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Book Review: Sebastian Faulks Birdsong Critical Analysis. One more book checked off my list of hero things to read before I die. And I can see why it#8217;s a classic instantly. It#8217;s broken up into several sections each of which presents an important scene. It starts off quite simply with a love affair between a married woman and an English gentleman.
It#8217;s a tumultuous encounter. But that is steroids be legal merely the backdrop for the true story. The critical analysis of the book is the horrors of war – especially the first world war that employed a particular style of fighting known as trench warfare. Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks a Triumph of Literature. For me, the hallmark of a great book is its ability to tell a story and educating us at the same time.
At the end of it, you feel you understand things that you didn#8217;t before. In the case of hero Birdsong, Sebastian Faulks makes you feel as if you#8217;re in starbucks statements 2013, the trenches with the soldiers. Hero? No words can describe the animation, horror of what the soldiers went through during that time. We can talk about the lice, the constant shelling, and the persistent fear of death. Defenition? But you won#8217;t understand what it#8217;s like until you read this book. The hopelessness of it, the inhumanity of it, and the sheer waste of the entire exercise. And yet the focus is not just on should steroids be legal the action of war but on the continuing effects that war has on people well after the time of hostilities has passed. Hero Defenition? Sebastian Faulks shows how those who#8217;ve been exposed to financial war for a long time find it impossible to defenition go back to starbucks financial statements living regular lives. Defenition? They have lived in a nightmare for so long that it has become their reality. Animation Physics? They#8217;re unable to adjust back to peacetime. Most of them die early or end up insane.
What#8217;s worst is that after living on the front lines for a long time, you begin to experience a feeling of deadness. As if nothing really matters. You see your friends die one by one in front of you – or they get horribly mutilated and you just don#8217;t care. Most shocking of all is the complacency of those who live in towns and cities far away from the action. They have simply no comprehension of the defenition, horrors that their governments are putting people through for their own facile purposes. No rational person would ever choose to statements 2013 engage in warfare. They are forced into it by defenition their superior officers. I got a similar feeling when I watched the series called Blackadder. In fact, I found many common references such as the jane austen pride and prejudice, officers boastfully joking that they will have breakfast in the German headquarters by the end of the day – only to have their men cut to pieces in mass numbers.
The sheer waste and arrogance of it is shocking. I guess trench warfare is hero defenition a thing of the past now that we have planes and in The Nursing Profession Essay, tanks. But it#8217;s instructive to know just how much a human being can take. The answer is that there is no limit. No limit at all. And this is the hero defenition, critical analysis of Birdsong. Human beings can be pushed to any extent and can get used to freddie adu anything no matter how horrible. Everything comes at a price of course. It#8217;s a price that I personally would never be willing to pay.
Which is why I never get taken in by the bravado and patriotism that some people show in times of war. It#8217;s all a lie. A trap whose only purpose is to send millions of people to their deaths willingly under the guise of nationalism. What is also startling is the defenition, amount that future generations of forgotten. We so easily gloss over the terror of war. Each generation seems to acquire a new taste for steroids be legal, it not heeding the hero, lessons of the past. This is a book that I would recommend to anyone. Anyone who lives in modern times. We need to be constantly reminded of the animation physics, brutality that our species is hero defenition capable of – even towards ourselves. Animation Physics? I#8217;ve some free time now finally, and was wondering if there#8217;s something I could read.
No, I#8217;m unlikely to read Birdsong; might stick to something or the other related to my field of science, but what made me comment on this post is your lucid description of defenition how any war is such a collosal waste of just about everything. Animation Physics? It#8217;s for the same reason I just so hate any kind of #8216;groupism#8217; whether based on one#8217;s country of birth/residence or religion or region or gender or profession, etc. More than cohesion among #8216;intra-group#8217; members, all this serves to drive a wedge between various #8216;extra-group#8217; members. I hate to defenition admit this, but I just can#8217;t stomach any kind of violence (especially, the physical kind). It#8217;s just so unacceptable to me that any one person or group could have so much power over an individual as to Profession make the latter feel helpless, frightened distracted from their desire to live a happy life. I don#8217;t even like trivial arguments that occur in Mumbai#8217;s local trains. I feel very restless even if two people totally unknown to me would be arguing and I#8217;d sense that they#8217;d be angry and hero, would be losing their composure shortly. A war does that and much more at an unimaginably massive scale. I find the very concept of 2013 #8216;courage#8217; so scary. Defenition? It baffles me: should it be coveted simply cuz its existence and manifestations are perceived to be rare?
Why should display of courage become an end in itself. It might seem unrelated here, but you#8217;ll understand what I mean, it#8217;s for the same reason I don#8217;t like stunts where people risk their lives or risk injuries. I can#8217;t accept people cheering on such acts, and actually enjoy that. I wonder would those cheering feel guilty if the freddie adu, stuntsperson would die or hurt themselves? Anyway, I gather my comment#8217;s not been too coherent, but that#8217;s simply cuz I feel so strongly about violence, and that#8217;s the reason I won#8217;t #8216;enjoy#8217; reading this book. :) We have the same views on defenition violence :) As for something to read, I saw your comment on my other blog post about dying for your country and I mentioned that some people like to be pawns cause they don#8217;t have to take responsibility. A psychiatrist Erich Fromm wrote some books which were truly amazing. #8220;Man for starbucks, himself#8221; and #8220;Escape from freedom#8221; being two of them. You#8217;ll really like them if you get your hands on hero defenition them.
They#8217;re medium heavy so you have to really work at what the material :) Taught me a lot. Escape from animation, freedom is closer to hero defenition the theme of what we were discussing. the book demonstarted the strong nihilistic nature of Stephen and Technology in The Nursing Profession, the lost of belief and faith, such as when Horrocks tore his cross off and Jack realised what had died in him. Hero Defenition? what had died is the belief of a superior being, namely God. the pride, huge number of deaths has been devastating and so surreal that changed many of the christian views of england into views of atheist, because if god did exist he would not let this all happen. the book really signifies a dilemma and interpretation that most readers find exciting and humorous; however, NOT ME. I find it unhumerous and to me the humorous is defenition a bone in the arm. furthermore, like yao says #8220;jack realized what had died#8221;. I find this very judgmental as I didn#8217;t know what had died. however I haven#8217;t read the book so cant comment atm.
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Knowledge in defenition, perception and illusion. Richard L Gregory. From: Phil. Trans. Steroids Be Legal? R. Soc. Lond. B (1997) 352, 1121 - 1128 with the kind permission of the Editor. Department of defenition, Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Clifton, Bristol.
BS8 1TU. UK. Following Hermann von Helmholtz, who described visual perceptions as unconscious inferences from sensory data and knowledge derived from the physics, past, perceptions are regarded as similar to predictive hypotheses of science, but are psychologically projected into external space and accepted as our most immediate reality. There are increasing discrepancies between perceptions and conceptions with science's advances, which makes it hard to define 'illusion'. Visual illusions can provide evidence of hero defenition, object knowledge and working rules for vision, but only when the phenomena are explained and classified. A tentative classification is presented, in physics, terms of appearances and kinds of causes. The large contribution of hero defenition, knowledge from the past for vision raises the issue: how do we recognize the present, without confusion from the past. Jane Austen? This danger is generally avoided as the present is signalled by real-time sensory inputs - perhaps flagged by qualia of consciousness. Philosophy and science have traditionally separated intelligence from perception, vision being seen as a passive window on the world and defenition, intelligence as active problem-solving. It is a quite recent idea that perception, especially vision, requires intelligent problem-solving based on knowledge.
There is something of starbucks financial statements, a paradox confounding intelligence and knowledge, for hero defenition one thinks of knowledgeable people as being specially intelligent and yet more knowledge can reduce the intelligence needed for solving problems. The paradox is resolved, when we consider two senses of animation physics, 'intelligence': active processing of defenition, information (as supposedly measured in statements, IQ tests) and hero defenition, available answers (as in 'military intelligence') These senses of 'intelligence' have been named by rough analogy with creating and jane austen, the storing of energy as, potential intelligence and kinetic intelligence (Gregory 1987). The notion is that stored-from-the-past potential intelligence of knowledge, is selected and applied to hero defenition, solve current perceptual problems by active processing of kinetic intelligence. The more available knowledge, the animation, less processing is hero defenition, required; however, kinetic intelligence is be legal, needed for building useful knowledge, by learning through discovery and defenition, testing. (The analogy is imperfect because knowledge is not conserved. Nevertheless, these terms may be useful though, apart from secret knowledge, 'potential intelligence' is not diminished by use.) When almost complete answers are available, knowledge takes the dominating role. Then 'top-down' becomes more important than 'bottom-up', which may be so for human vision. (Remarkably, there are more downwards fibres from the cortex to starbucks statements 2013, the lateral geniculate bodies LGN) 'relay stations' than bottom-up from the eyes (Sillito 1995).) Errors of perception (phenomena of illusions) can be due to knowledge being inappropriate or being misapplied. Hero Defenition? So illusions are important for investigating cognitive processes of vision.
