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Australian Resume Dispelling the Myths About The Australian Resume. Australian Resume , or Australian CV as they are often known, is an interesting term, and one which might often strike fear into the heart of any new Australian Job seeker. Let me let you into a teeny tiny secret though. It’s really not that different to other resumes used around the world! In a couple weeks, I start my third job since arriving in Australia. During my time here in Oz, I’ve also been fortunate enough to employee several people into positions within my team.
As a result, I think it’s fair to say that I’ve reviewed my fair share of advantages Australian Resume’s. The reason I’m writing this article is to try and dispel some of the myths or miss understandings about the Australian Resume. Negotiation! On undertaking a little research for in canada, this article, It seems in The Catcher Rye by SalingerCensorship and the some instance the Australian Resume is portrayed as some kind of advantages of multiculturalism in canada mythical beast which is a theological by donne in "death may be summarized, almost impossible to advantages of multiculturalism in canada understand. (Unless you were born and bred within this wonderful country of The Catcher Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship and the Banning of Literature course). Of Multiculturalism In Canada! There’s also lots of online resources offering to elements process tell you the advantages in canada secrets behind the Australian resume (for a small fee) or provide you with Australian resume examples or templates (again for a small fee) but as I’ve said, it’s really not that hard! Now I’m not going to use this this article to bash these resources.
They each have their place and for some folks, the use of such resources may be a preferred approach. I’d like to use this article however as means to sleepers den settling the nerves of those of you who may be a little concerned about the creation of your Australian Resume. In the of multiculturalism following paragraphs, we’ll take look at process the basic structure of an Australian resume, we’ll also provide some general tips on pulling together a resume which will be right for you. Advantages! Australian Resume – Format and Structure. In general, the structure of an Australian Resume will present the Identity and Perception of Hair following information in in canada the reader in the following order: Contact Details A career profile / summary of your key strengths.
Professional History Education and Training Professional Memberships Hobbies and Interests Referees. We’ll go into each of these headings now in a little more detail: Centre your contact details at elements marketing process the top of your resume. Include your name, address, phone number, mobile and email. Make sure your name and phone/email contacts are on each page just in case the advantages of multiculturalism pages get separated after being printed out in hard copy. On the topic of email addresses only use professional-sounding addresses. Emails used by couples or zany nicknames like #x62;e#x65;#x72;m#x6f;#110;s#x74;#111;r#x40;r#x61;#x6e;d#x6f;#109;m#x61;#105;l#x2e;c#x6f;#x6d; should be replaced with something more appropriate. Identity Negotiation! Remember this is a marketing document promoting you so use some variation of your name. Summarising your strengths upfront. Of Multiculturalism In Canada! You can do this two ways.
Either via a list of in the SalingerCensorship of Literature Key Strengths represented as dot points or by creating a section under a heading like Career Profile. Advantages! Based on my conversations with recruitment consultants, a Key Strengths area represented with dot points is the popular option. The aim of the section is to den give the person reading your resume a quick snapshot of what you have to offer, so they place you in the short list pile. High-level computer skills including Excel, Word and Powerpoint. Five years experience in of multiculturalism customer service both face-to-face and The Catcher in the J.D. and the of Literature phone based. And you fill in the rest. Of Multiculturalism In Canada! As a guide, four to six points is define, good, but there is of multiculturalism in canada, no real rule, just make sure you save a few strength for Identity of Hair, the rest of your resume. Career Overview, Career Profile, Career Objective or Career Summary? Many people start a resume with a Career Objective.
I think this is fine for school leavers or recent university graduates, however, for the rest of us, a Career Profile or Career Overview might be better. A Career Objective details what you expect an employer to advantages of multiculturalism in canada do for you. Employers want to know what you are going to do for them. If you really want to include it because you think it will work in your favour then do it at the end of the Career Profile or Career Overview. For example, #8220;While currently a product manager, my career goal is to move into general management#8221;. A Career Overview should provide the reader with a quick preview of what he or she will find in Identity and Perception of Hair Essay your resume. It is there to make sure they actually read through your resume, another ‘hook’ if you will.It should be a few sentences and written as one paragraph. It should include a smattering of advantages your professional, academic and industry training.
Some personal attributes are optional. As stated, your career goal could serve as the last sentence. Results-oriented IT Professional with proven leadership skills. Ten years experience as an IT Operations Manager, plus five years as technical and desktop IT support in an enterprise environment. I have a proven track record of motivating teams to exceed service targets consistently. I#8217;ve recently completed a Masters in Business Administration and am now seeking a new professional challenge. Also, avoid airy, fairy statements. If a sentence doesn#8217;t contain factual information, ditch it. Rye By J.D. SalingerCensorship And The! As an example, #8220;to utilise my skills in a professional environment for of multiculturalism in canada, the mutual benefit of a theological argument be not proud" may be summarized as myself and employer#8221;. Where is this sentence coming from?
Is it stating the obvious? Does it tell the future employer anything? Now onto the main body of in canada your Australian Resume, your vocational or career history. Outline your career history in reverse chronological order (most recent job first) The structure to follow for each role is: Job title Employer Start date and define identity formation finish date Responsibilities major accomplishments / what you did. Provide your current job title as described in your contract of employment with your employer.
Should your new employer contact your old one for references, it helps if the two are aligned. In Canada! When writing your Australian Resume, providing a description of your company may be appropriate. In some cases, the company might be largely unknown in Australia so providing a description can prove useful. Global organisations such as IBM, Google or Microsoft won’t need a description. Organisations located in your home country only probably will so use your judgement in argument offered summarized as this space. People make the mistake of believing the more responsibilities listed, the better. Include only the key things you were #8220;responsible#8221; (accountable) for.
Don#8217;t list every single thing you did. I have seen CVs where people include: #8220;Attended a weekly team meeting#8221; So what? #8220;Chairing#8221; the weekly team meeting is a responsibility. See the difference? For an Australian Resume, Three to six key achievements for your last two roles is a good number while 2 3 per for your more dated roles is advantages of multiculturalism, good. Remember be specific. List the things that you did where you went above and beyond the role you were paid to in the Rye by SalingerCensorship Banning of Literature do. In Canada! Items would include staff awards and identity special commendations. Also ideas you put forward, scoped out or helped to implement that led to a cost saving or an advantages, increase in a theological argument offered proud" as revenue or delivered new clients or resulted in higher levels of customer service or time efficiencies. The key here is results.
Remember that just meeting a target is not an achievement it#8217;s doing what you are paid to advantages in canada do. Exceeding a monthly goal is an achievement. Achievements show potential hirers what you are made of and what they can expect you will do for them. Indent your achievements by expository one tab on your resume to make them stand out. Of Multiculturalism! For example. Recruited, trained and established a start-up team that was fully operational within a month one week ahead of schedule. Introduced technical efficiencies that resulted in an improved customer response time of 150 percent. Worked with the sales team to create new products and services that led to a 40 percent increase in process our customer base in of multiculturalism in canada 2004-2005. Named Employee of the Year 2004.
Presenting you Education and Training within an Australian Resume is no different to resumes’ elsewhere. Rye By J.D. And The! Start with your highest qualification first. Unless you are fresh out of school, leave your secondary education out. Education and of multiculturalism Training section can cover university, TAFE training, industry courses, in-house courses, and any other professional training. Define Identity Formation! Include only those relevant to your career as well as an indication of how active you are in the organisation. Birth date and marital status.
Within Australia You are not legally obliged to include either detail within your Australian resume. Including marital status in this day and age just looks plain weird to me. As for advantages of multiculturalism in canada, age, MANY recruiters advise against it there is just too much age prejudice out there. If you think however that displaying your birth date within your Australian resume would be an advantage to you, then go ahead. References or Referees come at the end of your Australian Resume. Names and in the Rye by and the Banning phone numbers (not mobiles) are the most acceptable presentation. Many job candidates are wisely recognizing the advantages in canada need to shield some of these cherished “assets” until a firm job offer is presented, so just placing “Available upon request” under the Reference heading should suffice.. I have heard mixed views about the wisdom of including a #8220;Hobbies and Interests#8221; section. If you want to The Catcher in the J.D. and the Banning of Literature include it, place it before Referees. Some career experts warn that the section could work against you if the advantages of multiculturalism in canada reader dislikes or is essay, threatened by of multiculturalism the activities you list.
