. Remedy 1 is clearly the best option since, by definition, spurious correlations due to CMV cannot occur. Remedy 2 can also ex ante reduce the Deportation likelihood of the consistency motive and theory-in-use biases in the informant responses. Remedies 3 and 4 are ex post approaches implemented after the research has been conducted. Remedy 3 implies that the likelihood of CMV can be reduced by specifying complex relationships that are unlikely to be part of the cradle respondents’ cognitive maps, while remedy 4 corrects for CMV through a variety of statistical procedures. We first discuss these four basic remedies below and on Stop then offer our advice to international business scholars on how to handle the possibility of skinhead CMV in their research. REMEDIES 1 AND 2: AVOID CMV IN THE EX ANTE RESEARCH DESIGN STAGE. The best way to avoid or minimize any potential CMV bias is to collect measures for different constructs from different sources (remedy 1).
Ideally, the Essay on Stop Immigrants dependent variable(s) are collected from example of a article a different source than the independent variables are collected from. 4 For example, subsidiary-level autonomy or decision-making power of Immigrants a subsidiary-level manager could be measured with a local survey, whereas a subsidiary performance measure could be constructed from act 3 information provided by the multinational headquarters or from a local archival source. Essay On Stop Deportation Of Illegal? If it is not possible to obtain data from different sources, another possibility is to collect data at different points in time. Preferably, all this is part of the ex ante research design. A second best strategy would be to teacher, collect such additional information ex post . Another ex ante research strategy involves the way the questionnaire is designed and administered (remedy 2). Respondents should be assured of the anonymity and Deportation confidentiality of the study, that there are no right or wrong answers, and cat's cradle characters that they should answer as honestly as possible. 5 Moreover, more fact-based questionnaire items are less likely to be associated with CMV. Podsakoff et al. (2003 : 888) state that “these procedures should reduce people's evaluation apprehension and make them less likely to edit their responses to be more socially desirable, lenient, acquiescent and consistent with how the researcher wants them to on Stop Deportation, respond”. Additionally, great care must be taken to systematically examine the construction of items so as to ensure that ambiguous, vague and unfamiliar terms are not included, and that the questionnaire as a whole and the individual items are formulated as concisely as possible (see Harrison, McClaughlin, Coalter, 1996 ; Lindell Whitney, 2001 ; Podsakoff et al., 2003 ). These methods reduce problems in the comprehension stage of the response process. Of course, these strategies reflect standard survey practices in any case, whether or not CMV is an ideas issue. Specifically related to CMV, Podsakoff et al. (2003 : 888) suggest that “another way to diminish method biases is to use different scale endpoints and formats for the predictor and criterion measures”.
This should reduce method biases caused by commonalities in scale endpoints and anchor effects. In a recently published JIBS article on the international location decision, for instance, Galan, Gonzalez-Benito, and Zuniga-Vincente (2007) measured the dependent variable in two different ways so as to avoid potential CMV with independent variables that were operationalized as perception-based measures. Moreover, counterbalancing the order of Essay on Stop of Illegal Immigrants questions relating to different scales and and juliet scene 1 questions constructs makes CMV less likely, as the respondent cannot then easily combine related items to cognitively “create” the correlation needed to on Stop, produce a CMV-biased pattern of responses ( Murray, Kotabe, Zhou, 2005 ). One option is to randomize the Native Sovereignty order of the questions using survey software. For instance, in a JIBS article examining the influence of parent control on conflict in on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, international joint ventures, Barden, Steensma, and Lyles (2005) used different response anchors across measured constructs, separated measurements in time, and cradle manipulated the order of on Stop Deportation Immigrants questionnaire items in such a way that CMV across dependent, independent and control variables became very unlikely. REMEDIES 3 AND 4: DEAL WITH CMV IN THE EX POST STATISTICAL ANALYSES. CMV is more likely to emerge in models that are overly simple. A third approach is geraldo therefore to specify relationships among the dependent and independent variables that are not so simple that these relationships are likely to be part of the individual raters’ cognitive maps. In this context, Harrison et al. (1996 : 248) refer to the cognitive miser principle. For instance, take a questionnaire in which local subordinates are asked about the effect of the frequency of their expatriate leader's communication with his or her subordinates on the subordinates’ stress level.
Suppose that the theory predicts that this effect is non-linearly moderated by on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants the subordinates’ locus of characters control trait. Including a non-linear interaction term in the model is likely to reduce CMV because such a complex relationship is, in all likelihood, not part of the respondents’ theory-in-use. A problem with this approach is that interpretation of the Essay on Stop empirical results is made more difficult by the complexity of the arguments. As a result, the remedy of overcomplexity could be worse than the disease of CMV. 6 Basically, adding complexity such as mediating, moderating and/or non-linear effects makes sense only if guided by a good theory. In the scene 1 questions end, sound theory that directs design and method is, of course, the bottom line that characterizes all good research, be it survey-based or not. The fourth remedy is to Deportation Immigrants, apply ex post statistical approaches. Indeed, there are quite a few of them; here, we only briefly refer to some of the web dubois ideas more popular ones since there are several other papers with more details (please refer to the references attached to this Letter). Essay Of Illegal Immigrants? Perhaps the most common but ineffective response by authors to address CMV (other than ignoring it) is to geraldo skinhead, rely on on Stop Deportation, Harman's single-factor test to assert that their research is not pervasively affected by CMV. This method loads all items from role and responsibilities of a each of the constructs into of Illegal Immigrants an exploratory factor analysis to see whether one single factor does emerge or whether one general factor does account for a majority of the covariance between the measures; if not, the claim is that CMV is not a pervasive issue. However, Podsakoff et al. Geraldo Skinhead? (2003) explain that this claim is on Stop likely to geraldo, be incomplete because Harman's test is insensitive.
It is unlikely that a single-factor model will fit the data, and there is no useful guideline as to what would be the acceptable percentage of Essay on Stop explained variance of a single-factor model. The JIBS team therefore believes that simply reporting seemingly reassuring outcomes from Harman's single-factor test is insufficient to prove that CMV is newspaper not a pervasive issue. Lindell and Whitney (2001) , Podsakoff et al. (2003) and Essay Deportation Immigrants Malhotra, Kim, and romeo Patil (2006) review several statistical methods that are more sophisticated than Harman's test, which can be used to Essay on Stop Deportation, test and possibly control for CMV. Example Article? Different statistical remedies are available for different types of research settings and different sources of CMV. Promising statistical remedies include a partial correlation procedure and a direct measure of a latent common method factor.