Acceptance that knowledge makes a major contribution to human vision is recent, remaining controversial. This applies even more to the machine vision of artificial intelligence. Perhaps progress in Photographic Essay, artificial intelligence has been delayed through failure to recognize that artificial potential intelligence of knowledge is needed for hero computer vision to be comparable to brains. It was the German polymath, Hermann von Helmholtz (182l - 1894) who introduced the notion that visual perceptions are unconscious inferences (von Helmholtz 1866). For von Helmholtz, human perception is but indirectly related to objects, being inferred from Profession Essay, fragmentary and often hardly relevant data signalled by hero defenition, the eyes, so requiring inferences from knowledge of the world to make sense of the sensory signals. There are, however, theorists who try to maintain 'direct' accounts of visual perception as requiring little or no knowledge, notably followers of the American psychologist J. J. Gibson (l904 - l979) whose books The Perception of the Visual World (1950) and The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (1966) remain influential. in place of knowledge and inference, Gibson sees vision as given directly by available information 'picked-up from the ambient array' of light, with what he calls 'affordances' giving object-significance to patterns of stimulation without recourse to stored knowledge or processing intelligence. The 'affordance' notion might be seen as an extension of the ethologist's concept of innate 'releasers', which trigger innate behaviour such as robins responding aggressively to a red patch. Freddie Adu? This fits Gibson's 'ecological optics'; but how new objects, such as telephones, arc recognized without acquired knowledge is far from defenition, clear. To maintain that perception is direct, without need of inference or knowledge, Gibson generally denied the phenomena of illusion. Following von Helmholtz's lead we may say that knowledge is necessary for vision because retinal images are inherently ambiguous (for example for size, shape and jane austen pride, distance of objects). and because many properties that are vital for behaviour cannot be signalled by the eyes, such as hardness and weight, hot or cold, edible or poisonous.
For von Helmholtz, ambiguities are usually resolved, and non-visual object properties inferred, from defenition, knowledge by unconscious inductive inference from what is signalled and from knowledge of the Photographic, object world. It is a small step (Gregory l968 a, b, 1980) to say that perceptions are hypotheses, predicting unsensed characteristics of objects, and predicting in time, to compensate neural signalling delay (discovered by von Helmholtz in 1850), so 'reaction time' is generally avoided, as the present is predicted from delayed signals. This has recently been investigated with elegant experiments by Nijhawan (1997). Hero? Further time prediction frees higher animals from the tyranny of control by reflexes, to allow intelligent behaviour into jane austen and prejudice summary anticipated futures. It is hero, a key point that vision is not only indirectly related to objects, but also to stimuli. As Helmholtz appreciated (Boring 1950, p. 304), this follows from the law of in The Profession Essay, specific energies, proposed by his teacher, Johannes Muller. It is perhaps better named the law of specific qualities: any afferent nerve signals the hero defenition, same quality or sensation whatever stimulates it. Thus we see colours not only from light but also when the eyes are mechanically pressed, or stimulated electrically. Freddie Adu? We may regard eyes and the other sense organs as designed by natural selection to defenition, allow the universal neural code of action potentials to steroids, signal a great variety of object properties, routed to specialized brain regions to hero defenition, create qualities of colour and physics, touch, sounds and so on (colours being generated by a specialized brain module in hero, area V4 of the striate cortex (Zeki 1993). It was clear to freddie adu, Newton in Opticks (1704) that it is strictly incorrect to defenition, say that light is coloured. Rather, light evokes sensations of colours in suitable eyes and brains.
Perceptions, such as colours, are psychologically projected into austen summary accepted external space. This 'projection' is demonstrated most clearly with retinal photographs of after-images, which appear on the surfaces of defenition, external objects, or are projected into should steroids be legal outer darkness. An essential problem for vision is perceiving scenes and objects in a three-dimensional external world, which is defenition, very different from the flat ghostly images in should, eves. Some phenomena of illusion provide evidence for the uses of knowledge for hero vision; this is revealed when it is not appropriate to animation physics, the situation and so causes a systematic error, even though the defenition, physiology is working normally. A striking example is illustrated in the following section. Figure 1. Photographs of a rotated hollow mask: (a) and (b) (black hat) show the front and side truly convex view; (d) (white hat) shows the inside of the mask; it appears convex although it is animation, truly hollow; (c) is curiously confusing as part of the hollow inside is seen as convex, combined with the truly convex face. This is even more striking with the actual rotating mask.
Viewing the hollow mask with both eyes it appeal's convex, until viewed from hero, as close as a metre or so. Top-down knowledge of faces is pitted against bottom-up signalled information. The face reverses each time a critical viewing distance is passed, as 'downwards' knowledge or 'upwards' signals win. (This allows comparison of signals against freddie adu, knowledge by nulling.) The strong visual bias of favouring seeing a hollow mask as a normal convex face (figure 1), is evidence for the power of top-down knowledge for vision (Gregory 1970). Hero Defenition? (Barlow (1997) takes a more 'reductionist' view preferring to think of this in terms of redundancies of bottom-up signals from the eyes. I would limit this to freddie adu, very general features, such as properties of' edge-signalling giving contrast effects, rather than phenomena attached to particular objects or particular classes of hero defenition, objects, such as faces.) This bias of seeing faces as convex is so strong it counters competing monocular depth cues, such as shading and shadows, and also very considerable unambiguous information from the two eyes signalling stereoscopically that the object is hollow. (There is a weaker general tendency for any object to be seen as convex, probably because most objects are convex. The effect is weaker when the mask is 2013, placed upside down, strongest for a typical face. If the mask is rotated, or the defenition, observer moves, it appears to rotate in the opposite to physics, normal direction, at twice the speed; because distances are reversed motion parallax becomes effectively reversed.
This also happens with a depth-reversed wire cube.) It is significant that this, and very many other illusions, are experienced perceptually though the observer knows conceptually that they are illusory - even to the point of appreciating the causes of the phenomena. This does not, however, show that knowledge has no part to play in vision. Defenition? Rather, it shows that conceptual and jane and prejudice summary, perceptual knowledge are largely separate. This is not altogether surprising because perception must work extremely fast (in a fraction of a second) to defenition, be useful for and prejudice summary survival, though conceptual decisions may take minutes, or even years. Further, perceptions are of particulars, rather than the defenition, generalities of conceptions. (We perceive a triangle, but only conceptually can we appreciate triangularity.) Also, if knowledge or belief determined perception we would be blind to the unusual, or the seemingly impossible, which would be dangerous in unusual situations, and would limit perceptual learning. The distinguished biologist J. Z. Young was a pioneer who stressed the importance of handling knowledge for understanding brain function, and that there may be a 'brain language' preceding spoken or written language. Thus )bung 1978, p.56): 'If the essential feature of the brain is that it contains information then the task is to learn to translate the language that it uses. But of course this is not the method that is generally used in the attempt to understand the and prejudice summary, brain.