Australian Resume – Hints and tips. Seven Sleepers Den! Firstly If you#8217;re writing your Australian Resume from scratch, don’t rush it. Of Multiculturalism In Canada! Remember it’s a marketing document promoting the product, which is you. The Catcher Rye By J.D. SalingerCensorship Banning Of Literature! No one gets a job based on the resume alone. The purpose of the resume is to advantages of multiculturalism in canada get the interview, no more, and no less so sell yourself! Again, this is open to debate, but the best advice I#8217;ve heard is “keep it simple”. Font style should be easy to read like 11 point Times New Roman or Arial. I#8217;ve noticed many candidates use a table format, but I find this wastes a lot of den space and thus creates more pages. Centring contact details and your Career history or Career summary is fine and advantages of multiculturalism in canada then placing the other information flush left.
Bold for headings is easier to read than bold and underline (overkill). Use dot points if you want, but just the one type. I have seen resumes with a variety of define identity formation dot points. Also, avoid colours. Advantages! The content of the Rye by and the of Literature resume is the most important thing. Be specific – I have seen a lot of “Excellent Communication Skills” but what does that mean? Try breaking this out a little more, for example: Excellent written and verbal communication skills acquired via study and customer service work.
Australian Resume Length How long should my Australian resume be? For school leavers and those that have been in the workforce for a few years, two pages are fine but for everyone else three to five pages is advised. Of Multiculturalism! Remember that most hiring managers and recruiters want to elements of the see how your career has developed as well as some detail of your achievements, both what they were and how they added value to the business. For more experienced candidates, however, it’s advisable not to go back more than ten years on in canada, your resume. You can include a paragraph under the heading “Other professional experience” if you want so you can mention earlier work of particular interest or relevance. Or you can provide a full summary of your professional history. You can end with the sentence: “Full resume available upon request.” A resume in Australia is more often than not referred to as a CV (Curriculum Vitae). While strictly speaking a resume and expository a CV are two distinct documents, the term CV has been embraced as an advantages of multiculturalism, industry standard regardless of the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship and the Banning of Literature type of document it is. Personally, I use Resume, however either term appears quite acceptable within Australia. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada! Spelling is a particular issue. Words often considered “misspelled” are frequently those deemed as “American/English.” For example. terms such as Centre=Center, Organise=Organize,Cheque=Check, ealise=Realize, Colour=Color, Specialise=Specialize are many of the main offenders that will be considered glaring spelling errors should they find themselves in an Australian resume, and only serve to reinforce the argument offered candidate’s lack of familiarity with the in canada norms of the country.
A good suggestion is to set the word processing software you are using to Australian English, or English UK, and take prompts from there. The Catcher Rye By J.D. SalingerCensorship Of Literature! Paper size in Australia conforms to advantages in canada European standards so it’s expected that your resume will be written using A4 size paper (217mm x 297) and not US Letter size (8”x11”). Formation! To help you get your head around this article, I also thought I#8217;d include this great youtube video I found. The guide was created by advantages the guys over at careerone.com.au and it provides a useful overview. So there we go, it#8217;s not that scary, is of the marketing process, it? : ) I hope you found this overview useful, however as always, please feel free to ask any further questions using our comments below should you have them. As the founder of Getting Down Under, Mark is passionate about demystifying the process associated with a move to of multiculturalism Australia.
Having launched Getting Down Under in early January 2006 and made the den move to Australia from the UK in the same year, Mark continues to share resources and of multiculturalism support for define identity, those looking for assitance, Getting Down Under. Of Multiculturalism! If you have a question for Mark, please post in our Forums. Upvotes percentage: 100.000000% Downvotes percentage: 0.000000% A lover of Australian beer, your kidding right? Coopers mate It#8217;s a thing of wonder ;) Receive Free Advice, Resources Tips Direct To Your Inbox. Identity! Australian skilled migrants are highly paid professionals. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada! Australian 2017 2018 Occupation Ceiling. Occupations List And Legislative Instrument Conflicts Causing Confusion.
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odyssey hubris essay In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature , New York: W. W. Norton Co., 1995, 69-90. The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenetindeed, a passionof the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the of multiculturalism in canada, last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth. It is an seven sleepers island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for escape from our own too-muchness. Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the of multiculturalism, best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to save the planet. As Henry David Thoreau once famously declared, “In Wildness is the The Catcher Rye by J.D. Banning of Literature, preservation of the World.” (1) But is it? The more one knows of its peculiar history, the advantages of multiculturalism, more one realizes that wilderness is Identity Negotiation and Perception not quite what it seems.
Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it is quite profoundly a human creationindeed, the creation of very particular human cultures at very particular moments in advantages of multiculturalism, human history. It is not a pristine sanctuary where the a theological argument by donne proud" as, last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization. Instead, it’s a product of that civilization, and could hardly be contaminated by the very stuff of which it is made. Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural. As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of of multiculturalism in canada our own unexamined longings and desires. For this reason, we mistake ourselves when we suppose that wilderness can be the solution to our culture’s problematic relationships with the nonhuman world, for wilderness is seven sleepers den itself no small part of the problem. To assert the unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to many readers, so let me hasten to advantages in canada, add that the a theological offered by donne in "death be not proud" may be as, nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories. Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to others. Remember this? The torrents of advantages of multiculturalism mist shoot out den, from the base of a great waterfall in the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to the roar of the water and of multiculturalism in canada, gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach. Remember this too: looking out across a desert canyon in the evening air, the only sound a lone raven calling in the distance, the rock walls dropping away into a chasm so deep that its bottom all but vanishes as you squint into the amber light of the setting sun. And this: the moment beside the trail as you sit on a sandstone ledge, your boots damp with the morning dew while you take in the rich smell of the pines, and expository essay, the small red foxor maybe for you it was a raccoon or a coyote or a deerthat suddenly ambles across your path, stopping for a long moment to gaze in advantages in canada, your direction with cautious indifference before continuing on its way.
Remember the feelings of such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too. And yet: what brought each of of the marketing us to of multiculturalism, the places where such memories became possible is entirely a cultural invention. Go back 250 years in American and European history, and you do not find nearly so many people wandering around remote corners of the planet looking for what today we would call “the wilderness experience.” As late as the eighteenth century, the of Hair Essay, most common usage of the advantages, word “wilderness” in the English language referred to landscapes that generally carried adjectives far different from the ones they attract today. Sleepers? To be a wilderness then was to be “deserted,” “savage,” “desolate,” “barren”in short, a “waste,” the word’s nearest synonym. Its connotations were anything but positive, and the emotion one was most likely to feel in its presence was “bewilderment” or terror. (2) Many of the word’s strongest associations then were biblical, for it is used over and over again in the King James Version to refer to places on the margins of civilization where it is all too easy to lose oneself in moral confusion and despair. Of Multiculturalism? The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for elements process forty years, and of multiculturalism in canada, where they had nearly abandoned their God to worship a golden idol. (3) “For Pharaoh will say of the Children of Israel,” we read in Exodus, “They are entangled in the land, the essay, wilderness hath shut them in.” (4) The wilderness was where Christ had struggled with the devil and endured his temptations: “And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness. And he was there in the wilderness for forty days tempted of Satan; and in canada, was with the expository essay, wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.” (5) The “delicious Paradise” of John Milton’s Eden was surrounded by advantages of multiculturalism in canada, “a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides /Access denied” to all who sought entry.” When Adam and Eve were driven from argument offered by donne in "death proud" may be summarized as, that garden, the world they entered was a wilderness that only advantages their labor and pain could redeem.
Wilderness, in short, was a place to which one came only against one’s will, and always in fear and trembling. Whatever value it might have arose solely from the possibility that it might be “reclaimed” and turned toward human endsplanted as a garden, say, or a city upon a hill. Seven Sleepers Den? (7) In its raw state, it had little or nothing to offer civilized men and women. But by the end of the nineteenth century, all this had changed. The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in 1862 could declare wildness to be the preservation of the world suggests the sea change that was going on. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada? Wilderness had once been the antithesis of all that was orderly and goodit had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, garden walland yet now it was frequently likened to advantages of multiculturalism, Eden itself. When John Muir arrived in the Sierra Nevada in elements of the process, 1869, he would declare, “No description of advantages of multiculturalism in canada Heaven that I have ever heard or read of define identity formation seems half so fine.” (8) He was hardly alone in expressing such emotions.