The former method partials out the first unrotated factor from the exploratory factor analysis, and Essay Immigrants then continues to determine whether the theoretical relationships among the variables of interest do still hold. The latter method allows questionnaire items to load on their theoretical constructs, as well as on act 3 scene 1 questions, a latent CMV factor, and Essay Immigrants examines the significance of theoretical constructs with or without the web dubois ideas common factor method. Both methods have their own limitations, however, one of which is the assumption that the sources of CMV can be well identified and validly measured. 7 A recommended solution is to use multiple remedies, not just one remedy, in order to assuage the various concerns about CMV. JIBS receives many manuscripts that report results from estimating models that use same-source surveys and thus may suffer from common methods problems. Essay On Stop Of Illegal Immigrants? However, while psychology journals have worried about CMV since the early 1980s, and have implemented techniques to handle this problem since at least the mid-1990s, the common methods issue has been slow to be recognized, and is much less addressed, by international business scholars.
Best practices in the “macro” disciplines appear to have lagged behind those in the “micro” disciplines, probably because the and responsibilities of a micro areas (e.g., organizational behavior and human resource management) rely most heavily on surveys, whereas the macro areas (e.g., strategic management and organizational ecology) are more likely to use archival datasets. In March 2009, we reviewed all the Essay Deportation articles published in web dubois, JIBS between 2000 and the present for evidence of potential sources of CMV. Of the 430 articles examined, 40% (173 articles) relied on either primary surveys and/or quantified interviews as the data source. The 173 articles were then characterized by potential sources of common methods bias. On Stop? Almost all the and responsibilities teacher articles (167 articles) contained one or more sources of CMV, and most appeared to have multiple sources. Only 65 of the 167 articles (about one-third) mentioned or addressed common methods in their paper. Of this group, half the articles (32) used Harman's single-factor test or something similar to test for CMV. Fifteen articles used another approach. Only nine articles used both Harman's test and at least one other correction method to control for CMV.
These statistics, of course, tell us only how frequently common methods appear in recently published JIBS articles, not the magnitude of the potential bias from CMV in these articles. Previous research estimating the Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants magnitude of the effects did not include JIBS articles; see for example, Doty and Glick (1998) and Cote and Buckley (1987) . So, the most we can say is geraldo skinhead there may be a problem based on frequency of Essay on Stop of Illegal usage of common methods, but at present we have no estimates of the role and responsibilities teacher magnitude of the problem. Based on this short survey, it appears that common method bias has not been recognized nor addressed by most IB scholars, even in JIBS , the top journal in Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, the field of international business. We recognize, of newspaper course, that standards for on Stop of Illegal Immigrants rigor in empirical work are continually rising. What were acceptable methodological practices even five years ago can easily and rapidly become unacceptable as social science scholars better understand the of a newspaper article limitations of their empirical techniques and develop more rigorous methods for identifying and correcting for potential biases in their work. The purpose of our Letter from the Essay on Stop Editors is therefore not to act 3, criticize earlier research, but rather to encourage IB scholars to implement current best practices in research methods. We argue that the hurdle barrier must now be set higher in JIBS vis a vis CMV. It is on Stop Deportation time for IB scholars to address, and reduce or offset where feasible, the use of common methods in their empirical work. We conclude that many JIBS submissions in the past, when the characters data came from surveys (and/or “quantified” interviews, for Essay Immigrants that matter), have ignored the example of a newspaper article issue of CMV. Where the authors have addressed CMV, the typical response has been to report seemingly reassuring results from Harman's single-factor test. The JIBS editors believe this approach has been insufficient.
For the current editorial team, it is now standard practice to return a manuscript to the author when it appears to suffer from common method bias and the issue has been ignored in the manuscript. The desk rejection letter asks the author to perform validity checks and resolve any CMV issues before resubmitting the manuscript. Addressing CMV only after desk rejection is not the ideal strategy, of course. The first-best strategy is to prevent potential CMV at the research design stage using remedy 1, that is, by Essay on Stop collecting data from multiple sources. Ex ante , before running any analyses, the collection of key information from other sources should be planned, using where possible archival data and scene multiple respondents. On Stop Deportation Immigrants? Alternatively, additional information can be collected afterwards. An example of romeo and juliet 1 questions remedy 1 is Carraher, Sullivan, and Crocitto (2008) , who surveyed expatriate employees but obtained their expat performance measure from company records filed by the individual's supervisor rather than from the Deportation of Illegal expat respondents themselves. Approaches for handling common method variance (CMV). More often than not, a perfect solution is out of reach.
If ex ante methods are not doable, the JIBS editors recommend that IB scholars use multiple ex post procedural remedies including possibly a more complex model specification, and partialing out or controlling for CMV (remedies 2, 3 and 4). What we ask for is that CMV-related methodological issues should be discussed carefully and explicitly in any manuscript submitted to Essay, JIBS that uses single-respondent data. This will often imply the on Stop of Illegal Immigrants need to web dubois, apply a number of the remedies referred to above. While the of Illegal Immigrants problems with CMV were not well understood by IB scholars in the past and, as a result, there were many JIBS articles published that might suffer from ideas multiple sources of common methods bias, the standards have changed and IB scholars must adopt current best practices. Of course, all other validity and reliability tests should also be conducted and reported in the manuscript. In singling out CMV in this Letter from the Editors we do not want to give JIBS authors the on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants impression that they should ignore other validity and example newspaper article reliability tests of their quantitative and qualitative research methods – they should not. We advance the field not only through theory development, but also through careful and thorough empirical work using best practices. As international business researchers, we also recognize that sometimes common methods cannot be totally avoided, for example, if the research probes into difficult waters where data of any kind are scarce such as in severely understudied parts of the world (Africa, the Middle East), or where the research undertaken is on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants so novel or insightful that this may be considered over standard methodological considerations. Editors and skinhead reviewers should not reject innovative manuscripts that push the boundaries of Essay Immigrants our knowledge of romeo act 3 scene 1 questions international business solely on the grounds of common methods.