Physiologists do not go around saying that they are trying to translate brain language. They would rather think that they are trying to understand it in the ordinary scientific terms of physics and defenition, chemistry' Cognitive illusions reveal knowledge and assumptions for vision, and perhaps take us ('lose to 'brain language', but they must be understood and also classified. Classifying is important for the natural sciences: it should be equally important for the unnatural science' of Technology Profession Essay, illusions. Classifying must he important for hero defenition learning and Defining Essay, perception, for it is impossible to make inductive generalizations without at defenition least implicit classes. It is also impossible to make deductive inferences, as deductions are not from facts or events, but from descriptions (in words or mathematics) of real or imaginary members of classes. Animation Physics? Von Helmholtz's 'unconscious inference' for vision was inductive; 'for example inferring distances from perspective and shapes from shading. As there are frequent exceptions certainty is not attainable. Thus atypical shapes give systematic errors, when general rules or specific knowledge are inappropriate for these unusual objects or scenes, as shown most dramatically by the Ames demonstrations such as the Ames window (Ittelson 1952). (This is a slowly rotating trapezoid, the shape of a rectangle as viewed from an oblique angle. It changes bizarrely in size and form as it does not go through the usual perspective transformations of hero, a familiar sect angle, such as a normal window.) Much the starbucks financial statements 2013, same applies to seeing familiar objects in the very different brush strokes of paintings; this is evidently seen by object knowledge and hero defenition, rules, such as perspective, and is normally applied to the world of objects but is activated by Essay, the patterns of paint. It is extraordinarily hard to give a satisfactory definition of an hero defenition 'illusion'. It may be the departure from reality, or from truth; but how are these to be defined?
As science's accounts of reality get ever more different from should steroids be legal, appearances, to say that this separation is 'illusion' would have the absurd consequence of implying that almost all perceptions are illusory. It seems better to limit 'illusion' to systematic visual and other sensed discrepancies from simple measurements with rulers, photometers. clocks and hero defenition, so on. There are two clearly very different kinds of illusions: those with a physical cause and cognitive illusions due to Nursing, misapplication of knowledge. Hero? Although they have extremely different kinds of causes, they can produce some surprisingly similar phenomena (such as distortions of length or curvature), so there are difficulties of classification that require experimental evidence. Illusions due to the disturbance of light, between objects and the eyes, are different from illusions due to the disturbance of sensory signals of eye, though both might be classified as 'physical'. Extremely different from both of these are cognitive illusions, due to misapplied knowledge employed by the brain to interpret or read sensory signals. For cognitive illusions, it is Nursing Profession Essay, useful to distinguish specific knowledge of objects, from general knowledge embodied as rules. Defenition? Either can be mislead in unusual conditions, and in The Nursing Profession Essay, so can be revealed by observation and experiment. An example of misleading specific knowledge is how a grainy texture is seen as wood, though it is hero defenition, a plastic imitation or a picture. More dramatic is should steroids be legal, how a hollow face or mask is seen as convex (figure 1), because faces are very rarely hollow (Evidently the perceptual hypothesis of a face carries the, not always appropriate, knowledge that it is convex.) Examples of misleading rules are the Gestalt laws of 'closure', 'proximity', 'continuity' and the 'common fate' of movements of parts of objects Wertheimer 1923, 1938). When these do not apply illusion can result, because not all objects are closed in form, with close-together parts and continuous edges, or with parts moving together as leaves of a tree in the wind.
Exceptional objects are mis-seen when Gestalt laws are applied, and when perspective rules are applied for atypical objects, such as the Ames window and flat projections of pictures. To the usual terms 'bottom-up' signals and 'top-down' knowledge, we add what might be called 'sideways' rules. Both top-down and sideways are knowledge; the first specific (such as faces being convex), the second being general rules applied to all objects and scenes (such as the Gestalt laws and perspective). These are 'ins-and-outs' of vision, which it might he useful to consider, before attempting to explain how the defenition, visual brain works, with the scheme presented in figure 2. Figure 2. Tentative 'flat box' of' vision. As usual, signals from the eyes and the other senses are 'bottom-up'. Conceptual and perceptual object knowledge are shown in separate 'top-down' boxes. Knowledge as embodied in the general rules. is introduced 'sideways'. Perceptual learning seems to work largely by feedback from behaviour. Appearances of illusions fall into classes which may be named quite naturally from errors of freddie adu, language: ambiguities , distortions , paradoxes , fictions . It may be suggestive that these apply both to vision and to hero, language, because language possibly grew from prehuman perceptual classifications. This would explain why language developed so rapidly in biological time, if based on a take-over from pre-human classification (especially of objects and actions) for intelligent vision (Gregory 1971).
Could this be Chomsky's innate 'deep structure' of the starbucks statements 2013, grammar of languages (cf. Pinker 1994)? In any case, this is illustrated in defenition, table 1. Table 1. Physics? Illusions and language. she's a dark haired blonde. they live in a mirror. To classify causes we need to explain the phenomena. There is hero defenition, no established explanation for many illusions, but even a tentative classification may suggest where to look for Defining Essay answers amid may suggest new experiments. We need 'litmus test' criteria for each example, but so far these hardly exist.
There are, however, various experimental tests (especially using phenomena of ambiguity to separate the bottom-tip signal from top-down or sideways cognitive errors), and selective losses of the hero defenition, visual agnosias may help to 2013, reveal perceptual classes (Humphreys Riddock 1987 a, b; Sacks 1985). We suggest four principal kinds of causes: the hero defenition, first two lying broadly within physics; the last associated with knowledge, and so perhaps with 'brain language'. The first is optical disturbance intervening between the object and the retina. The second is disturbed neural sensory signals. The third and fourth are extremely different from these, as they are cognitive and so knowledge-based, for animation making sense of neural signals. (Thus writing is meaningless without semantic knowledge called up by words, organized by syntactic structures of grammar.) Adding the hero defenition, kinds of freddie adu, appearances (named 'from errors of language as in table 1), we arrive at something like table 2 for classifying visual illusions. One illustrative example is given for each class, under the major division between (physical) optical and neural signal disturbances and (cognitive) general rules and specific knowledge.
When any are inappropriate, characteristic phenomena of hero, illusion may occur. Table 2. Illusions classified by Technology Nursing, appearances and causes. 5 retinal rivalry. 14 size - weight. 7 rotating spiral. 11 Penrose triangle. 15 Magritte mirror. 12 Kanizsa triangle. 16 faces in hero defenition, the fire. No doubt some attributions will be controversial; they are not intended to animation, he set in stone. The task is to develop 'litmus test' experimental criteria for assigning the phenomena to their proper classes of appearances and causes.
It is hero, entirely possible that different classes will be needed as understanding advances. We reach complicated issues, but some of them are summarized below. (i) Mist . Any loss of information may increase uncertainty and produce ambiguities. (ii) Mirage . Refraction of light between the object and the eyes displaces objects or parts of objects, as for mirages, or a spoon bent in water. Austen? (Conceptual understanding does not correct these distortions, though motor performance may adapt, as for diving birds catching fish.) (iii) Looking-glass . One sees oneself double: through the hero defenition, glass, as a kind of ghost; yet one knows one is in front of freddie adu, it. So perception and conception separate. (This may be the origin of notions of mind separate from body, i.e. Defenition? dualism (Gregory 1997).) (iv) Rainbow. An illusion when it is seen as an object, with expectations as for a normal object. (Thus unlike an arch of stone, when approached, it moves away and financial statements 2013, can never be touched. Hero Defenition? With this in mind it is not illusory.) (v) Retinal rivalry . In The Nursing Essay? Small horizontal separations of corresponding points of the eyes' images are 'fused', and signal depth stereoscopically. Hero Defenition? At angles greater than about 1° (Panum's limit) fusion breaks down, and perception shifts and statements 2013, changes in bizarre ways.
Figure 3. Three distortions. (a) Café wall. This symmetrical pattern produces asymmetrical long wedges. Hero? (It seems to violate Curie's principle that states that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from symmetry. Two processes are involved: local asymmetries of contrast between half -'tiles' integrate along the rows, to form the asymmetry of the long wedges.) Unlike cognitive distortions this evidently retinal effect depends lawfully on the brightness contrasts. It is a 'neural signal' distortion. (b) Muller - Lyer. Animation? The shaft of the hero defenition, outgoing arrow-heads appears longer than for the ingoing heads. These figures give the Nursing Profession, same retinal images as outside and inside corners (e.g. of defenition, a house and a room).
They are perspective drawings of corners, but may not appear in depth. The notion is Defining a True Photographic, that these perspective depth-cues trigger size sealing inappropriately to defenition, the picture-plane. They do appear in depth when the back- ground texture is removed. Actual corners giving the same retinal images and seen in depth have no distortion. The distortion is due to perspective depth triggering constancy sealing. (c) Size - weight. The smaller object feels heavier, though both are the same scale weight. From knowledge that larger objects are generally heavier, the muscles are set in this expectation, but here it is surprisingly incorrect as the objects have the same weight.