One by of multiculturalism, one, various corners of the American map came to Identity and Perception, be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to advantages of multiculturalism, visit and see them for themselves. Niagara Falls was the first to undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. A Theological Offered In "death Proud" May Be? Yosemite was deeded by the U. S. government to the state of California in in canada, 1864 as the nation’s first wildland park, and Yellowstone became the first true national park in 1872. (9) By the first decade of the twentieth century, in the single most famous episode in American conservation history, a national debate had exploded over whether the city of San Francisco should be permitted to Identity and Perception of Hair, augment its water supply by damming the Tuolumne River in Hetch Hetchy valley, well within the boundaries of advantages Yosemite National Park. The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is that so many people fought to prevent its completion. Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an emerging movement to preserve wilderness. Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Sleepers Den? Few would have questioned the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, merits of of the marketing process “reclaiming” a wasteland like this in order to put it to human use. In Canada? Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by portraying such an den act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and vandalism.
Lest one doubt that the old biblical metaphors had been turned completely on their heads, listen to advantages in canada, John Muir attack the essay definition, dam’s defenders. “Their arguments,” he wrote, “are curiously like those of the devil, devised for the destruction of the first gardenso much of the very best Eden fruit going to waste; so much of the in canada, best Tuolumne water and Tuolumne scenery going to waste.” (10) For Muir and the growing number of Americans who shared his views, Satan’s home had become God’s Own Temple. The sources of this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for the purposes of this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings: the sublime and the frontier. Of the two, the sublime is the older and more pervasive cultural construct, being one of the most important expressions of that broad transatlantic movement we today label as romanticism; the expository essay, frontier is more peculiarly American, though it too had its European antecedents and parallels. Of Multiculturalism In Canada? The two converged to remake wilderness in their own image, freighting it with moral values and cultural symbols that it carries to this day. Indeed, it is not too much to say that the modern environmental movement is itself a grandchild of Negotiation and Perception of Hair romanticism and of multiculturalism in canada, post-frontier ideology, which is The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship why it is no accident that so much environmentalist discourse takes its bearings from the wilderness these intellectual movements helped create. Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it in fact serves as the foundation for advantages in canada a long list of expository essay other such concerns that on their face seem quite remote from it. That is why its influence is so pervasive and, potentially, so insidious.
To gain such remarkable influence, the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it: it had to become sacred. This possibility had been present in wilderness even in the days when it had been a place of spiritual danger and moral temptation. If Satan was there, then so was Christ, who had found angels as well as wild beasts during His sojourn in the desert. In the in canada, wilderness the seven sleepers, boundaries between human and nonhuman, between natural and supernatural, had always seemed less certain than elsewhere. This was why the early Christian saints and mystics had often emulated Christ’s desert retreat as they sought to experience for themselves the visions and spiritual testing He had endured.
One might meet devils and run the risk of losing one’s soul in such a place, but one might also meet God. For some that possibility was worth almost any price. By the of multiculturalism, eighteenth century this sense of the wilderness as a landscape where the supernatural lay just beneath the surface was expressed in the doctrine of the sublime, a word whose modern usage has been so watered down by a theological argument offered by donne proud" may be summarized, commercial hype and tourist advertising that it retains only a dim echo of its former power. (11) In the theories of Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant, William Gilpin, and others, sublime landscapes were those rare places on earth where one had more chance than elsewhere to glimpse the face of God. (12) Romantics had a clear notion of advantages in canada where one could be most sure of having this experience. Although God might, of course, choose to show Himself anywhere, He would most often be found in those vast, powerful landscapes where one could not help feeling insignificant and being reminded of one’s own mortality. Where were these sublime places?
The eighteenth century catalog of their locations feels very familiar, for we still see and value landscapes as it taught us to essay, do. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? God was on the mountaintop, in the chasm, in seven sleepers, the waterfall, in the thundercloud, in the rainbow, in the sunset. One has only to advantages of multiculturalism, think of the sites that Americans chose for their first national parksYellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Rainier, Zionto realize that virtually all of in the Rye by J.D. Banning of Literature them fit one or more of these categories. Less sublime landscapes simply did not appear worthy of such protection; not until the 1940s, for instance, would the first swamp be honored, in in canada, Everglades National Park, and to this day there is no national park in the grasslands. (13) Among the The Catcher in the Banning, best proofs that one had entered a sublime landscape was the advantages of multiculturalism, emotion it evoked. For the early romantic writers and artists who first began to celebrate it, the sublime was far from Negotiation and Perception of Hair, being a pleasurable experience. The classic description is that of William Wordsworth as he recounted climbing the Alps and crossing the Simplon Pass in his autobiographical poem “The Prelude.” There, surrounded by crags and waterfalls, the poet felt himself literally to be in the presence of the divineand experienced an emotion remarkably close to terror: The immeasurable height.
Of woods decaying, never to be decayed, The stationary blasts of waterfalls, And in the narrow rent at every turn. Winds thwarting winds, bewildered and advantages in canada, forlorn, The torrents shooting from the clear blue sky,
The rocks that muttered close upon our ears, Black drizzling crags that spake by the way-side. As if a voice were in sleepers, them, the sick sight. And giddy prospect of the raving stream, The unfettered clouds and region of the Heavens, Tumult and peace, the darkness and the light. Were all like workings of one mind, the features. Of the same face, blossoms upon one tree; Characters of the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, great Apocalypse, The types and a theological argument by donne be not proud", symbols of Eternity, Of first, and last, and advantages, midst, and without end. (14)
This was no casual stroll in seven sleepers, the mountains, no simple sojourn in of multiculturalism, the gentle lap of nonhuman nature. Define Identity? What Wordsworth described was nothing less than a religious experience, akin to advantages of multiculturalism, that of the Old Testament prophets as they conversed with their wrathful God. The symbols he detected in this wilderness landscape were more supernatural than natural, and they inspired more awe and dismay than joy or pleasure. Identity Negotiation Essay? No mere mortal was meant to linger long in such a place, so it was with considerable relief that Wordsworth and advantages, his companion made their way back down from the peaks to the sheltering valleys. Seven Den? Lest you suspect that this view of the sublime was limited to advantages in canada, timid Europeans who lacked the American know-how for The Catcher and the feeling at in canada home in Identity Negotiation, the wilderness, remember Henry David Thoreau’s 1846 climb of Mount Katahdin, in of multiculturalism, Maine. Although Thoreau is regarded by many today as one of the great American celebrators of wilderness, his emotions about Katahdin were no less ambivalent than Wordsworth’s about the Alps. It was vast, Titanic, and such as man never inhabits. Negotiation And Perception Essay? Some part of the advantages, beholder, even some vital part, seems to escape through the loose grating of his ribs as he ascends.
He is The Catcher SalingerCensorship and the Banning more lone than you can imagine . Vast, Titanic, inhuman Nature has got him at disadvantage, caught him alone, and pilfers him of some of his divine faculty. She does not smile on him as in the plains. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? She seems to say sternly, why came ye here before your time? This ground is not prepared for you. Is it not enough that I smile in the valleys? I have never made this soil for a theological argument offered by donne in "death thy feet, this air for advantages thy breathing, these rocks for thy neighbors.
I cannot pity nor fondle thee here, but forever relentlessly drive thee hence to where I am kind. Why seek me where I have not called thee, and then complain because you find me but a stepmother? (15) This is surely not the way a modern backpacker or nature lover would describe Maine’s most famous mountain, but that is because Thoreau’s description owes as much to Wordsworth and other romantic contemporaries as to the rocks and expository definition, clouds of Katahdin itself. His words took the physical mountain on which he stood and transmuted it into an icon of the sublime: a symbol of God’s presence on earth. Advantages In Canada? The power and the glory of that icon were such that only a prophet might gaze on it for essay long.
In effect, romantics like Thoreau joined Moses and the children of Israel in Exodus when “they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.” (16) But even as it came to embody the of multiculturalism in canada, awesome power of the sublime, wilderness was also being tamednot just by those who were building settlements in its midst but also by those who most celebrated its inhuman beauty. By the definition, second half of the nineteenth century, the terrible awe that Wordsworth and Thoreau regarded as the appropriately pious stance to adopt in the presence of their mountaintop God was giving way to a much more comfortable, almost sentimental demeanor. Advantages? As more and more tourists sought out the wilderness as a spectacle to be looked at and enjoyed for a theological argument in "death may be its great beauty, the sublime in effect became domesticated. The wilderness was still sacred, but the religious sentiments it evoked were more those of a pleasant parish church than those of a grand cathedral or a harsh desert retreat. The writer who best captures this late romantic sense of a domesticated sublime is undoubtedly John Muir, whose descriptions of Yosemite and in canada, the Sierra Nevada reflect none of the anxiety or terror one finds in earlier writers.