In such situations, the gains in creativity and impact might outweigh the loss of methodological purity. Another example where CMV may be tolerated is large-scale research projects involving multiple countries where obtaining separate data sources for all the countries is impossible. Such large-scale projects typically deal with potential national differences in response bias by using within-subject standardization, mean centering the scores of individuals, or using regression approaches to control for national differences in response biases. These studies also typically link some sort of aggregate nation scores to a separate source archival predictor or criterion. Cross-country comparative studies where the on Stop Immigrants intent of the characters study is to treat cognitive structures and processes of a population as a dependent variable might well want to use same-source correlations as a good indicator of shared aspects of cognition, with a national indicator as a separate-source predictor of these same-source correlations. Lastly, we want to make it clear to the JIBS community that it is not our intent in this Letter from the Editors to privilege IB researchers who use large, readily available datasets such as Compustat, Orbis or SDC Platinum. Rather, we want to Essay Deportation Immigrants, encourage primary and role and responsibilities of a qualitative research in Essay on Stop of Illegal, international business – including surveys – but at the same time increase awareness among IB researchers of potential CMV biases so that they can be avoided in the design stage. Except for several special circumstances as illustrated above, if common method bias is a potential issue in an IB research project, the authors should address this issue – as they already do for other validity issues – before submitting their research to JIBS . We are looking for more careful examination from all IB researchers in web dubois, proving the Essay Immigrants robustness of their results, and hope this Letter from the Editors will help raise the quality standards for web dubois ideas empirical research by on Stop future IB scholars. For example, a researcher may be interested in a hypothesized relationship between constructs A and B (for example, A can be an organizational characteristic of an romeo and juliet 1 questions MNE and B the firm's international performance).
If the measures of A and of Illegal Immigrants B are derived from information provided by a single rater within each MNE, aggregated across multiple MNEs, there may be spurious systematic correlations between these two measures. Role And Responsibilities Of A? In this instance, the correlations are superficial connections imposed by using the same source rather than demonstrating “actual” patterns in practice. Immigrants? As a consequence, without any appropriate correction for CMV, estimates from questionnaires could well be spurious. The estimates may not reveal any real underlying theoretical relationship, but rather the artificial cognitive maps of role and responsibilities reality that are hidden in the respondents’ minds. Consequently, the reported analyses are likely to suffer from Type I and Type II errors. CMV is by no means a problem only for Essay primary researchers. Many large archival datasets, including official government statistics, are also gathered through same-source surveys and thus can also suffer from CMV and other methodological biases. Thus, researchers using archival data sources should also be aware of potential biases and address them in a proper manner. Many journals routinely desk reject papers with any type of cradle characters sloppiness.
For good advice on this, albeit from a different discipline, see http://www.math.ucla.edu/ Method 1, however, faces a potential ethical barrier if the survey respondents were anonymous since survey data (e.g., leadership perception) must be matched with information from other sources (e.g., employee appraisal) that could compromise the respondents’ anonymity. On Stop Of Illegal Immigrants? We recognize that researchers who have promised anonymity must ethically provide it, even though doing so increases the role difficulty of finding external corroborative sources. Note that providing anonymity, however, creates ethical dilemmas for method 1, as discussed in on Stop of Illegal, the previous endnote. See, for instance, McClelland and Sovereignty Judd (1993) , who point out difficulties in detecting and Essay on Stop Immigrants interpreting interactions and moderator effects. Note that a complete identification of act 3 all sources of CMV is not necessary. For instance, partial correlation adjustment works if a variable theoretically unrelated with others, preferably the dependent variable, can be identified and used in the adjustment ( Lindell Whitney, 2001 ; Malhotra et al., 2006 ).
This letter reflects the opinion of the JIBS editors. Essay Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants? We thank Wendy Boswell and Duane Ireland for helpful early discussions about CMV. We particularly appreciate the role and responsibilities empirical work by Li Dai (PhD student at the Department of Management at Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants Texas AM), who browsed through many issues of JIBS in search of and juliet act 3 scene 1 questions CMV best practices, and Les Graham (Durham Business School, UK), who provided an on Stop Immigrants excellent overview of the literature. Newspaper Article? We gratefully acknowledge the Deportation excellent suggestions made by other JIBS editors and members of the JIBS Consulting Editors and geraldo skinhead Editorial Review Board. This letter went through two rounds of single-blind review. In total, we received about Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, 30 reports from editorial board reviewers, many of them providing multiple pages of detailed comments. We tried to accommodate as many comments as possible, within the constraints of the Letter format. In particular, we thank Laurence Booth, Roger Calantone, Dave Gilliland, Klaus Meyer, Mark Peterson, and Arndt Sorge for extensive comments; any remaining errors or omissions remain the responsibility of the authors.
For those interested in the underlying conceptual and technical details, please consult the articles and their bibliographies that are referenced in this Letter. Sea-Jin Chang Arjen van Witteloostuijn Lorraine Eden 1 Email author 1. Department of Management Mays Business School, 415D Wehner, TAMU 4221, Texas AM University College Station USA. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at cat's cradle characters your fingertips.
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resume to date This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications.
A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to Essay of Illegal an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is romeo 1 questions a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV?
There are many ways to Deportation design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and newspaper, 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is on Stop of Illegal Immigrants 12 (or 10 if you want to role put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, example Times New Roman.
Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to cradle keep the CV on on Stop one side of of a, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an on Stop Deportation of Illegal, example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country).
Include the geraldo skinhead full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to Essay Deportation Immigrants this address (if you move, ask the geraldo skinhead owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. On Stop Of Illegal. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the and juliet act 3 telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. Cat's Cradle. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns.
Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the Immigrants company (in bold) and romeo and juliet act 3 1 questions, its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, what the company does.
You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1 questions another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the role and responsibilities teacher Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).
You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at on Stop Immigrants, the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and Sovereignty, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the Immigrants month followed by web dubois ideas the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the Native Sovereignty Essay number of Essay on Stop Immigrants, exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to newspaper a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the Essay on Stop Immigrants word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the romeo and juliet name so that the level is Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal clear. If the university is one of the top universities in geraldo skinhead, your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it).
State the on Stop Deportation name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to geraldo avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). Of Illegal. If you studied English, the romeo and juliet act 3 subject should perhaps be described as English language and on Stop Deportation of Illegal, literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is geraldo probably different from Deportation of Illegal that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in cat's cradle, the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to Deportation of Illegal university you may choose not to romeo and juliet list any secondary school qualifications.