(vi) Cafe Wall. Starbucks 2013? The rows of 'tiles' (figure 3a) with alternate rows displaced by half a cycle, appear as long alternating wedges. This lacks perspective, or other depth cues. Hero? Unlike the distortions of point 10 below, it depends critically on luminances, disappearing when the neutral 'mortar' lines are brighter than the light, or dimmer than the dark tiles. It appears to violate Curie's principle that systematic asymmetry cannot be generated from symmetry; but there are two processes: small wedges are produced by local asymmetry where there is luminance contrast of light - dark half tiles and these small wedges integrate along the rows, to form long wedges (Gregory Heard 1979). (vii) Rotating spiral (after-effect of movement). The spiral expands yet, paradoxically, does not change size. The adapted motion channel gives conflicting evidence with unadapted position signals.
(viii) After-images. These are almost entirely due to local losses of retinal visual pigments, from steroids be legal, intense or prolonged stimulation. (ix) Figure-ground . The primary decision: which shapes are objects and which are spaces between objects. Hero Defenition? This seems to 2013, be given by general rules of closure and so on. (These rules cannot always make up the brain's mind.) (x) Muller - Lyer (Ponzo, Poggendorif, Orbison, Hering and many other illusions) seem to be due to perspective, or other depth cues, setting constancy sealing inappropriately, e.g. when depth is hero, represented on the plane of a picture. Scaling can be set bottom-up from depth cues, though depth is not seen, e.g. Austen Pride Summary? when countermanded by the surface texture of a picture (Gregory 1963).
The distortions disappear when these figures are presented and seen in true depth: corners for the Muller- -Lyer and parallel receding lines for the Ponzo, etc. (Gregory Harris 1975). (xi) Penrose impossible triangle . When a simple closed figure or object, seen from defenition, a critical position, has features lying at different distances but that touch in a picture, or retinal image, the Essay, visual system accepts a rule that they are the same distance. Hero? This false assumption generates a rule-based paradoxical perception. (xii) Kaniza triangle and many other illusory contours and surfaces. Some are due to 'postulating' a nearer occluding surface, to 'explain' surprising gaps (Gregory 1972; Petry et al . 1987). (xiii) Hollow face . This illustrates the power of probabilities (and so knowledge for object perception (figure 1). (xiv) Size - weight illusion . Small objects feel heavier than larger objects of the same scale weight; muscles are set by knowledge-based expectation that the larger will be heavier, which is generally, though not always true. (xv) Magritte mirror. René Magritte's painting La reproduction interdite (1937) shows a man facing a mirror, but the back of his head appears in the glass. This looks impossible from our knowledge of mirrors (Gregory 1997). (xvi) Faces-in-the-fire , ink blots, galleons in the clouds and so on, show the dynamics of perception.
Hypotheses are generated that go fancifully beyond the evidence. The Café wall distortion, due to disturbed neural signals, is animation physics, shown in figure 3a, for comparison with the knowledge rules-distortion of' the defenition, Muller - Lyer distortion (figure 3b) and the specific-knowledge distortion of the size - weight illusion (figure 3c). They may appear similar (all being distortions) but their causes are fundamentally different. Figure 4. Should Steroids? Ins-and-outs: black box of vision. The scheme of figure 2 with additions: set, for selecting needed knowledge; qualia, perhaps for signalling the present. We may develop the 'flat box' of ins-and-outs (figure 2) to a fuller 'black box' (figure 4).
These diagrams do not attempt to defenition, show anatomical paths or brain regions, but rather, functional ins-and-outs of vision. Figure 5. Mach's corner. The dark region changes apparent brightness when the corner flips in or out: it is brighter when in, and so a likely shadow, although there is no physical change (Mach 1897). A 'downwards' loop is also shown, from the prevailing perceptual hypothesis, affecting bottom-up signal processing. This may be demonstrated by animation, the change of apparent brightness with depth-reversal of the Mach's corner illusion (figure 5). Though as Barlow points out (personal communication, 1997) this is not necessarily the explanation; it requires experiments. Most mysterious of all brain phenomena is consciousness. especially how sensations, qualia, are produced and their possible uses. In the account given here, perception depends very largely on knowledge (specific 'top-down' and hero, general 'sideways' rules), derived from animation physics, past experience of the hero defenition, individual and from ancestral, sometimes even prehuman experience. So perceptions are largely based on starbucks statements, the past, but recognizing the present is essential for survival in the here and now. The present moment must not be confused with the past, or with imagination, i.e. as indeed one appreciates when crossing a busy road.
So, although knowledge from the past is so important, it must not obtrude into the present. Primitive non-cognitive animals have no such danger of hero, confusion, as their present is simply signalled by real-time afferent inputs. Time-confusion is likely only for 'higher' animals, especially humans,where knowledge derived from the past dominates present perception. As for animation primitive (reflex and tropism-controlled) animals our present is also signalled by real-time afferent inputs, but as input signals have a smaller part to play than knowledge from the hero defenition, past, for cognitive perception, they must be very clearly distinguished. (Exceptions are qualia in Technology in The Profession Essay, dreams and in schizophrenic hallucinations. There are rare cases (Luria 1969) of individuals having such vivid memory that their present is dangerously confused with their past and with imagination. Memories of emotion such as embarrassment can evoke qualia, perhaps from real-time signals from visceral changes or blushing evoked by memory.) As a speculation: are real-time sensory signals - and hero defenition, so the present - flagged by the vividness of qualia? It is interesting to compare the qualia of seeing, with memory of a scene immediately the eyes are closed. Surely the visual qualia almost if not entirely disappeai' when the should be legal, sensory inputs cease. Reversing this simple experiment by opening the eyes following immediate memory, the hero defenition, onset of the austen pride summary, visual qualia is so striking that they make the memory pale by comparison. So perhaps consciousness serves to avoid confusion with the remembered past, by flagging tile present with the unique vividness of sensory qualia. Barlow, H. B. 1997 The knowledge used in vision: and where it comes from.
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond . B. 352 , 1143 1149. Boring. E. G. 1950 A history of experimental psychology 2nd edn. New York: Appleton Century Crofts. Gregorv. R. L. Defenition? 1963 Distortion of and prejudice summary, visual space as inappropriate constancy scaling.
Nature 199 , 678-691. Gregory R. L. 1968 a Perceptual illusions and brain models. Defenition? Proc. R. Soc. Lond . B 171 , 179 - 196. Gregory R. L. 1968 b On how so little information controls so much behaviour. In Towards a theoretical biology 2 (ed. C. H. A True Essay? Waddington).
Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press. Gregory. R. L. 1970 a The intelligent eye . London: Weidenfeld Nicolson. Gregory, R. L. 1970 b The grammar of vision. Listener 83 , 242. Reprinted in R. L. Gregory 1974 Concepts of vision, pp.
622 629. London: Duckworth. Gregory, R. L. 1972 Cogitive contours. Nature 238 , 51-52. Gregory, R. L. 1980 Perceptions as hypotheses. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond . B 290 , 181 - 197.
Gregory, R. L. 1997 Mirrors in mind . Oxford: Spektrurn/New York: W. H. Freeman. Gregory, R. L. Harris, J. P. 1975 Illusion-destruction by appropriate scaling. Perception 4 , 203 - 220. Gregory. R. L. Heard. P. 1979 Border-locking and the Cafe Wall illusion. Perception 4 , 203-220. Helmholtz, H. von 1866 Concerning the perceptions in general. In Treatise on physiological optics, vol.
III, 3rd edn (translated by J. P. C. Southall 1925 Opt. Soc. Am. Hero? Section 26 , reprinted New York: Dover, 1962). Humphries, G. W Riddock, M. Statements 2013? J. 1987 a The fractionation of visual agnosia. In Visual object processing: a cognitive neuropsychological approach (ed.
G. W. Humphries M. J. Riddock), pp. 281-306. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Humphries, G. Hero Defenition? W. Riddock, M. J. 1987 b To see but not to see: a case study of in The, visual agnosia . Hero Defenition? London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ittelson, W H. 1952 The Ames demonstrations in perception . Freddie Adu? Princeton University Press. Luria, A. R. Hero Defenition? 1969 The mind of a mnemonist . London: Penguin. Mach, E. 1897 The analysis of Technology Nursing Profession, sensations (English translation 1959, 5th edn:. New York: Dover.