Here he is, for instance, sketching on a theological offered by donne in "death may be summarized as, North Dome in Yosemite Valley: No pain here, no dull empty hours, no fear of the past, no fear of the future. These blessed mountains are so compactly filled with God’s beauty, no petty personal hope or experience has room to be. Drinking this champagne water is pure pleasure, so is advantages of multiculturalism breathing the living air, and every movement of limbs is pleasure, while the argument be not proud" may be summarized as, body seems to feel beauty when exposed to it as it feels the campfire or sunshine, entering not by the eyes alone, but equally through all one’s flesh like radiant heat, making a passionate ecstatic pleasure glow not explainable. The emotions Muir describes in Yosemite could hardly be more different from Thoreau’s on Katahdin or Wordsworth’s on the Simplon Pass. Yet all three men are participating in of multiculturalism in canada, the same cultural tradition and contributing to the same myththe mountain as cathedral. The three may differ in the way they choose to express their pietyWordsworth favoring an awe-filled bewilderment, Thoreau a stern loneliness, Muir a welcome ecstasybut they agree completely about the church in which they prefer to worship. Muir’s closing words on North Dome diverge from his older contemporaries only in mood, not in their ultimate content: Perched like a fly on J.D. and the, this Yosemite dome, I gaze and sketch and bask, oftentimes settling down into dumb admiration without definite hope of ever learning much, yet with the longing, unresting effort that lies at the door of advantages in canada hope, humbly prostrate before the vast display of God’s power, and eager to offer self-denial and renunciation with eternal toil to identity formation, learn any lesson in the divine manuscript. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada? (17)
Muir’s “divine manuscript” and Wordsworth’s “Characters of the great Apocalypse” are in fact pages from the same holy book. The sublime wilderness had ceased to be place of satanic temptation and become instead a sacred temple, much as it continues to be for those who love it today. But the romantic sublime was not the elements of the process, only cultural movement that helped transform wilderness into a sacred American icon during the nineteenth century. No less important was the advantages of multiculturalism, powerful romantic attraction of primitivism, dating back at least to of that the best antidote to the ills of an overly refined and civilized modern world was a return to identity formation, simpler, more primitive living. In the United States, this was embodied most strikingly in the national myth of the frontier. The historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1893 the classic academic statement of this myth, but it had been part of American cultural traditions for well over a century. As Turner described the process, easterners and European immigrants, in moving to the wild unsettled lands of the frontier, shed the trappings of civilization, rediscovered their primitive racial energies, reinvented direct democratic institutions, and by reinfused themselves with a vigor, an independence, and a creativity that the advantages of multiculturalism, source of American democracy and national character.
Seen in this way, wild country became a place not just of religious redemption but of national renewal, the quintessential location for experiencing what it meant to be an American. One of Turner’s most provocative claims was that by the 1890s the frontier was passing away. Never again would “such gifts of free land offer themselves” to the American people. “The frontier has gone,” he declared, “and with its going has closed the first period of American history.” (18) Built into the frontier myth from define identity formation, its very beginning was the notion that this crucible of American identity was temporary and would pass away. Those who have celebrated the frontier have almost always looked backward as they did so, mourning an older, simpler, truer world that is about to disappear, forever. In Canada? That world and essay definition, all of its attractions, Turner said, depended on free landon wilderness. Thus, in the myth of the of multiculturalism, vanishing frontier lay the seeds of wilderness preservation in the United States, for if wild land had been so crucial in the making of the nation, then surely one must save its last remnants as monuments to the American pastand as an insurance policy to protect its future. It is no accident that the movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas began to essay definition, gain real momentum at of multiculturalism in canada precisely the time that laments about the passing frontier reached their peak. To protect wilderness was in a very real sense to protect the nation’s most sacred myth of argument by donne proud" may be summarized as origin. Among the advantages, core elements of the The Catcher in the and the Banning of Literature, frontier myth was the powerful sense among certain groups of Americans that wilderness was the last bastion of advantages rugged individualism. Turner tended to stress communitarian themes when writing frontier history, asserting that Americans in seven, primitive conditions had been forced to band together with their neighbors to form communities and democratic institutions.
For other writers, however, frontier democracy for communities was less compelling than frontier freedom for individuals. (19) By fleeing to the outer margins of settled land and societyso the story ranan individual could escape the confining strictures of civilized life. The mood among writers who celebrated frontier individualism was almost always nostalgic; they lamented not just a lost way of life but the in canada, passing of the heroic men who had embodied that life. Thus Owen Wister in the introduction to a theological argument offered be not proud" may be summarized as, his classic 1902 novel The Virginian could write of “a vanished world” in which “the horseman, the of multiculturalism, cow-puncher, the last romantic figure upon our soil” rode only “in his historic yesterday” and would “never come again.” For Wister, the cowboy was a man who gave his word and define formation, kept it (“Wall Street would have found him behind the times”), who did not talk lewdly to of multiculturalism, women (“Newport would have thought him old-fashioned”), who worked and played hard, and essay definition, whose “ungoverned hours did not unman him.” (20) Theodore Roosevelt wrote with much the same nostalgic fervor about the “fine, manly qualities” of the “wild rough-rider of the plains.” No one could be more heroically masculine, thought Roosevelt, or more at of multiculturalism home in the western wilderness: There he passes his days, there he does his life-work, there, when he meets death, he faces it as he has faced many other evils, with quiet, uncomplaining fortitude. Brave, hospitable, hardy, and of Hair Essay, adventurous, he is the grim pioneer of our race; he prepares the way for the civilization from before whose face he must himself disappear. Hard and dangerous though his existence is, it has yet a wild attraction that strongly draws to it his bold, free spirit. (21) This nostalgia for a passing frontier way of life inevitably implied ambivalence, if not downright hostility, toward modernity and all that it represented. If one saw the in canada, wild lands of the frontier as freer, truer, and more natural than other, more modern places, then one was also inclined to see the seven den, cities and factories of urban-industrial civilization as confining, false, and artificial. Owen Wister looked at the post-frontier “transition” that had followed “the horseman of the plains,” and did not like what he saw: “a shapeless state, a condition of men and manners as unlovely as is that moment in the year when winter is gone and spring not come, and the face of of multiculturalism in canada Nature is expository ugly.” (22) In the eyes of writers who shared Wister’s distaste for modernity, civilization contaminated its inhabitants and in canada, absorbed them into the faceless, collective, contemptible life of the crowd. For all of define identity formation its troubles and dangers, and advantages of multiculturalism, despite the fact that it must pass away, the frontier had been a better place. Elements Of The Marketing? If civilization was to advantages, be redeemed, it would be by essay, men like the Virginian who could retain their frontier virtues even as they made the advantages of multiculturalism, transition to seven, post-frontier life.
The mythic frontier individualist was almost always masculine in gender: here, in in canada, the wilderness, a man could be a real man, the elements marketing process, rugged individual he was meant to be before civilization sapped his energy and threatened his masculinity. Wister’s contemptuous remarks about Wall Street and of multiculturalism in canada, Newport suggest what he and many others of his generation believedthat the comforts and seductions of civilized life were especially insidious for men, who all too easily became emasculated by the feminizing tendencies of civilization. More often than not, men who felt this way came, like Wister and define formation, Roosevelt, from advantages in canada, elite class backgrounds. The curious result was that frontier nostalgia became an important vehicle for expressing a peculiarly bourgeois form of antimodernism. The very men who most benefited from urban-industrial capitalism were among those who believed they must escape its debilitating effects. If the frontier was passing, then men who had the means to do so should preserve for themselves some remnant of The Catcher in the SalingerCensorship of Literature its wild landscape so that they might enjoy the regeneration and renewal that came from sleeping under the stars, participating in advantages of multiculturalism in canada, blood sports, and seven den, living off the land. Of Multiculturalism In Canada? The frontier might be gone, but the frontier experience could still be had if only den wilderness were preserved. Thus the decades following the Civil War saw more and more of the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, nation’s wealthiest citizens seeking out wilderness for themselves. The elite passion for wild land took many forms: enormous estates in the Adirondacks and elsewhere (disingenuously called “camps” despite their many servants and sleepers, amenities), cattle ranches for would-be rough riders on the Great Plains, guided big-game hunting trips in the Rockies, and luxurious resort hotels wherever railroads pushed their way into sublime landscapes. Advantages In Canada? Wilderness suddenly emerged as the landscape of choice for elite tourists, who brought with them strikingly urban ideas of the countryside through which they traveled.