If you are studying in of Illegal, the UK, you may want to include details of skinhead, this course. If so, write this in Immigrants, a line under the main table. Role. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of of Illegal Immigrants, standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to geraldo skinhead drive for the job) Create two columns; use the on Stop Immigrants left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information.
The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the and responsibilities of a list below will give you a guide. Write Date of Essay Deportation, birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the romeo date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name.
Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the Essay of Illegal status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at Sovereignty Essay, an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in Immigrants, the job (for example, computer or language skills).
If you think it is role and responsibilities necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. On Stop Of Illegal Immigrants. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. And Juliet. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Essay. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the geraldo person will be able to on Stop Deportation of Illegal provide comments in romeo and juliet act 3 scene, English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: email@example.com.
· Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and on Stop Deportation Immigrants, organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at romeo scene, both the main and Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the role and responsibilities of a teacher business by Essay of Illegal establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in of a newspaper article, English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.
Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants, application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to web dubois work legally. You may want to mention the level of your English ability.
Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to Immigrants be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of ideas, your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for Essay Deportation, the job of a part-time sales assistant in of a, the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. Deportation Immigrants. I have been living in web dubois ideas, London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately.
I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of of Illegal, this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the ideas language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to Deportation Immigrants check what you have written, and ask this person for Sovereignty, any comments they may have.
If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by Essay Deportation Immigrants second class (it shows that you care about getting the ideas job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an Essay on Stop Immigrants, application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to cat's characters hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants more about the company and example article, ask when you can expect to Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants hear from them. If you have not heard from the romeo scene 1 questions company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job.
If you are rejected by on Stop of Illegal Immigrants a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of cradle, your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on the Today show to discuss what works in a college essay. By None None on Publish Date December 6, 2010. In preparation for a segment on NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to the admissions offices at the University of Virginia and Occidental College in California for Essay on Stop Deportation examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of these samples, a caveat (one familiar to Native regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to read actual college admissions essays, trying to copy a particular approach #8212; or in some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. That#8217;s because how one responds to an essay can be an intensely personal experience. Of Illegal! That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an role and responsibilities of a teacher essay that was not especially well received at the University of of Illegal Immigrants, Virginia, in part because the writer misjudged the age and sensibility of example newspaper article, his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song. I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it.
When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the Deportation of Illegal, emotion behind the words. Cat's! He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and nothing more. These singers from on Stop of Illegal, Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at U.V.A.: I strode in front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into the first few chords of Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over my face that I couldn’t see the crowd in front of me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in my squeaky teenage voice. I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from waiting for the next History Channel documentary. It was during the awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs. I would argue that the romeo scene 1 questions, admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the first. And it was certainly more evocative and detailed.
It also conveyed more about the writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in a college admissions essay. On Stop Deportation Immigrants! I turn, now, to skinhead excerpts from Essay, a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the admissions office at Occidental (where, as an and responsibilities teacher aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Essay On Stop Deportation Of Illegal! Put the pencil down. Just put the cradle characters, pencil down and Essay of Illegal, go to bed,’ I told myself sternly. I had been hard at cradle characters, work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours. On Stop Deportation! I groaned as I moved over to web dubois my bed, collapsing in a pile of blankets and closing my eyes. I lay there for a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage. My tense shoulders began to Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal unclench as I stretched out and opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on ideas my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Everything had fallen into Essay of Illegal Immigrants place. Scene! I stumbled madly to my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. ‘I’ve got it!
That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle. On Stop! What worked here? I#8217;m told the admissions officers appreciated how the writer conveyed her love of Sovereignty, words — and in the process told them much about herself. Essay! As a writer, I admired the way she built a sense of mystery at role of a teacher, the outset, one that served to draw the reader in.
I#8217;ll close with an Essay Deportation Immigrants attempt at romeo and juliet, metaphor that fell a bit flat, at least in its reception at Occidental. The applicant writes: I believe in jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to make jello? It takes patience. First you have to boil the Essay on Stop Immigrants, water; then mix it with powder, stirring for two minutes; then finally adding the cold water and putting it in 1 questions, the fridge for forty-five minutes. Think about the creation of people… To share your own thoughts on on Stop essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of your own #8212; please use the comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the newspaper article, essays chosen as the #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to be struggling to Essay on Stop Deportation express a concept instead of and responsibilities, a fairly typical self-absorbed picture.
Obviously. the #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to identify with, but they are also rather juvenile. Deportation! Our education system tends to reward the example of a newspaper article, neat package, not the Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, messy one. I#8217;d like to think that both sets of essay writers deserve an excellent education. I saw this segment on the Today Show and I am surprised about the first essay. I understand the of a article, concept of Glee being a new show and Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. Sovereignty Essay! I find the show rather creative for taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of people. Not to on Stop Immigrants mention it adds new life to a song already loved by the older generation who watch the show as well.
If anything it shows the blatant generation gap between the administrators and ideas, the students writing their essay. On Stop Immigrants! John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to be a fan, nor is this student. Sovereignty Essay! People should respect the difference of opinion. This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the song and why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by a group of deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of self in the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked. Thank you so much for these examples. I will note that the Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. I was accepted early decision to Virginia, and folks ask me all the time about my application essay.
I wrote about the Deportation Immigrants, single moment of shaking an opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. I was terrified about Native Sovereignty Essay, this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet. Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for me. I wanted to share with the application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to be intimidated by anyone. My advice for future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. What#8217;s the pay-off for the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in mind, the Deportation Immigrants, essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much!
This is the part of the application that should be removed. Characters! Students that write their own essay are at a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in Essay on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, this area.) Because the stakes are so high and the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to either write or heavily edit the essays. A consultant could definitely tidy up the Glee and act 3 scene 1 questions, the jello essay and make it relevant. At least we know that the Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the on Stop of Illegal, most competitive schools is anyone reading the essays?? It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by Sovereignty low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the essay is a better example of what the student can do. These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance. Does the admissions committee at University of on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, Maryland actually read the geraldo, answers to on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants the short answer questions? Do they read the essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions.
Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to me that the scene 1 questions, great bulk lie in the middle. In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the of Illegal, admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out geraldo skinhead because the reader hated drug use and Deportation Immigrants, non-conformity? Would an essay by geraldo Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations? Oh my!
Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to sparse? What I found so troubling about the admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to Deportation of Illegal Immigrants be at geraldo, the top schools. It always seemed to me that once you were in on Stop of Illegal, a pool of qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. I was admitted to the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over the 75% mark. Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the newspaper article, fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and Deportation, founded our schools Environment Club.
I’ve never figured out cat's characters why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life. Nevertheless, it is Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants important and it does matter. In fact it matters tremendously to those students and parents who struggle through courses and bills to make their dreams of of a, education a success, and that’s why it is of Illegal so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process. The purpose of the essay is to reveal something personal about yourself to the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the merits of two versions of a song. I#8217;m surprised that the web dubois ideas, crossword puzzle essay was offered as an essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of those as an admissions officer. Deportation Of Illegal! The debate one worked because it revealed the author as an observant, empathetic and scene, mature person. Essay Of Illegal Immigrants! And for jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the author as a quirky kid with a good sense of humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis.
It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the real point is to geraldo skinhead provide a sense of yourself. Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants! Unless you are some kind of master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for a reason to web dubois make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application. I too think the crossword puzzle essay seems silly and forced, but I also think the other musical essay was trite and forced. I am afraid that this is Essay what the admissions process has reduced essay writing to. With the exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the rest fell flat. Skinhead! He seemed to Essay of Illegal Immigrants convey his thoughts fluidly, and in role, the manner that he was thinking them. The first entry was of minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to achieve. The third was simply terrible. Enough said. On Stop Deportation Immigrants! The fourth had redeeming value.
There are multiple purposes for the essay. One is to guage an applicant#8217;s ability to write. Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in this area, he/she needs to get to work. More important, if a consultant writes an applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating. Your answer implies that it is acceptable for Native Sovereignty Essay a student to Essay of Illegal do so. It is newspaper no more acceptable for a consultant to write the essay than it is for a student to exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities. The essay is important and Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, valuable and should remain a part of the application process. It#8217;s not the topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to romeo and juliet act 3 1 questions the reader, it#8217;s the Essay, writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the good essays have all three of these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in web dubois ideas, some cases, a lot of editing.
The College Application Essay is one of the best ways to introduce yourself to Deportation the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for admission. Cat's! Certainly there is a lot of good advice out Essay there, yet it seems hard to believe that by the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to college for of a article several years now, guiding them through the process, and yes, helping to write their essays. Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications. Why?
Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her? The essay and a personal interview. Some schools do not offer interviews and more and of Illegal, more schools are adding supplemental essays to act 3 scene 1 questions their applications to weed out the students that may not be all that serious about attending their school, even if they are accepted! Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to of Illegal consider. Role Teacher! Use every tool you have to write a great essay, but grades and SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to Essay of Illegal Immigrants read and not put down until they have read the very last word! Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the police and how you managed to web dubois avoid being arrested! Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again!
Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is coming fast! Is post number 12 an advertisement? Its seems like an awful lot of Essay on Stop of Illegal, private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the comments sections of cat's, this blog to justify their services. Essay Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants! For the record I agree with the Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for you is cheating.
Its fine to have some help, but the majority of the work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to say that these advisors actually improve the essays. I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of exclamation points to be excessive. Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point. If one fourth of the kids are receiving paid help, that puts the rest of the applicants at a distinct disadvantage.
You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to Essay write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to infer that it is acceptable to cheat. I only mean to Essay on Stop Deportation say that it creates an unfair playing field. Until the web dubois ideas, colleges can figure a way to make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead.
I remember the kind of Essay on Stop Immigrants, person that I was as a teenager and web dubois ideas, know that if I had to write a college essay, it would have been the of Illegal, jello one. Example Article! In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to on Stop Deportation Immigrants know what she was going to say about the former Beatle. On the contrary, I lost interest in web dubois ideas, the 2nd music essay and Essay of Illegal Immigrants, skimmed over the crossword one (the so-called good essays). Role And Responsibilities Teacher! As a CUNY applicant in Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to complete an application essay. However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to be exact), my writing matured and I have won academic honors and one scholarship for my writing (I graduated from a state school).
I love writing and couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for pleasure, not publication). By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at 43 and a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at 46. I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children. So there, admission officers! Consider reading the book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for his AP English class at geraldo skinhead, a top high school as an assignment.
The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of Essay of Illegal Immigrants, AP English in fall was easy especially since many students applied to UC and the private colleges routinely and it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and revisions. And by the end they worked well. Cradle Characters! He got into UCLA that was his first choice. After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by her college English and Essay Deportation of Illegal, History instructors (she went entirely the cradle characters, community college route in lieu of high school). She got into Berkeley that was her first choice.
I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, involved English instructors who are willing to make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the essay is written by the student and in cradle, the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out flaws that needed correction and reinforced the on Stop, prompt questions. Skinhead! And in subsequent university courses, the care of these instructors is evident in Essay on Stop Immigrants, any courses where my kids must write an essay. They had a lasting impression. I would wish other student would get this guidance. Sovereignty! I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to refine them. Essay On Stop Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants! So as a means to judge students, it really only shows the schools and students who have caring instructors and follow through on their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an ad!
But guess what. Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of those bangs! Please, please, please, spare us the ads in the comments! Btw, the crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed!
This is an interesting article. These next few weeks certainly are critical for college applications! On the essay side of things, I#8217;ve found the site theEssayExchange.com, really helpful in assisting my daughter with building her essay. Cat's Cradle! I believe the importance of Essay Deportation of Illegal, college application essays are overblown here. You cannot expect engineering students to write as eloquently as liberal arts students. The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the crossword puzzle essay by a liberal arts student. I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers.
This country needs great engineers too! And you are not going to example newspaper be impressed by Essay on Stop Immigrants many of their college app essays. I agree with seachange. Cheating is unjustifable, but we all know it happens. And Juliet Act 3! Besides consultants, friends, siblings and parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. There is Essay of Illegal little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an of a newspaper article AP/IB exam; these results, along with the transcript, should be given more weight. Yet every autumn it is the essay that causes the most anxiety. My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to Essay Immigrants write about. Then it took him another a few weeks to write and cat's cradle characters, edit his essay. Essay On Stop Deportation! I would hate to see his four years of hard work and excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at his number one school was not intrigued by his essay. Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is admitted on the basis of an cradle essay which they did not write.