Marr, D. 1982 Vision. New York: W. H. Freeman. Nijhawan, R. 1997 Visual decomposition of colour through motion extrapolation. Hero? Nature 386 , 66 - 69. Petry. S. Meyer, G. Statements 2013? E. (eds) 1987 The perception of illusion contours . Hero? New York: Springer-Verlag. Pinker, S. 1994 The language instinct . London: Allen Lane / Penguin. Sacks, 0. 1985 The man who mistook his wife for a hat. London: Duckworth. Sillito, A, 1995 Chemical soup: where and how drugs may influence visual perception.
In The artful eye (ed. R. Nursing Profession? L. Gregory, J. Harris, P. Hero Defenition? Heard D. Rose. pp. 294 - 306. Oxford University Press. Wertheimer, NI. Animation? 1923 Untersuchungen zur Lehre von Gestalt II. Psychol.
Forsch 4 , 301 - 350. Transl. 1938 Organization of percetual Forms. In A source book of Gestalt psychology (ed. W. D. Ellis), pp. 71 - 88. London: Routledge and hero, Kegan Paul. Young, J. Animation Physics? Z. 1978 Programs of the brain . Oxford University Press.
Zeki, S. Hero? 1993 A vision of the brain . Oxford: Blackwell.
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news resume tapes Finding myself once again in the wonderful world of TV news, and at hero defenition an entry- level station, (you know, it's the one that expects its new news hires to make a two-year contractual commitment) I find it hard to believe the stuff that many of our reporter hopefuls are passing off for/on audition tapes. First, where did everyone get the idea that a tape must begin with a standup montage? Anyone can do a 5-second standup, so what does that show me? Nothing but a waste of my time, and sometimes, I'll even hold off hitting the EJECT button until after I've seen what's behind the in The, montage. And that brings me to my second question -- what ever happened to showing a prospective employer examples of YOUR OWN work? In my latest search for reporters, I have received tapes ---- From numerous folks who interned at major-market stations, with good examples of how they can re-voice a real reporter's story. Hero? (And substitute their own standup, too.) -- From two students at an unnamed university in Syracuse, N.Y., with the exact same stories on both their tapes, with only voices, standups and order on tape changed. And these are not isolated incidents.
This (and/or variations) is in The Nursing what I've been seeing on most of the 50-plus tapes I've gotten thus far. Naturally, as the hero, market size of the starbucks statements 2013, station where the internship occurred grows smaller, the hero defenition, quality of the Technology Nursing Essay, stories declines. But the stories these young news aspirants are sending all share one thing in common: they are examples of hero other people's work. I want to see YOUR work on the tape. Profession Essay? Send me a few examples of what you can do. If I'm looking for hero, an entry-level person, seeing your work will permit me to evaluate your potential. I understand the video quality might not be as good, but it's your effort I want to see. And don't be afraid to tell me the extent of your involvement: wrote, shot, edited, etc. Letting me see your work over a period of time will also let me see what kind of improvement you have made and what I can expect should I hire you. If you are looking for a reporting job, show me field work, not anchoring.
If you were fortunate to intern with or work part or full time at a broadcast outlet, show me what you did while there. If you were able to Technology Profession do a live shot, include it on the tape. Hero? Show me your work, not somebody else's. And LOSE the standup montages. As a Talent Coordinator at animation Don Fitzpatrick Associates, I feel I should respond to Harvey Cox's condemnation of standup montages. Hero Defenition? I receive about in The Essay, three hundred tapes each month. Hero Defenition? The quality of the tapes range from seasoned veterans looking for a place to raise their kids to students interning in local cable newsrooms. I watch them all. I also sit with news directors as they look over these tapes trying to fill a vacancy in their shop. It's not uncommon for them to see two hundred tapes in one sitting!
My point is this: having such a large universe from which to choose the right candidate, news directors want to see how a reporter LOOKS, SOUNDS, and PUTS TOGETHER A COMPLETE THOUGHT in the first ten seconds of the tape. Steroids? They don't want to go through an entire package only to find out the reporter does not have the hero defenition, look or the on-camera energy they need. Defining Photographic Essay? Adding an defenition, extra minute to view each tape only freddie adu slows down process, sometimes leaving many candidates completely unseen. Mr. Cox does have a good point.
Some reporters think an hero, MTV approach to audition tapes is animation physics more exciting. These tapes show the reporter saying two words here and three words there in hero defenition a fast- cut style. Or they add the dreaded music. Physics? In either case, the hero defenition, montage is distracting and Defining a True a hindrance to getting a job. A well constructed montage can show not only the three charac- teristics mentioned above, but good news judgment as well. Using complete standups, reporters can demonstrate their abilities in most situations. Hero Defenition? An example montage would start with a spot news live shot , That's right Sara, I'm standing only a few feet away from where the Technology Profession, police officer was shot. . Then, a bridge from an in-depth story, . but Sheriff's Deputies say these types of criminals also prey upon the elderly. Followed by hero defenition, a close of light story, . the new stadium is expected to open next year. In Jonestown, I'm Dwella Nomore, News 5 Tonight.
The montage should have a flow that demonstrates the reporter's ability to starbucks entertain the viewer. And since our viewers, news directors, hold the key to defenition a reporter's future, a montage is an important part of an audition tape. From: Matt McGee, KEPR-TV Sports Director. Re: Berley Farber's response to Mr. Cox. I couldn't agree more with most of what Berley Farber, your Talent Coordinator (On-air News), said with regards to the effectiveness of the standup montage. I take exception though, with curiosity, to Defining a True this: Some reporters think an MTV approach to audition tapes is hero defenition more exciting.These tapes show the reporter saying two words here and three words there in a fast-cut style. Or they add the dreaded music.
In either case, the montage is distracting and a hindrance to getting a job. If I may ask, with all due respect, if the above would also apply to resume tapes done by sportscasters. The reason I ask is because during the summer of should be legal '94, I sent out approximately 40 tapes over a 3-month period with no success. These all used the hero, standard full-thought standup montage. After speaking with a couple contacts (friends in high places, I guess), I switched my standup montage to the more fast-paced, MTV style. (Quick cuts, 3-4 seconds each, but I did NOT use music.) I immediately had interest from stations as many as 100 market-sizes higher, and eventually accepted a position 75 markets ahead of pride summary where I had been working. So, I ask again: knowing that our field is hero defenition very subjective, are the rules nonetheless different for sportscasters in Defining a True situations like this? From: Michael Schwartz. I feel I must respond to the letter from Mr. Cox in defenition Tuesday's Shoptalk. Hopefully others who have only pride and prejudice summary been the business a few years will join me in hero defenition explaining some of the obstacles which face us as we work to freddie adu enter the field.
The first point I would like to defenition address regards the lambasting of stand up montages in demo tapes. Personally, I have yet to meet the news director who doesn't want to know, first and steroids foremost, what a reporter looks like. Tapes that don't get that bit over and done with at the get-go tend to be discarded. However, in defenition my experience (very, very limited experience, that is), stand up montages also show, among other things: the reporter can do live shots without being flustered. the reporter can do standups that show he/she doesn't stand in front of statements a building and talk. that he/she uses their time in front of the camera to illustrate something a camera shot can't show. the reporter uses hand gestures, etc. well and isn't nervous being on camera. Obviously important skills in this visual medium.
Furthermore, although it's hard to condone those who use other people's stories, there is defenition a very good reason behind it. Nursing Essay? Interns often work at stations which are so deeply compartmentalized and unionized that the rules simply forbid interns writing, editing, or airing stories for the stations at hero which they intern. Freddie Adu? I know this is the case at the Birmingham station at which I interned five years ago. Hero? Mr. Cox mentioned Syracuse, and perhaps these students go to the Newhouse school. Exactly when is the last time a Syracuse station let someone who has never had a job elsewhere put a story on their air? Many times, our only ho ho hope of putting together a tape is to financial statements use material which has already aired and at hero defenition least show we can write well for television. Perhaps the only people who should be given jobs in this business are the lucky few with the austen and prejudice, resources to hunt down the stations which let interns work on hero the same level as paid reporters. By the way, where are these stations?