For them, wild land was not a site for productive labor and not a permanent home; rather, it was a place of recreation. One went to the wilderness not as a producer but as a consumer, hiring guides and other backcountry residents who could serve as romantic surrogates for the rough riders and hunters of the frontier if one was willing to The Catcher Rye by SalingerCensorship and the Banning of Literature, overlook their new status as employees and advantages, servants of the essay definition, rich. In just this way, wilderness came to embody the of multiculturalism, national frontier myth, standing for elements of the marketing process the wild freedom of America’s past and seeming to represent a highly attractive natural alternative to the ugly artificiality of modern civilization. The irony, of course, was that in advantages of multiculturalism in canada, the process wilderness came to reflect the definition, very civilization its devotees sought to escape. Advantages? Ever since the nineteenth century, celebrating wilderness has been an activity mainly for well-to-do city folks. Essay? Country people generally know far too much about working the land to of multiculturalism in canada, regard unworked land as their ideal. In contrast, elite urban tourists and wealthy sportsmen projected their leisure-time frontier fantasies onto the American landscape and so created wilderness in their own image. There were other ironies as well, The movement to set aside national parks and wilderness areas followed hard on a theological argument offered be not proud", the heels of the final Indian wars, in of multiculturalism in canada, which the and Perception Essay, prior human inhabitants of these areas were rounded up and moved onto advantages in canada reservations. The myth of the wilderness as “virgin ” uninhabited land had always been especially cruel when seen from the perspective of the Indians who had once called that land home.
Now they were forced to essay, move elsewhere, with the result that tourists could safely enjoy the illusion that they were seeing their nation in its pristine, original state, in the new morning of God’s own creation. (23) Among the things that most marked the new national parks as reflecting a post-frontier consciousness was the relative absence of human violence within their boundaries. The actual frontier had often been a place of conflict, in which invaders and invaded fought for advantages of multiculturalism control of land and resources. Once set aside within the fixed and carefully policed boundaries of the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. and the Banning, modern bureaucratic state, the wilderness lost its savage image and became safe: a place more of of multiculturalism reverie than of revulsion or fear. Meanwhile, its original inhabitants were kept out by dint of force, their earlier uses of the Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair, land redefined as inappropriate or even illegal. To this day, for instance, the Blackfeet continue to be accused of “poaching” on the lands of Glacier National Park that originally belonged to advantages in canada, them and that were ceded by treaty only with the proviso that they be permitted to hunt there. (24)
The removal of Indians to create an “uninhabited wilderness”uninhabited as never before in the human history of the placereminds us just how invented, just how constructed, the American wilderness really is. To return to my opening argument: there is nothing natural about the concept of The Catcher J.D. and the Banning of Literature wilderness. It is entirely a creation of the culture that holds it dear, a product of the very history it seeks to deny. Of Multiculturalism? Indeed, one of the most striking proofs of the cultural invention of wilderness is its thoroughgoing erasure of the history from which it sprang. In virtually all of its manifestations, wilderness represents a flight from history. Seen as the The Catcher in the SalingerCensorship, original garden, it is of multiculturalism in canada a place outside of time, from which human beings had to be ejected before the fallen world of history could properly begin.
Seen as the expository definition, frontier, it is advantages in canada a savage world at the dawn of Negotiation Essay civilization, whose transformation represents the very beginning of the national historical epic. Seen as the bold landscape of in canada frontier heroism, it is the place of youth and childhood, into which men escape by abandoning their pasts and entering a world of freedom where the constraints of define civilization fade into memory. Seen as the advantages, sacred sublime, it is the home of a God who transcends history by standing as the One who remains untouched and unchanged by time’s arrow. Offered By Donne In "death Proud" As? No matter what the angle from which we regard it, wilderness offers us the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, illusion that we can escape the cares and troubles of the world in which our past has ensnared us. (25) This escape from Rye by SalingerCensorship and the Banning, history is one reason why the language we use to talk about wilderness is often permeated with spiritual and religious values that reflect human ideals far more than the of multiculturalism, material world of physical nature. Wilderness fulfills the old romantic project of secularizing Judeo-Christian values so as to make a new cathedral not in some petty human building but in God’s own creation, Nature itself.
Many environmentalists who reject traditional notions of the Godhead and who regard themselves as agnostics or even atheists nonetheless express feelings tantamount to religious awe when in Identity and Perception, the presence of wildernessa fact that testifies to the success of the romantic project. Those who have no difficulty seeing God as the expression of our human dreams and desires nonetheless have trouble recognizing that in a secular age Nature can offer precisely the same sort of advantages of multiculturalism mirror. Thus it is that wilderness serves as the unexamined foundation on which so many of the quasi-religious values of modern environmentalism rest. Seven? The critique of of multiculturalism in canada modernity that is seven sleepers one of environmentalism’s most important contributions to the moral and political discourse of our time more often than not appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to wilderness as the standard against which to measure the advantages, failings of our human world. Wilderness is the natural, unfallen antithesis of an expository essay definition unnatural civilization that has lost its soul. It is a place of advantages in canada freedom in which we can recover the expository definition, true selves we have lost to the corrupting influences of advantages our artificial lives. Most of all, it is the ultimate landscape of authenticity. Combining the sacred grandeur of the sublime with the primitive simplicity of the frontier, it is the place where we can see the world as it really is, and Rye by and the Banning, so know ourselves as we really areor ought to be.
But the trouble with wilderness is that it quietly expresses and reproduces the very values its devotees seek to reject. Advantages? The flight from Identity, history that is very nearly the core of wilderness represents the false hope of an escape from responsibility, the illusion that we can somehow wipe clean the slate of our past and return to the tabula rasa that supposedly existed before we began to leave our marks on advantages of multiculturalism in canada, the world. Seven Sleepers? The dream of an unworked natural landscape is advantages of multiculturalism very much the fantasy of people who have never themselves had to work the land to make a livingurban folk for whom food comes from a supermarket or a restaurant instead of a field, and for whom the a theological in "death proud" may be summarized as, wooden houses in which they live and work apparently have no meaningful connection to the forests in which trees grow and die. Only people whose relation to the land was already alienated could hold up wilderness as a model for human life in nature, for the romantic ideology of wilderness leaves precisely nowhere for human beings actually to make their living from the land. This, then, is the central paradox: wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in which the human is entirely outside the natural. If we allow ourselves to believe that nature, to be true, must also be wild, then our very presence in nature represents its fall. The place where we are is the place where nature is not. In Canada? If this is soif by definition wilderness leaves no place for human beings, save perhaps as contemplative sojourners enjoying their leisurely reverie in God’s natural cathedralthen also by definition it can offer no solution to the environmental and other problems that confront us.
To the extent that we celebrate wilderness as the measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the by donne be not proud" may be, dualism that sets humanity and nature at opposite poles. Advantages? We thereby leave ourselves little hope of discovering what an ethical, sustainable, honorable human place in nature might actually look like. Worse: to the extent that we live in an urban-industrial civilization but at the same time pretend to ourselves that our real home is in identity formation, the wilderness, to just that extent we give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the lives we actually lead. We inhabit civilization while holding some part of ourselveswhat we imagine to be the of multiculturalism, most precious partaloof from Negotiation and Perception, its entanglements. We work our nine-to-five jobs in its institutions, we eat its food, we drive its cars (not least to reach the wilderness), we benefit from the intricate and all too invisible networks with which it shelters us, all the while pretending that these things are not an essential part of who we are. By imagining that our true home is in the wilderness, we forgive ourselves the homes we actually inhabit. Advantages? In its flight from history, in a theological argument offered be not may be, its siren song of escape, in advantages in canada, its reproduction of the dangerous dualism that sets human beings outside of naturein all of these ways, wilderness poses a serious threat to responsible environmentalism at the end of the twentieth century. By now I hope it is clear that my criticism in this essay is Identity and Perception of Hair not directed at wild nature per se, or even at efforts to set aside large tracts of wild land, but rather at in canada the specific habits of The Catcher J.D. and the thinking that flow from this complex cultural construction called wilderness. It is not the of multiculturalism, things we label as wilderness that are the problemfor nonhuman nature and large tracts of the natural world do deserve protectionbut rather what we ourselves mean when we use the label.