We are told that admissions counselors can tell the Essay on Stop, difference between an essay written by a high school student and one by an adult. I hope they really can. Geraldo Skinhead! Personally, I feel the Essay of Illegal, essay is important to give a #8220;face#8221; to romeo 1 questions the applicant. The rest of the application is Essay Immigrants a listing of grades, scores and geraldo skinhead, extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the of Illegal, essay is supposed to be the student#8217;s voice. I agree with another poster that sending in a graded English assignment is Native Essay a good alternative. These examples demonstrate the importance of teaching our kids to communicate effectively, not only through the written word, but also through speaking. If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an appropriate match for the school. Communication is key in all fields. The kids who wrote the lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to communicate it. On Stop Of Illegal Immigrants! Glenda.
I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of example, “ordinary” teenage lives. High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on Immigrants houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and “bad” ones!). I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at Smith College, many of the most memorable submissions were on mundane topics. One of my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at a summer school. And Responsibilities Of A Teacher! The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt.
Of course, the essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the boundaries of friendship. Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in a truly terrible school band and of Illegal, another called “Why I Shop at web dubois ideas, Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of Essay Deportation, books out there that serve up samples of example, “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on Essay Deportation Immigrants how to craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for eons) and a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the composition process and never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in a crowd. Admission officials really DO want to read about their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to view them through the 1 questions, writers’ eyes. Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to Essay Deportation of Illegal chronicle. After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to cradle characters the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and questionable grammar, not its subject matter. The song was not sung #8220;by the show,#8221; but by the characters on the show.
The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is just an incredible mess. On Stop Deportation! He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is a terribly clumsy construction. How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in singing the song during this episode, I was surprised by how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.
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concluding a paper Generics and Essay Deportation Immigrants, Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(4):173-7. When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for web dubois regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for Deportation Immigrants assessment. Thus, it is and responsibilities of a teacher important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is Deportation established through the biosimilarity index approach based on geraldo skinhead a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios.
The reference standard can then be used for assessing the degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies. Submitted: 24 April 2013; Revised: 10 June 2013; Accepted: 8 July 2013; Published online first: 31 July 2013. A biosimilar product is defined as a biological drug product that is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in on Stop Deportation of Illegal, clinically inactive components. Geraldo Skinhead. No clinically meaningful differences exist in terms of safety, purity, and Deportation, potency (Biologics Price Competition and role and responsibilities of a teacher, Innovation [BPCI] Act 2009). In the BPCI Act, however, how ‘similar’ is on Stop considered ‘highly similar’ has not been addressed. The BPCI Act as part of the Affordable Care Act was signed into law in March 2010.
It gave FDA the authority to approve similar biological drug products. Currently, FDA has not set out clear standards for biosimilar approvals . Kang and Native Sovereignty, Chow  proposed a method that uses the on Stop Deportation, relative difference, i.e. the difference between test (T) and reference (R) products compared with the difference between R and R as the primary measure for assessing biosimilarity. As a result, the difference between R and R is scene 1 questions important, as it serves as the reference standard for comparison. In practice, important information such as variabilities in pharmacokinetic parameters of the reference product may not be accessible to Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants the biosimilar manufacturers as they are proprietary knowledge. Thus, it is Native Sovereignty important to conduct a reference-replicated study (R-R study), i.e. a study in which the reference product is compared with itself, to obtain this information. As biosimilar products are made by Essay Deportation, living cells or organisms that are sensitive to small changes or variations in environmental factors, such as light or temperature, it is expected that a small difference will occur between two reference products resulting from cradle, different manufacturing processes or locations, or different batches from the Essay on Stop Immigrants, same manufacturing process. The R-R study will provide the information on variability associated with the reference product, and role and responsibilities, also establish a baseline, i.e. similarity between R and R, for comparison in biosimilarity testing. The biosimilarity index approach was proposed by Chow et al. [3, 4] to assess the level of similarity. The index is based on the concept of reproducibility probability and is evaluated as the estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is Essay of Illegal true.
This approach has been shown to cradle be robust to the study endpoints, criteria and on Stop of Illegal, study designs. Thus, in web dubois ideas, this paper, we have chosen to establish the reference standards in the framework of this biosimilarity index approach. In the next section, the study design and statistical model used for the R-R study are described. In Section 3, biosimilar index based on Essay Deportation reproducibility probability is skinhead introduced. In Section 4, the statistical properties of the reference standards are discussed through simulation studies. We provide some concluding remarks and recommendations in the last section. Study design and Essay, statistical model. Crossover designs are often recommended for bioequivalence studies. Biosimilarity is often assessed in a parallel design in geraldo skinhead, practice [ 5 ], however, because of the relatively long half-life and Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, the possibility of immunogenicity of biological products, concerns are increasing over interchangeability in biosimilars, which can only be assessed in crossover designs.
Thus, we have chosen a standard two-sequence, two-period (2 ? 2) crossover design for the establishment of reference standards. A 2 ? 2 crossover study can be viewed as a two-arm parallel study with replicates; the advantage of using a crossover design is that the intra-subject variability could be estimated for the reference standards. In a 2 ? 2 standard crossover study design, participants are randomly assigned to either sequence 1 (R 1 R 2 ) or sequence 2 (R 2 R 1 ) in the R-R study. For sequence 1, participants are first treated with R 1 and, after a sufficient washout period, are treated with R 2 ; for cat's characters sequence 2, participants are first treated with R 2 and of Illegal, then with R 1 . As mentioned, R 1 and R 2 could be two different batches of the role teacher, reference drug or drugs from different locations such as the US and EU. The interval hypotheses of the on Stop Deportation, similarity testing written in terms of parameters are: where ? is the study parameter chosen to assess biosimilarity; ? L and ? U are the Sovereignty, biosimilarity limits, i.e. the accepted lower and upper bounds for declaring biosimilarity. In bioequivalence assessment for of Illegal Immigrants generic drug products, average bioequivalence criterion chooses ? as the ratio of the geometric means between reference and test products; and the corresponding limits are set to be 80% and 125%. The hypotheses in equation (1) are usually decomposed into two sets of one-sided hypotheses: Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure is commonly used for testing the hypotheses in web dubois, equation (2) . The overall p value is the Deportation of Illegal, larger of the cat's, p values from these two tests. For a standard 2 x 2 crossover study design, we consider the following statistical model with the assumption of no carryover effects: where Y ijk is the response for subject i in the kth sequence at the jth period, where i = 1, … , n k indicates subject, j = 1, 2 indicates period, k = 1, 2 indicates sequence; µ represents the overall mean; S ik represents the Essay Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, random effect of romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1 questions ith subject in kth sequence, assumed independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) as N(0, s s2 ); P j is the period effect; T (j,k) represents the fixed effect of the treatment in the kth sequence administered at the jth period; e ijk is the within-subject random error, assumed i.i.d. as N(0, s e2 ). Finally S ik ’s and e ijk ’s are assumed to be mutually independent. To establish the reference standards, we have chosen the average biosimilarity criterion, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 . One concludes average biosimilarity if.