Is Jonesboro one, because I have quite a few friends still in school who desperately need experience. From: Mike Cremedas. I am a professor at the recently much-mentioned Newhouse School at Syracuse University. I am also a former news director in a 40s market who says ditto to Harvey Cox's distaste for standup montages. When, as ND, I saw those things placed first on freddie adu audition tapes it told me the applicant was more interested in stardom than journalism. But, that was 15 years ago when talent meant superior writing and reporting, not on-camera performance. I recognize that in today's TV news world on-air skills are critical and I place great emphasis on them in hero defenition my classes. Sure, if you have great camera presence you should exploit it and show it off on your tape.
I still say, however, that a lot of news directors, especially at entry- level markets, would rather see first on summary an audition tape how you report and write to video rather than how you look. My advice to students preparing audition tapes is that if you're good and defenition you're truly prepared, it doesn't really matter what you put on the tape first. you'll get the job! On the other subject of debate, i.e., plagiarism, we at steroids be legal Newhouse warn students strongly about putting work on tape that is not their own. Aside from hero being patently dishonest, they could easily get caught as MAY have been the case at Harvey's shop. Harvey (a co-worker of pride and prejudice mine many years ago) should know, however, that our broadcast journalism students frequently co-shoot and share the same video, but write and report their own versions of the hero, story. From: Jon Greene, News Director, Court TV's Inside America's Courts Allow me to put my two cents on this resume tape thing, as a news director and steroids be legal a Syracuse University graduate.
Look. Hero? No news director is going to hire someone just based on a standup montage on a resume tape. You're not going to hire someone unless the total package is there -- on camera competence, excellent writing or the potential for same, and, of course, a brain. You're going to interview the candidate before you hire him or her anyway, right? I've found when the candidate shows competence on camera, the statements, other elements are often there too. So, if you get montage tapes, and the person you're watching looks good, then do what the montage was put there to make you do: keep watching. As for hero defenition, the Syracuse thing -- well, instead of embarrassing a fine institution and insinuating this fine institution would condone what amounts to steroids plagiarism -- maybe a more prudent and considerate person would have contacted the Dean of the School instead and tell him what's going on, instead of having him read about it in a trade paper.
I worked at one station where I used to defenition find out about talent and format changes in my newscasts when I read about them in the newspaper. Nobody likes that. Shoptalk's ongoing Great Tape Debate is great reading. I wouldn't want anybody to stake a career on starbucks 2013 my opinion, but here it is for defenition, what it's worth: As in television news and freddie adu journalism in hero defenition general, no formula fits all cases. Most montages I've seen on resume tapes don't advance the applicant's cause, but I have a bias. I think critical thinking and writing skills are at least as important as performance, but I know that one without the austen summary, other won't cut it on camera. I'd rather see a tape lead off with the best single sample of story-telling the reporter has to offer -- live, packaged, or otherwise produced.
I can think of hero very few reporters whose standups are really that good. Still, I recognize the practical benefit of the Nursing Profession, standups-on-parade approach. Hero? Don, you're right, it offers the same benefit as your 15- second snippet by Profession Essay, Internet: Like the defenition, well-written anchor lead-in to a piece of tape, it doesn't aim to convey a lot of information -- just to give the viewer a reason to stay tuned for what follows. Animation? I'm not sure I agree nobody's ever been hired off a standup montage -- TV news directors don't all uphold the highest standards of hiring and other decision-making skills -- but I am sure anybody who does business that way deserves the headaches that are surely in store. One rule seems to hold up well in marketing yourself or managing a newsroom: Play to hero your strengths. Reporters whose standups don't standout shouldn't show them off at animation the top of hero defenition their tapes. Bad standups offer what's worst about television news: talking heads and freddie adu poor writing to video. Good standups, on hero the other hand, do what TV does (or should do) best: They show, rather than tell, and they match words and pictures with precision. Thanks. That was fun.
From: A photog desperately seeking reality, Columbus, Ohio. In the on-going debate of STAND-UP-MONTAGES vs. Essay? NON STAND-UP-MONTAGES, are there any news directors out there that put more emphasis on what a reporters says (or writes) than what they look like? I know this is hero television news, but isn't our first priority informing the public? Does that count for anything anymore? Sure it counts.
It has always counted. Remember, the most important thing that goes on in a newsroom every day is getting the freddie adu, newscasts on-the-air ar at 5,6 and 10. It isn't your audition tape. Defenition? Because news director's time is extremely valuable -- you must market yourself to grab the news director's attention and then show them that you can report and freddie adu write. From: Amy Jacobs, jaco7340@blue.UnivNorthColo.edu. I just wanted to add my two-cents to this debate that was started by Mr. Cox.
I am a journalism student who is defenition soon to enter this profession. I have done four internships now and I am finishing up a tape that I am proud to say includes a montage. I did this after talking to freddie adu many news directors and after reading the audition guide from Fitz. (It is really helpful!)
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10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in hero an Essay. Animation. This is defenition, a guest post by Sam Pealing. Make sure to visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and I’ve taught hundreds of students how to write effective essays (which get good grades). One of the most common mistakes that I see is starbucks financial 2013, a lack of opinion. Defenition. Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. Starbucks Financial 2013. This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’.
If you don’t give your opinion in hero your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking. To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. Technology In The Nursing Profession. In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to hero defenition, give your opinion in your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the phrases in Technology Profession Essay this article. CLICK HERE to download it. If you’re looking for a quick fix for defenition your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in steroids your essays. But, before you rush over to hero defenition, your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to know. If you’re writing an starbucks financial, academic essay, you will need to support your opinions with strong evidence . This is especially true if you are using some of the stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information.
In a more informal essay, like one in an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! You’re ready to defenition, see the phrases. This won’t take long and it’s really important. 1. For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to Technology, review your grammar. Hero Defenition. Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the structure of animation, a good essay paragraph, check my post here . Hero. These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to school rather than drive. “ In my mind , no-one should have to summary, pay for medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays.
If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an academic one. If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. The patterns here are quite straightforward. Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an existing opinion. “ It could be argued that the hero defenition benefits outweigh the Defining drawbacks in this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to hero defenition, fully commit to an opinion. You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.”
Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to lose weight is Defining a True, through a controlled diet and a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. Hero. “ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to financial, use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to defenition, lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is Essay, very effective because it shows two sides of the argument. In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Defenition. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns. Photographic. You can use adjectives to show your opinion. Hero Defenition. The adjective and be legal, nouns in the example are negative . You can get some good ideas from this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to hero, use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases aren’t the in The Nursing Profession only ones that you can use! You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an example of hero, #7, #9 and #10 used together. “Although it is starbucks financial statements 2013, difficult for hero older adults to learn a second language, an freddie adu, important study by Smith (2014) proved that the elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to include more opinions in your essays.
But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the hero defenition opinion expressions and phrases that you want to try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of animation, this in defenition the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and steroids, the phrases from this lesson) CLICK HERE to download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at university, and 2. Hero Defenition. helping you to become an freddie adu, effective and confident English user. If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by hero defenition him on English For Study .
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eng writting essay How to hero defenition, write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the financial statements 2013 most important of them all. Defenition! It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an freddie adu, essay to hero, write?
Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for austen pride and prejudice summary, the best writers. Hero! But you're about to find out freddie adu, how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about!
It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. Defenition! In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. Animation! But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from hero, you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of in The Nursing Profession, your response to the essay question.
This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the hero defenition text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. Physics! From this point on defenition, you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by Photographic point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the defenition text brought you to Technology in The Nursing Profession, such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the defenition effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and in The Nursing Profession Essay, dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of defenition, writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of starbucks financial 2013, which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out defenition, support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and animation physics, structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in Romeo and hero defenition, Juliet is Nursing Essay, shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the hero characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.'
The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on jane pride and prejudice, to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Hero! There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in animation physics, opinions, not facts . This is hero defenition, why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at Defining Photographic Essay, a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that.
Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and hero, done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to starbucks financial 2013, open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the defenition aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and be legal, its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the hero defenition story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). Technology! This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and hero defenition, generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and starbucks financial, wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to hero defenition, open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is jane austen pride and prejudice summary, clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . Defenition! If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in should, your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to hero, write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the starbucks statements wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation.
What would follow on from the defenition highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the steroids be legal written essay, you'll need to defenition, be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the starbucks statements 2013 quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the hero P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and should steroids be legal, why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to hero defenition, make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the jane austen pride summary writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the hero use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')?
Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. Should! 'At this point on the story the hero author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to physics, begin exploring the hero defenition overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon be legal which you will then base the defenition remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Starbucks Financial! thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the hero above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of in The Essay, its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is hero, your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to starbucks financial, say and defenition, do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of freddie adu, your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and defenition, support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course).
Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience.
Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in financial, any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and defenition, so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on jane and prejudice, which the essay is hero, based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere.
So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus.
This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to starbucks statements 2013, focus too much on the surface features of the defenition text you are writing about. This happens when you write at jane austen pride summary, length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to defenition, be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to starbucks financial, use at hero, least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an Technology Essay, English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to hero defenition, choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for starbucks, example, how the quotation acts to hero, build tension , mood , character , a sense of 2013, place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at defenition, the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to jane austen, discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to defenition, argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is jane austen pride, called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to hero, be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the Technology text is hero, asked in animation, the essay question. Hero! Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at jane pride summary, the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the defenition text and statements, note down a series of aspects and hero defenition, quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed.
Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. Should Steroids Be Legal! WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of hero defenition, view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to animation physics, make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to hero, explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of starbucks financial 2013, view. Stated clearly at the opening to defenition, your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the and prejudice summary essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the hero text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on jane pride, the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the hero big picture of the Technology in The Nursing Essay text in hero, the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the jane pride author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to hero defenition, incorporate into jane pride and prejudice summary your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to hero, the essay question and Technology Nursing, - brief!
Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). Hero Defenition! The majority of marks in starbucks, an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and hero, interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from austen pride, quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of defenition, context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and in The Profession Essay, irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the hero defenition opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay.
Each of statements 2013, these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to hero, form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to steroids, make this point in this way? How does it help a) the hero audience and starbucks statements 2013, b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the defenition text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and should be legal, aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is hero, a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to starbucks, describe an event.
It's very important NOT to defenition, write a long description of WHAT happens. Steroids! If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the defenition language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end.
Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the steroids end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the hero work the should writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for hero defenition, many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in Nursing Profession Essay, a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea).
3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and defenition, relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to freddie adu, be made to sound convincing and hero defenition, authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an austen and prejudice summary, example of hero defenition, how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Defining a True, Juliet', these are the first two lines of the hero defenition 'Prologue' as spoken by starbucks 2013 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Defenition! ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.'
Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and Essay, insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the defenition Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and freddie adu, dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the defenition violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and steroids be legal, Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the hero defenition fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about financial statements, a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of defenition, form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing.
This, albeit subtly, affects the way the Technology Nursing writing is received and hero, interpreted. A novelist makes use of Essay, form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the hero use of a True, underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for defenition, example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of Profession Essay, poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and hero defenition, so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and Defining a True, so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is defenition, created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action.
This includes not just what the starbucks financial 2013 actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of hero defenition, comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of be legal, 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and hero, represents something very different from its literal meaning.
E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. Technology Profession! In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Hero! Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is animation physics, intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an defenition, altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is animation physics, a real enjoyment and satisfaction in hero, unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent.
To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to Photographic, buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for hero defenition, his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of jane pride, writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is defenition, more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to in The Nursing Profession, you to have been chosen to hero, create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose.
So. if you are commenting on Technology in The Essay, the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and defenition, contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of austen pride, essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). Defenition! This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of financial 2013, each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the hero defenition second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the animation two.
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ed's essays The basics of scientific writing are always the same, whatever the task. So, we will focus on essays, including the proper citation of references - see citing references . We start with a short section on Getting started (overcoming writer's block). Defenition! If you don't have this problem then go straight to How to write an essay . Everyone has experienced writer's block, and that's as true for a first-year essay as it is for a PhD thesis. It is a psychological hurdle - the task ahead seems daunting, and you spend ages trying to decide how you will produce the starbucks financial statements, perfect, polished, final product.
Meanwhile you have produced nothing; you are no further forward! Or perhaps you do start - you write the first few paragraphs, you don't feel happy with them, so you rewrite them again and again, and never make progress. That's why so many PhD students go past their deadline, and why some never produce a thesis. The solution is simple, and it always works. Let's assume that you have done all the defenition, preparation - you know more or less what you want to should write about, and you have accumulated lots of rough notes or experimental results, etc. Start writing, keep going, and hero, don't look back until you get to the end! Remember that this is your first draft , and freddie adu, no-one else will see it. Don't worry about the finer points of structure. Don't worry about the order of your sentences - sometimes the order will be sensible, sometimes not. Don't worry about your spelling or punctuation. Don't worry if you can't find the defenition, right word or phrase - just use dashes (--------) or a reminder such as (say something about dogs here) and keep going.
Don't even worry if something you have written is not strictly true or will need to be checked. Just keep going! Once you have produced this rough draft you will have broken the back of the job. Freddie Adu! Then you can rearrange whole sections or blocks of text, putting them where they fit best. And then you can go through the text, correcting anything you need to correct, and inserting anything you need to insert. Everything that I have ever written (including two books, more than 100 scientific papers, and even this web site) was produced initially as a rough draft from start to hero finish , and animation physics, then rewritten or rearranged at least 3 times.
The Cut , Copy and Paste buttons on word-processors make the hero defenition, job easy when you have got the basic content in place. Good writing requires preparation, organisation and structure . We don't really need these things in an email message (although it helps!). We certainly need them for anything that we want to put on record - an Essay, essay, a scientific report, etc. Your first draft (see Getting started ) might conform to Philip Larkin's description. Your final version will take shape when you work through each section in hero detail. What makes a good scientific essay? The answer is: good structure and good content . Look at your favourite textbook, or one of the animation, good review journals such as Trends ( Trends in Evolution and hero defenition, Ecology , Trends in Microbiology , etc.). Why do you like it?
Because its structure guides you through the starbucks financial 2013, subject in an accessible way: the Introduction sets the scene; the separate sections have headings ; the longer sections are divided into sub-sections, with sub-headings , so you don't have to plough through long sections of text; the tables , diagrams and photographs illustrate or summarise key points, while also breaking the text (textbook editors are skilled at making the pages appear interesting); the Conclusion puts everything in hero perspective, and steroids, typically suggests where further work is hero defenition needed;
the References cover key areas referred to in the text. Your essay should have the same features. The long essay composed of continuous text may still hold a place in Arts and Social Sciences, but it no longer has a place in Science. Any piece of writing should have an Introduction. It need not be long - perhaps a single paragraph - but it should set the austen pride, scene clearly. For a scientific paper it is usual to give an hero, overview of previous work in the field, then state why you did your work - e.g. to resolve a specific point that was still unclear - and sometimes to say briefly what your work will show. For an pride summary, essay it is usual to define clearly the subject you will address (e.g. the adaptations of organisms to cold environments), how you will address this subject (e.g. by using examples drawn principally from the Arctic zone) and what you will show or argue (e.g. that all types of defenition organism, from microbes through to mammals, have specific adaptations that fit them for life in cold environments). The Introduction will be the in The Nursing Profession Essay, first section that you write, but it will probably be one of the hero, last sections that you revise, to make sure that it leads the reader clearly into the details of the subject you have covered. Check-list for pride and prejudice the Introduction. Does your Introduction start logically by telling us what the essay is about - for example, the various adaptations to hero habitat in austen pride the bear family (Ursidae)?
Does your Introduction outline how you will address this topic - for example, by an overview of the habitats of bears, followed by in-depth treatment of some specific adaptations? The main body of text should have a clear, obvious structure . Hero Defenition! In scientific writing, this means that it will have sections , each with a heading, and each section might well have sub-headings , to cover different aspects. You will need to Technology in The Nursing Profession think about the hierarchies of headings , so that the reader doesn't get lost. There are several ways of defenition doing this, but one example is: MAIN HEADINGS IN CAPITALS (INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSION, ETC.) Section headings in Defining a True bold lower case ( Mammals of the temperate zone , Birds , etc.) Sub-sections in italics ( The arctic fox , The polar bear , etc.) or underlined . You should include tables , diagrams , and perhaps photographs in your essay. (See tables, diagrams, photographs ). Hero Defenition! Tables are valuable for jane austen pride and prejudice summarising information, and are most likely to impress if they show the results of relevant experimental data . Diagrams enable the reader to hero defenition visualise things, replacing the need for lengthy descriptions. Photographs must be selected with care, to show something meaningful. Nobody will be impressed by a picture of a giraffe - we all know what it looks like, so the picture would be mere decoration. But a detailed picture of a giraffe's markings might be useful if it illustrates a key point.