Lest one doubt how pervasive these habits of expository thought actually are in contemporary environmentalism, let me list some of the places where wilderness serves as the ideological underpinning for environmental concerns that might otherwise seem quite remote from it. Advantages In Canada? Defenders of biological diversity, for instance, although sometimes appealing to more utilitarian concerns, often point to “untouched” ecosystems as the best and richest repositories of the undiscovered species we must certainly try to protect. Although at first blush an apparently more “scientific” concept than wilderness, biological diversity in seven, fact invokes many of the advantages in canada, same sacred values, which is why organizations like the Nature Conservancy have been so quick to employ it as an alternative to the seemingly fuzzier and The Catcher in the J.D. Banning of Literature, more problematic concept of wilderness. There is a paradox here, of course. To the extent that biological diversity (indeed, even wilderness itself) is likely to survive in the future only by the most vigilant and self-conscious management of the advantages in canada, ecosystems that sustain it, the ideology of wilderness is potentially in direct conflict with the very thing it encourages us to protect. (26) The most striking instances of this have revolved around “endangered species,” which serve as vulnerable symbols of biological diversity while at the same time standing as surrogates for wilderness itself. The terms of the Endangered Species Act in the United States have often meant that those hoping to defend pristine wilderness have had to rely on a single endangered species like the spotted owl to gain legal standing for their casethereby making the Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, full power of the sacred land inhere in a single numinous organism whose habitat then becomes the object of of multiculturalism intense debate about The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship appropriate management and use. (27) The ease with which anti-environmental forces like the wise-use movement have attacked such single-species preservation efforts suggests the advantages of multiculturalism, vulnerability of strategies like these. Perhaps partly because our own conflicts over such places and organisms have become so messy, the of the process, convergence of wilderness values with concerns about biological diversity and endangered species has helped produce a deep fascination for remote ecosystems, where it is easier to imagine that nature might somehow be “left alone” to advantages, flourish by its own pristine devices.
The classic example is the tropical rain forest, which since the 1970s has become the most powerful modern icon of unfallen, sacred landa veritable Garden of sleepers Edenfor many Americans and advantages, Europeans. And yet protecting the rain forest in the eyes of First World environmentalists all too often means protecting it from the people who live there. Those who seek to preserve such “wilderness” from the a theological argument by donne in "death proud", activities of native peoples run the risk of reproducing the same tragedybeing forceably removed from an ancient homethat befell American Indians. Third World countries face massive environmental problems and advantages of multiculturalism in canada, deep social conflicts, but these are not likely to J.D. SalingerCensorship Banning, be solved by a cultural myth that encourages us to “preserve” peopleless landscapes that have not existed in in canada, such places for identity millennia. At its worst, as environmentalists are beginning to advantages in canada, realize, exporting American notions of wilderness in this way can become an unthinking and Identity and Perception, self-defeating form of cultural imperialism. (28)
Perhaps the of multiculturalism, most suggestive example of the way that wilderness thinking can underpin other environmental concerns has emerged in the recent debate about “global change.” In 1989 the seven, journalist Bill McKibben published a book entitled The End of of multiculturalism in canada Nature, in which he argued that the prospect of global climate change as a result of unintentional human manipulation of the atmosphere means that nature as we once knew it no longer exists. (29) Whereas earlier generations inhabited a natural world that remained more or less unaffected by by donne be not may be summarized, their actions, our own generation is uniquely different. We and our children will henceforth live in advantages of multiculturalism, a biosphere completely altered by of the marketing, our own activity, a planet in which the human and the natural can no longer be distinguished, because the one has overwhelmed the other. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? In McKibben’s view, nature has died, and we are responsible for Negotiation killing it. “The planet,” he declares, “is utterly different now.” (30) But such a perspective is possible only if we accept the wilderness premise that nature, to be natural, must also be pristineremote from humanity and in canada, untouched by define identity formation, our common past. In fact, everything we know about environmental history suggests that people have been manipulating the of multiculturalism in canada, natural world on various scales for as long as we have a record of their passing. Moreover, we have unassailable evidence that many of the environmental changes we now face also occurred quite apart from human intervention at one time or another in the earth’s past. (31) The point is not that our current problems are trivial, or that our devastating effects on the earth’s ecosystems should be accepted as inevitable or “natural.” It is rather that we seem unlikely to make much progress in solving these problems if we hold up to offered by donne in "death may be summarized as, ourselves as the mirror of nature a wilderness we ourselves cannot inhabit. To do so is merely to take to in canada, a logical extreme the a theological argument in "death be not may be as, paradox that was built into wilderness from the beginning: if nature dies because we enter it, then the only way to save nature is to kill ourselves.
The absurdity of this proposition flows from the underlying dualism it expresses. Not only advantages does it ascribe greater power to humanity that we in fact possessphysical and Identity Negotiation Essay, biological nature will surely survive in some form or another long after we ourselves have gone the way of all fleshbut in the end it offers us little more than a self-defeating counsel of despair. The tautology gives us no way out: if wild nature is the only thing worth saving, and if our mere presence destroys it, then the sole solution to our own unnaturalness, the of multiculturalism, only way to protect sacred wilderness from profane humanity, would seem to be suicide. It is not a proposition that seems likely to seven den, produce very positive or practical results. And yet radical environmentalists and deep ecologists all too frequently come close to accepting this premise as a first principle. When they express, for instance, the popular notion that our environmental problems began with the invention of agriculture, they push the human fall from natural grace so far back into the past that all of advantages civilized history becomes a tale of ecological declension. Earth First! founder Dave Foreman captures the familiar parable succinctly when he writes, Before agriculture was midwifed in Identity Negotiation Essay, the Middle East, humans were in advantages, the wilderness. We had no concept of “wilderness” because everything was wilderness and we were a part of it. But with irrigation ditches, crop surpluses, and permanent villages, we became apart from the natural world. Between the wilderness that created us and the civilization created by us grew an ever-widening rift. (32)
In this view the farm becomes the first and most important battlefield in the long war against wild nature, and all else follows in elements process, its wake. From such a starting place, it is hard not to reach the conclusion that the advantages in canada, only way human beings can hope to offered in "death be not, live naturally on earth is to follow the hunter-gatherers back into a wilderness Eden and abandon virtually everything that civilization has given us. It may indeed turn out advantages in canada, that civilization will end in ecological collapse or nuclear disaster, whereupon one might expect to find any human survivors returning to a way of life closer to that celebrated by Foreman and of the process, his followers. For most of us, though, such a debacle would be cause for of multiculturalism in canada regret, a sign that humanity had failed to fulfill its own promise and failed to honor its own highest valuesincluding those of the deep ecologists. In offering wilderness as the ultimate hunter-gatherer alternative to civilization, Foreman reproduces an extreme but still easily recognizable version of the myth of frontier primitivism. When he writes of his fellow Earth Firsters that “we believe we must return to being animal, to glorying in The Catcher in the J.D. SalingerCensorship of Literature, our sweat, hormones, tears, and of multiculturalism in canada, blood” and a theological be not may be summarized, that “we struggle against the modern compulsion to become dull, passionless androids,” he is following in the footsteps of Owen Wister. (33) Although his arguments give primacy to advantages of multiculturalism, defending biodiversity and the autonomy of wild nature, his prose becomes most passionate when he speaks of marketing preserving “the wilderness experience.” His own ideal “Big Outside” bears an uncanny resemblance to advantages, that of the frontier myth: wide open spaces and define, virgin land with no trails, no signs, no facilities, no maps, no guides, no rescues, no modern equipment. Tellingly, it is a land where hardy travelers can support themselves by hunting with “primitive weapons (bow and arrow, atlatl, knife, sharp rock).” (34) Foreman claims that “the primary value of wilderness is not as a proving ground for young Huck Finns and Annie Oakleys,” but his heart is with Huck and Annie all the same. He admits that “preserving a quality wilderness experience for advantages of multiculturalism the human visitor, letting her or him flex Paleolithic muscles or seek visions, remains a tremendously important secondary purpose.” (35) Just so does Teddy Roosevelt’s rough rider live on in the greener garb of a new age.
However much one may be attracted to such a vision, it entails problematic consequences. For one, it makes wilderness the locus for an epic struggle between malign civilization and benign nature, compared with which all other social, political, and moral concerns seem trivial. Foreman writes, “The preservation of wildness and native diversity is the most important issue. Issues directly affecting only humans pale in comparison.” (36) Presumably so do any environmental problems whose victims are mainly people, for such problems usually surface in landscapes that have already “fallen” and expository essay, are no longer wild. This would seem to exclude from the radical environmentalist agenda problems of occupational health and safety in industrial settings, problems of advantages of multiculturalism toxic waste exposure on “unnatural” urban and agricultural sites, problems of poor children poisoned by lead exposure in the inner city, problems of famine and poverty and essay, human suffering in the “overpopulated” places of the earthproblems, in short, of environmental justice.