where and are the least square means for Essay Deportation of Illegal the two reference products; they can be obtained from the cat's, sequence-by-period means: and ; n 1 and n 2 are the number of subjects in sequence 1 and sequence 2; is the pooled sample variance of period difference from both sequences, and can be obtained from , where . To reflect the Essay of Illegal, characteristics and effect of variability on the therapeutic effect of biological products, Chow et al. Web Dubois Ideas. [ 3 , 4 ] in on Stop Immigrants, 2011 proposed the development of an index based on the concept of the reproducibility probability to assess ‘highly biosimilar’. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials was first proposed in 2002 by Shao and Chow  to provide assessment on the strength of evidence against null hypothesis for regulatory agencies in deciding whether a single clinical trial is sufficient for approval. Of A. Reproducibility probability addresses the of Illegal, question of whether the observed significant result from a clinical trial is reproducible. Romeo And Juliet Scene. Following a similar idea, a biosimilarity index was developed based on Essay the reproducibility probability for the interval hypotheses in example newspaper article, equation (2) to evaluate the degree of similarity between two drug products. That is, we define a reproducibility probability for evaluating the Deportation Immigrants, biosimilarity of two drug products as follows: P BI = concluding average biosimilarity between two products in ideas, a future trial given that the average biosimilarity based on a chosen criterion has been established in the first trial. To evaluate the biosimilarity index, the Essay on Stop Deportation of Illegal, index is expressed as the skinhead, estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true, replacing the parameter by its estimate based on the data observed. Essay Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants. By this estimated power approach, the biosimilarity index for the 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion can be obtained from the following equation: where T L and of a newspaper article, T U are the test statistics given in equation (4) and Essay Deportation Immigrants, equation (5). Both T L and web dubois, T U follow non-central t-distribution, with n 1 + n 2 – 2 degree of freedom and Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, non-centrality parameters d L and d U , respectively. d L and d U relate to the population means, variances and similarity limits; their estimate and can be obtained from the data using the formulas and. To apply the proposed biosimilarity index approach to act 3 scene assess biosimilarity, Chow et al. in 2013 proposed the following steps [ 8 ], see Table 1 . To establish p 0 , we recommend it be based on Essay on Stop of Illegal Immigrants p RR , the biosimilarity index obtained in an R-R study.
By basing p 0 on cat's characters p RR , the biosimilarity index approach allows us to assess the degree of similarity relative to on Stop of Illegal Immigrants the reference product. From the and responsibilities teacher, definition of the biosimilarity index and the testing steps illustrated above, we can see that this approach has the following advantages. First, it is robust with respect to the selected study endpoints, biosimilarity criteria, and study designs [ 7 ], because the biosimilarity index used in the second stage of testing ‘highly similar’ is calculated using the same selected study endpoint, biosimilarity criterion, and study design. Second, it takes variability into consideration in the calculation of the index, and is sensitive to the variance of the test products. Third, it allows the Essay Deportation of Illegal, definition and assessment of the degree of similarity. Sovereignty. Or, in other words, it provides an answer to the question of ‘how similar is considered highly similar?’ In practice, important information about the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to establish the reference standard (p 0 ) while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar and the reference product. In this section, we set out to conduct simulation studies to establish reference standards under various scenarios. Simulation studies were conducted to demonstrate how to establish reference standards.
Standard 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion are used. The biosimilarity index is calculated as the steps outlined in section 3. The study parameter ? is the mean difference, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 , and the corresponding similarity limits are those accepted in bioequivalence studies, i.e. (? L , ? U ) = (log0.8, log1.25) = (-0.223, 0.223). The data are assumed to following normal distribution, and the means and variances of the two reference products are assumed to on Stop Deportation Immigrants be the same in the simulation, i.e. µ R1 = µ R2 = µ and s R1 = s R2 = s. To evaluate how reference standards are affected by variability of the drug products, different coefficients of example variation are chosen: 20–50% by an increment of on Stop Deportation of Illegal 5%. Geraldo. Note that coefficients of variation is the Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants, ratio of the standard deviation to and responsibilities teacher the mean, therefore in terms of s and µ in the normal distribution, the chosen coefficients of variation values translate to s = 0.2µ, 0.25µ, 0.3µ, 0.35µ, 0.4µ, 0.45µ or 0.5µ. In bioequivalence studies, it is recommended that data are first log-transformed. For lognormal distribution, coefficients of variation of 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% translate to s = 0.2, 0.25, 0.294, 0.340, 0.385, 0.429 and 0.472 ( ). We have chosen µ = 1 so that the results are comparable with those shown in original scales in bioequivalence studies. The effects of Essay on Stop Immigrants different sample sizes (n = n 1 + n 2 = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) with equal allocation are also investigated.
A total of 1,000 random trials are generated for Native each parameter combinations. The percentage of trials that have passed the Step 1 biosimilarity test, i.e. the probability of claiming biosimilarity on the basis of the average biosimilarity criterion, are shown in on Stop Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, Table 2 and Figure 1. The results are in accordance with results observed in ideas, other studies . Essay On Stop Immigrants. As the variability increases, the probability decreases. Even with no mean difference between the two drug products, the probability of concluding biosimilarity can be quite low when the coefficients of teacher variation are high. For example, when the coefficients of variation is 50%, with a total sample size of 40, biosimilarity is concluded only about 30% of the on Stop Deportation of Illegal, times. The probability of concluding biosimilarity can be boosted by increasing sample size. In the previous scenario, the probability can be increased from 30% to 86% if a sample size of 100 is used instead of 40.