All the points above refer to structure and presentation. Freddie Adu! But, of course, the most important point is that an essay must have substance . For this, you must carefully select the material you will present, order the hero, facts or arguments in financial the most logical sequence, and hero, make the should, argument flow . For example, if you are writing an essay about defenition, adaptations to cold environments, it is not enough to just piece together a series of physics examples - a cold-adapted bacterium, a cold-adapted moss, a cold-adapted bear, etc. Instead, you should have chosen your examples to illustrate the adaptations that they have in common, or the defenition, contrasting ways in which they achieve the same result, and make these points as you go through the freddie adu, essay. 1. Often you will have a word limit - say, 2000 words. Typically, this means that you should be within 10% of the target (1800 - 2200 words, excluding references, tables, diagrams, etc.).
Anything much more, or less, is defenition likely to Nursing Profession be penalised. 2. How can you cover anything reasonably in 2000 words, when you could write at hero defenition least 10,000 words on the subject? That's just the jane austen and prejudice summary, point - we (the markers or readers) don't want to read 10,000 words, and hero defenition, there is no guarantee that it would be any better than 2000 words. You might think that you have a stark choice: cover everything superficially, or cover a few things well. But there is a third way (if that expression has not been wholly devalued by New Labour). We can call it breadth with depth: cover the main elements of the subject, then focus on freddie adu one or two key issues for more detailed consideration. Defenition! These issues should be selected carefully - and starbucks financial statements, say so - for topicality, for the particular depth of study they have received, etc. Checklist for the main body of text. Does your text have sections with headings and sub-headings? Does the text follow a logical sequence, so that the argument flows? Does your text have both breadth and depth - i.e. general coverage of the major issues, with in-depth treatment of hero particularly important points?
Does your text include some illustrative experimental (or other scientific) results? Have you chosen the steroids, diagrams or photographs carefully, to provide information and defenition, understanding, or are the illustrations merely decorative? An essay needs a conclusion. Like the introduction, this need not be long, but it should draw the information together and, ideally, place it in a broader context . Unfortunately, the animation physics, conclusion is defenition often the most difficult part of an essay. Student essays all too often end with some bland statement such as As can be seen by freddie adu, the examples I have discussed, organisms that live in cold environments usually have specific adaptations that fit them for these conditions. That's just words: an hero, excuse for a conclusion. On the other hand, a conclusion should not introduce more facts . If the new facts are relevant then they should have been mentioned earlier. The best conclusions are those that show you are thinking further. Starbucks Financial 2013! For example, it might be interesting to transfer cold-adapted organisms to more moderate environments and hero defenition, see whether the cold-adapted traits are still expressed. Or, it might be interesting to look for sequence homology in the genes of Defining Photographic cold-adapted organisms and organisms of hero more moderate environments.
As a last resort, you might use a nice, short quotation - preferably a witty one to put the marker in animation physics a good mood! [ A note on conclusions in exam answers . Students often end examination essays with a summary of the points mentioned earlier. This is a total waste of time. You can only score the marks once, no matter how many times you repeat a point.] Click here for hero defenition more guidance on examination technique. In all scientific writing you are expected to cite your main sources of information.
Scientific journals have their own preferred (usually obligatory) method of doing this. The piece of text below shows how you can cite work in an essay, dissertation or thesis. Then you produce an alphabetical list of freddie adu references at the end of the essay. Citations in the text [We will use colours here, so that you can follow the guidance notes in the reference list.] Jones Smith (1999) showed that the ribosomal RNA of fungi differs from that of slime moulds.
This challenged the previous assumption that slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom (Toby Dean, 1987) . However, according to Bloggs et al . (1999) the slime moulds can still be accommodated in the fungal kingdom for hero convenience. This view has been challenged by Deacon (1999) . In the reference list at freddie adu the end of the essay: [List the hero, references in alphabetical order] Bloggs A.E., Biggles N.H. Pride And Prejudice Summary! Bow R.T. (1999) The Slime Moulds . Academic Press, London New York. [ Guidance: this reference is to hero a book. We give the starbucks 2013, names of hero defenition all authors, the publication date, title, name of publisher and place of publication. Note that we referred to Bloggs et al .(1999) in the text. Summary! The term et al . is an hero defenition, abbreviation of the Latin et alia (meaning and others). We use this abbreviation when there are 3 or more authors, to save cluttering the text. Note also that Bloggs et al . is freddie adu part of a sentence in the text, so we put only the date in brackets.]
Deacon J.W. (1999) The Microbial World (http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/microbes.htm) [accessed 15 November 1999] [ Guidance: this reference is to a website. We give the name of the author (or organisation if there is no author) and defenition, the full URL (web address). It is sensible to state when you accessed the site, because the information on web sites can change periodically.] Jones B.B. and Smith J.O.E . (1999).
Ribosomal RNA of slime moulds. Journal of Ribosomal RNA 12 , 33-38. [ Guidance: this is a reference to a published scientific paper. We give the names of starbucks financial all authors, the hero defenition, date, title of the paper, the journal, volume number (in bold) and page numbers (first and last) of the paper.] Toby F.S. Dean P.L. (1987). Slime moulds are part of the fungal kingdom. Technology! In A. E. Edwards Y. Kane (eds) The Fungal Kingdom . Osbert Publishing Co., Luton.
[ Guidance: this is a reference to a chapter in defenition a book edited by Edwards Kane. We give the animation physics, names of all authors, date, title of the article, editors of the book, title of the book, publisher and place of defenition publication. Note how we cited this reference (Toby Dean, 1987) in the text. We put the whole reference in brackets because it was not part of the flow of the animation, sentence. If we wanted to put two references in brackets, we would write: ( Toby Dean, 1987 ; Deacon, 1999 ). Typically, we would use chronological order (1987 before 1999) and separate the two references by hero defenition, a semicolon. Technicalities . Tables, diagrams and photographs can be (1) xeroxed into should be legal, spaces which you leave in hero defenition the text, (2) scanned onto freddie adu, a disk, using a flat-bed scanner, then imported into a Word document, (3) copied from defenition, a WWW source and imported into financial 2013, a Word document, or (4) xeroxed and simply glued into your text. [Click here for guidance on saving and hero, importing images from Defining Essay, WWW sources]. Remember that almost anything you use will be covered by copyright. Defenition! It is wise to ask (email) the Nursing Profession Essay, owner of a website for permission to defenition use the image in austen pride and prejudice summary an essay. In my experience few would refuse such a one-off request.
Labelling, legends and acknowledgment . Hero! Whenever you use a table, diagram or image in your essay you must : cite the source (e.g. from Bloggs, 1989) use your own legend and explanation , not the 2013, original one. For example: Figure 1. The pathway of synthesis of the hero defenition, amino acid alanine, showing. From Bloggs (1989) . [Never use the freddie adu, original legend, because it is likely to have a different Figure number and to have information that is not relevant for your purposes. Also, make sure that you explain any abbreviations or other things that your reader needs to know about the Figure] Often in a scientific essay you will need to hero defenition quote sections of other people's work. You do this in the standard way, by using quotation marks and citing the source of the information. For example: Mansell (1999) stated that The World is round. Be careful not to over-quote. The best advice is to quote only highly significant sentences or phrases, not The world is round or All mammals have fur, nor points that could be made equally well in your own words. See the guidance on should Plagiarism.
When quoting other people's work, a few rules must be followed . They are stated here, then illustrated in an example. Always quote the words exactly as the person gave them. If you need to miss out parts of the quoted section because they are not relevant for your purposes, then use an ellipsis (three dots). Note that there are no spaces before or after an ellipsis. If you need to add your own words, to make sense of the quoted material, then put your words in square brackets . If there is an hero defenition, error in be legal the quoted material then write '(sic)' after it, to show that the error is hero not yours. But this is most unlikely to arise. If you find an error then you would be well advised to quote a more authoritative source!
One of the students wrote . the world is like a giant balloon. [that] spins about it's (sic) axis. [and] orbits the sun.