If we set too high a stock on wilderness, too many other corners of the earth become less than natural and too many other people become less than human, thereby giving us permission not to care much about their suffering or their fate. It is advantages in canada no accident that these supposedly inconsequential environmental problems affect mainly poor people, for the long affiliation between wilderness and wealth means that the only poor people who count when wilderness is the issue are hunter-gatherers, who presumably do not consider themselves to be poor in the first place. The dualism at the heart of in the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship wilderness encourages its advocates to conceive of its protection as a crude conflict between the “human” and of multiculturalism, the “nonhuman”or, more often, between those who value the nonhuman and those who do not. This in turn tempts one to ignore crucial differences among humans and elements of the process, the complex cultural and historical reasons why different peoples may feel very differently about the meaning of advantages of multiculturalism in canada wilderness. Why, for instance, is the ” wilderness experience” so often conceived as a form of recreation best enjoyed by those whose class privileges give them the time and resources to leave their jobs behind and “get away from it all?” Why does the protection of marketing wilderness so often seem to pit urban recreationists against rural people who actually earn their living from the land (excepting those who sell goods and services to the tourists themselves)?
Why in the debates about pristine natural areas are “primitive” peoples idealized, even sentimentalized, until the moment they do something unprimitive, modern, and of multiculturalism, unnatural, and thereby fall from environmental grace? What are the consequences of a wilderness ideology that devalues productive labor and the very concrete knowledge that comes from working the land with one’s own hands? (37) All of these questions imply conflicts among different groups of people, conflicts that are obscured behind the deceptive clarity of “human” vs. “nonhuman.” If in answering these knotty questions we resort to so simplistic an opposition, we are almost certain to ignore the very subtleties and and Perception Essay, complexities we need to understand. But the in canada, most troubling cultural baggage that accompanies the celebration of define formation wilderness has less to do with remote rain forests and peoples than with the ways we think about ourselveswe American environmentalists who quite rightly worry about the future of the earth and the threats we pose to the natural world. Idealizing a distant wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in in canada, which we actually live, the landscape that for expository definition better or worse we call home. Most of our most serious environmental problems start right here, at home, and if we are to solve those problems, we need an advantages in canada environmental ethic that will tell us as much about using nature as about not using it. The wilderness dualism tends to sleepers den, cast any use as abuse, and thereby denies us a middle ground in which responsible use and non-use might attain some kind of balanced, sustainable relationship. My own belief is that only by of multiculturalism, exploring this middle ground will we learn ways of imagining a better world for all of us: humans and nonhumans, rich people and poor, women and men, First Worlders and Third Worlders, white folks and people of Identity and Perception of Hair color, consumers and producersa world better for humanity in all of its diversity and for all the rest of nature too. The middle ground is where we actually live. It is where weall of us, in our different places and waysmake our homes. That is why, when I think of the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, times I myself have come closest to argument by donne may be summarized as, experiencing what I might call the sacred in nature, I often find myself remembering wild places much closer to home.
I think, for instance, of a small pond near my house where water bubbles up from limestone springs to feed a series of pools that rarely freeze in winter and so play home to waterfowl that stay here for the protective warmth even on the coldest of winter days, gliding silently through streaming mists as the snow falls from gray February skies. I think of of multiculturalism in canada a November evening long ago when I found myself on a Wisconsin hilltop in rain and dense fog, only to have the setting sun break through the offered by donne in "death be not summarized, clouds to cast an otherworldly golden light on the misty farms and woodlands below, a scene so unexpected and joyous that I lingered past dusk so as not to miss any part of the gift that had come my way. And I think perhaps most especially of the blown-out, bankrupt farm in the sand country of central Wisconsin where Aldo Leopold and his family tried one of the first American experiments in ecological restoration, turning ravaged and infertile soil into carefully tended ground where the human and the nonhuman could exist side by side in relative harmony. What I celebrate about advantages such places is not just their wildness, though that certainly is among their most important qualities; what I celebrate even more is that they remind us of the wildness in our own backyards, of the nature that is all around us if only we have eyes to process, see it. Indeed, my principal objection to wilderness is advantages in canada that it may teach us to The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Banning, be dismissive or even contemptuous of such humble places and experiences. Without our quite realizing it, wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others. Most of us, I suspect, still follow the conventions of the romantic sublime in finding the mountaintop more glorious than the plains, the ancient forest nobler than the grasslands, the mighty canyon more inspiring than the humble marsh. Even John Muir, in of multiculturalism, arguing against those who sought to dam his beloved Hetch Hetchy valley in the Sierra Nevada, argued for alternative dam sites in seven sleepers, the gentler valleys of the foothillsa preference that had nothing to do with nature and of multiculturalism, everything with the cultural traditions of the sublime. (38) Just as problematically, our frontier traditions have encouraged Americans to define “true” wilderness as requiring very large tracts of roadless landwhat Dave Foreman calls “The Big Outside.” Leaving aside the Identity of Hair Essay, legitimate empirical question in conservation biology of how large a tract of land must be before a given species can reproduce on it, the emphasis on big wilderness reflects a romantic frontier belief that one hasn’t really gotten away from civilization unless one can go for days at a time without encountering another human being. By teaching us to fetishize sublime places and wide open country, these peculiarly American ways of thinking about wilderness encourage us to adopt too high a standard for advantages in canada what counts as “natural.” If it isn’t hundreds of square miles big, if it doesn’t give us God’s eye views or grand vistas, if it doesn’t permit us the illusion that we are alone on the planet, then it really isn’t natural.
It’s too small, too plain, or too crowded to be authentically wild. In critiquing wilderness as I have done in of the process, this essay, I’m forced to advantages, confront my own deep ambivalence about its meaning for modern environmentalism. On the one hand, one of definition my own most important environmental ethics is in canada that people should always be conscious that they are part of the natural world, inextricably tied to the ecological systems that sustain their lives. Any way of looking at nature that encourages us to believe we are separate from natureas wilderness tends to elements of the marketing, dois likely to advantages, reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. On the elements of the process, other hand, I also think it no less crucial for us to recognize and advantages, honor nonhuman nature as a world we did not create, a world with its own independent, nonhuman reasons for being as it is.
The autonomy of nonhuman nature seems to me an identity indispensable corrective to advantages, human arrogance. Any way of looking at nature that helps us rememberas wilderness also tends to dothat the interests of people are not necessarily identical to those of a theological offered by donne in "death be not proud" summarized every other creature or of the earth itself is likely to foster responsible behavior. To the in canada, extent that wilderness has served as an important vehicle for a theological offered by donne be not proud" articulating deep moral values regarding our obligations and advantages of multiculturalism, responsibilities to the nonhuman world, I would not want to jettison the contributions it has made to our culture’s ways of of Hair thinking about of multiculturalism nature. If the Negotiation and Perception of Hair, core problem of in canada wilderness is that it distances us too much from the very things it teaches us to value, then the question we must ask is what it can tell us about home, the a theological by donne in "death be not as, place where we actually live. Advantages In Canada? How can we take the positive values we associate with wilderness and bring them closer to home? I think the answer to this question will come by essay, broadening our sense of the otherness that wilderness seeks to advantages, define and protect. In reminding us of the world we did not make, wilderness can teach profound feelings of humility and respect as we confront our fellow beings and the earth itself.
Feelings like these argue for the importance of self-awareness and self criticism as we exercise our own ability to transform the world around us, helping us set responsible limits to define identity formation, human masterywhich without such limits too easily becomes human hubris. Wilderness is the advantages in canada, place where, symbolically at least, we try to withhold our power to dominate. Wallace Stegner once wrote of. the special human mark, the special record of human passage, that distinguishes man from all other species. It is rare enough among men, impossible to any other form of life. It is simply the deliberate and chosen refusal to make any marks at all. We are the most dangerous species of life on the planet, and every other species, even the earth itself, has cause to fear our power to exterminate. But we are also the only species which, when it chooses to do so, will go to great effort to save what it might destroy. (39) The myth of wilderness, which Stegner knowingly reproduces in these remarks, is that we can somehow leave nature untouched by our passage. By now it should be clear that this for the most part is an of the marketing process illusion.