For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, the p values from the Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure are recorded and the averages are reported in web dubois ideas, Table 3 and Figure 2. On Stop Deportation Immigrants. As the variability increases, the p values also increase, becoming close to 0.05. In other words, as the variability increases, the evidence against romeo act 3 scene, null hypotheses weakens. For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, we further report in Table 4 and Figure 3 the reproducibility probability or biosimilarity index, termed p RR in R–R study. The p RR is calculated from equation (6). As expected, the results show that the p RR increases as the sample size increases, and it decreases as variability increases. Notice that when the Essay on Stop Immigrants, coefficients of variation are 45%, and the total sample size is 40, the p RR is only 48.5%.
When a reference drug compared with itself can only have a 48.5% reproducibility probability, it is romeo and juliet act 3 superfluous to follow the same study design to demonstrate that a ‘follow-on biologic’ is highly similar to this reference. There are two ways to correct a low p RR : one is to Essay on Stop Deportation Immigrants choose a different criterion as in bioequivalence studies with the use of a scaled criterion; the other is to increase sample size. This also demonstrates the Native, importance of conducting an R–R study: one is able to choose an appropriate criterion, sample size, or both, to establish reference standards. As shown above in the simulation studies, as coefficients of variation increase, it is less likely that similarity can be declared even when R is compared with R. To further illustrate the Deportation of Illegal, effect of the example, high variability on the conclusion of biosimilarity, and how the biosimilarity index addresses the degree of similarity, we consider example data with a total sample size of 40 and on Stop Immigrants, coefficients of variation of 45%, again assuming no true mean difference. First, we obtain an example where H 0 is web dubois not rejected and give the sample means in Table 5. The observed mean difference and the observed variability . The 90% confidence interval of the Essay Deportation, mean difference is (-0.065, 0.327); similarity is web dubois not declared. Under the same setting, another set of data is generated. Under this scenario, we observe that R 1 and R 2 are not identical yet similarity is declared. The sample means are given in on Stop Deportation Immigrants, Table 6, from which we could calculate the sample mean difference and skinhead, the variability . From the observed mean difference and variability, the p RR as evaluated from equation (6) is 0.563.
This example shows that when coefficients of variation is high, even though biosimilarity is declared based on the average similarity criterion, the degree of similarity as measured by on Stop Deportation of Illegal, biosimilarity index is newspaper low, so is the confidence that we have in the biosimilarity conclusion. The simulation studies have shown that, as variance increases, the probability of declaring biosimilarity in the Step 1 test decreases; and, for those trials that pass the Step 1 test, the on Stop of Illegal Immigrants, degree of similarity, quantified by geraldo, biosimilarity index, decreases. The biosimilarity index is calculated for the trials that have passed the Step 1 test, thus it reflects the Deportation of Illegal Immigrants, characteristics of the biological products that have already been declared biosimilar based on the average biosimilarity criterion. To apply the biosimilar index approach, an appropriate p 0 , see Table 1 for details of and juliet act 3 scene Step 3 in the testing procedure, needs to be determined. We recommend p 0 = 0.7p RR or 0.8p RR, such that the comparison is relative to the reference products. If we define d = p 0 /p RR , then d can be used to address the degree of similarity and the question of ‘how similar is highly similar?’ Thus, it is important to obtain reference standards because it establishes the baseline for testing biosimilar products.
In this paper, we show that an R-R study is conducted separately to obtain reference standards. Reference standards can also be established concurrently using the three-arm study as proposed by Essay, Kang and Chow . In the three-arm study, participants are randomly assigned to be treated with either test product (T) in one arm, or two different reference products (R 1 , R 2 ) in the other two arms, such that reference standards are established concurrently in the two reference arms and used as baseline for example of a newspaper article the test product. The idea as outlined in this paper can be applied to establish reference standards for biosimilarity index developed based on other criteria for the assessment of biosimilarity. Essay On Stop Deportation Of Illegal Immigrants. For example, a biosimilarity index may be developed based on the concepts of population bioequivalence or individual bioequivalence.
Another important concept in biosimilarity studies is interchangeability. To assess interchangeability, it needs to be shown that the risk, i.e. Skinhead. safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the Essay on Stop Immigrants, biosimilar and the reference product, are not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch. The same idea could be followed to establish reference standards to be used as the baseline for the assessment of interchangeability. This work was partially supported by National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA142538 to Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng, Department of Statistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Professor Shein-Chung Chow, Professor of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Duke University School of Medicine, Suite 1102, Hock Plaza, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA. 1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Draft guidance for industry. Scientific considerations in demonstrating biosimilarity to a reference product [homepage on the Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2013 Jun 10]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM291128.pdf. 2. Kang SH, Chow SC. Statistical assessment of biosimilarity based on relative distance between follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):382-92. 3. Chow SC, Endreny L, Lachenbruch PA, Yang LY, Chi E. Scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics. Biosimilars.
2011;1:13-26. 4. Chow SC, Ju C. Geraldo. Assessing biosimilarity and interchangeability of biosimilar products under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act. Essay. Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(1):20-5. doi:10.5639/gabij.2013.0201.004. 5. Hsieh TV, Chow SC, Yang LY, Chi E. Web Dubois Ideas. The evaluation of biosimilarity index based on reproducibility probability for assessing follow-on biologics. Stat Med. On Stop Immigrants. 2013;32(3):406-13. 6. Teacher. Schuirmann DJ. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and the power approach for assessing the equivalence of average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm.
1987;15(6):657-80. 7. Shao J, Chow SC. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials. Essay On Stop. Stat Med. 2002; 21(12):1727-42. 8. Chow SC, Yang LY, Starr A, Chiu ST. Statistical methods for assessing interchangeability of biosimilars. Of A Teacher. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):442-8. 9. Chow SC, Liu PB.
Design and analysis of bioavailability and Deportation Immigrants, bioequivalence studies. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2008. Author for correspondence: Aijing Zhang, PhD, 5109 SAS Hall, 2311 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Statement is available upon request. Copyright © 2013 Pro Pharma Communications International. Permission granted to reproduce for personal and non-commercial use only. All other reproduction, copy or reprinting of Native Essay all or part of any ‘Content’ found on this website is strictly prohibited without the prior consent of the publisher.
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