But Stegner’s deeper message then becomes all the more compelling. If living in history means that we cannot help leaving marks on a fallen world, then the dilemma we face is to decide what kinds of marks we wish to leave. It is just here that our cultural traditions of wilderness remain so important. In Canada? In the broadest sense, wilderness teaches us to ask whether the Other must always bend to our will, and, if not, under what circumstances it should be allowed to flourish without our intervention. The Catcher In The And The Banning? This is surely a question worth asking about of multiculturalism in canada everything we do, and not just about the natural world. When we visit a wilderness area, we find ourselves surrounded by plants and animals and physical landscapes whose otherness compels our attention. In forcing us to identity, acknowledge that they are not of our making, that they have little or no need of our continued existence, they recall for us a creation far greater than our own. In the wilderness, we need no reminder that a tree has its own reasons for being, quite apart from advantages in canada, us. The Catcher In The And The Of Literature? The same is less true in the gardens we plant and tend ourselves: there it is far easier to forget the otherness of the tree. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? (40) Indeed, one could almost measure wilderness by the extent to The Catcher Rye by of Literature, which our recognition of its otherness requires a conscious, willed act on in canada, our part.
The romantic legacy means that wilderness is more a state of mind than a fact of nature, and the state of mind that today most defines wilderness is argument be not proud" may be wonder. The striking power of the wild is that wonder in the face of it requires no act of will, but forces itself upon usas an expression of the nonhuman world experienced through the lens of our cultural historyas proof that ours is not the only presence in the universe. Wilderness gets us into trouble only if we imagine that this experience of wonder and otherness is limited to the remote corners of the advantages of multiculturalism, planet, or that it somehow depends on pristine landscapes we ourselves do not inhabit. Nothing could be more misleading. The tree in the garden is in reality no less other, no less worthy of our wonder and respect, than the elements of the marketing, tree in an ancient forest that has never known an ax or a saweven though the advantages, tree in the forest reflects a more intricate web of ecological relationships. The tree in of Hair, the garden could easily have sprung from the same seed as the tree in the forest, and we can claim only its location and perhaps its form as our own. Both trees stand apart from us; both share our common world. Advantages In Canada? The special power of the tree in the wilderness is to remind us of this fact. It can teach us to recognize the wildness we did not see in the tree we planted in our own backyard. The Catcher Rye By J.D. SalingerCensorship And The Banning? By seeing the otherness in that which is most unfamiliar, we can learn to see it too in that which at first seemed merely ordinary. Of Multiculturalism? If wilderness can do thisif it can help us perceive and respect a nature we had forgotten to recognize as naturalthen it will become part of the solution to our environmental dilemmas rather than part of the problem.
This will only happen, however, if we abandon the dualism that sees the tree in and Perception of Hair, the garden as artificialcompletely fallen and unnaturaland the tree in advantages of multiculturalism, the wilderness as naturalcompletely pristine and wild. Den? Both trees in in canada, some ultimate sense are wild; both in a practical sense now depend on our management and care. We are responsible for J.D. SalingerCensorship Banning both, even though we can claim credit for neither. Our challenge is to stop thinking of such things according to advantages of multiculturalism in canada, set of bipolar moral scales in which the human and the nonhuman, the unnatural and the natural, the fallen and the unfallen, serve as our conceptual map for in the Rye by and the Banning understanding and valuing the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, world. Instead, we need to in the J.D. SalingerCensorship of Literature, embrace the full continuum of a natural landscape that is also cultural, in which the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, city, the suburb, the pastoral, and the wild each has its proper place, which we permit ourselves to celebrate without needlessly denigrating the others. We need to honor the Other within and the Other next door as much as we do the exotic Other that lives far awaya lesson that applies as much to people as it does to (other) natural things. In particular, we need to discover a common middle ground in which all of these things, from the city to the wilderness, can somehow be encompassed in the word “home.” Home, after all, is the place where finally we make our living. It is the place for which we take responsibility, the place we try to sustain so we can pass on what is best in it (and in ourselves) to our children. (41) The task of making a home in nature is what Wendell Berry has called “the forever unfinished lifework of our species.” “The only a theological argument offered by donne be not may be thing we have to preserve nature with” he writes, “is culture; the only thing we have to preserve wildness with is domesticity.” (42) Calling a place home inevitably means that we will use the advantages, nature we find in it, for there can be no escape from manipulating and working and Identity and Perception of Hair, even killing some parts of advantages of multiculturalism nature to make our home.
But if we acknowledge the autonomy and otherness of the argument offered by donne in "death be not summarized as, things and creatures around usan autonomy our culture has taught us to label with the word “wild”then we will at least think carefully about the uses to which we put them, and even ask if we should use them at all. just so can we still join Thoreau in declaring that “in Wildness is the preservation of the World,” for wildness (as opposed to wilderness) can be found anywhere: in the seemingly tame fields and woodlots of Massachusetts, in the cracks of in canada a Manhattan sidewalk, even in the cells of our own bodies. As Gary Snyder has wisely said, “A person with a clear heart and open mind can experience the of the process, wilderness anywhere on advantages in canada, earth. It is a quality of one’s own consciousness. The planet is a wild place and always will be.” (43) To think ourselves capable of causing “the end of nature” is an elements act of advantages in canada great hubris, for it means forgetting the a theological argument in "death proud" as, wildness that dwells everywhere within and around us. Learning to honor the wildlearning to remember and acknowledge the autonomy of the othermeans striving for critical self-consciousness in all of our actions. It means the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, deep reflection and respect must accompany each act of use, and means too that we must always consider the possibility of seven sleepers den non-use.
It means looking at the part of nature we intend to turn toward our own ends and asking whether we can use it again and advantages, again and againsustainablywithout its being diminished in the process. It means never imagining that we can flee into a mythical wilderness to escape history and in "death, the obligation to take responsibility for in canada our own actions that history inescapably entails. Most of all, it means practicing remembrance and gratitude, for thanksgiving is the simplest and most basic of define identity formation ways for us to recollect the nature, the advantages of multiculturalism, culture, and the history that have come together to make the world as we know it. If wildness can stop being (just) out there and expository definition, start being (also) in here, if it can start being as humane as it is in canada natural, then perhaps we can get on with the unending task of struggling to live rightly in define, the worldnot just in the garden, not just in advantages of multiculturalism in canada, the wilderness, but in the home that encompasses them both. 1. Define? Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” The Works of Thoreau, ed. In Canada? Henry S. Canby (Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1937), p. 672. 2. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “wilderness”; see also Roderick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), pp. 1-22; and Max Oelsehlaeger, The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ.
Press, 1991). 3. Exodus 32:1-35, KJV. 4. Exodus 14:3, KJV. 5. Mark 1:12-13, KJV; see also Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13. 6. John Milton, “Paradise Lost,” John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey Press, 1957), pp. 280-81, lines 131-42. 7. I have discussed this theme at length in “Landscapes of Abundance and Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, Scarcity,” in Clyde Milner et al., eds., Oxford History of the American West (New York: Oxford Univ.
Press, 1994), pp. 603-37. The classic work on of multiculturalism in canada, the Puritan “city on a hill” in colonial New England is Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1956). 8. The Catcher Banning Of Literature? John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra (1911), reprinted in John Muir: The Eight Wilderness Discovery Books (London, England: Diadem; Seattle, Washington: Mountaineers, 1992), P. 211. 9. Alfred Route, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd ed. (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1987) 10. John Muir, The Yosemite (1912), reprinted in John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, P. 715.
11. Advantages In Canada? Scholarly work on the sublime is extensive. Among the most important studies are Samuel Monk, The Sublime: A Study of Negotiation and Perception Essay Critical Theories in XVIII-Century England (New York: Modern Language Association, 1935); Basil Willey, The Eighteenth-Century Background: Studies on the Idea of Nature in the Thought of the Period (London, England: Chattus and Windus, 1949); Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press, 1959); Thomas Weiskel, The Romantic Sublime: Studies in the Structure and Psychology of Transcendence (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkin.s Univ. Press, 1976); Barbara Novak, Nature and Culture: American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, ig8o). 12. The classic works are Immanuel Kant, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), trans.
John T. Goldthwait (Berkeley: Univ. of of multiculturalism in canada California Press, 196o); Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, ed. James T. Boulton (1958; Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1968); William Gilpin, Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; on of Hair, Picturesque Travel; and on Sketching Landscape (London, England, 1803) 13. See Ann Vileisis, “From Wastelands to Wetlands” (unpublished senior essay, Yale Univ., 1989); Route, National Parks. 14. William Wordsworth, “The Prelude,” bk. 6, in of multiculturalism in canada, Thomas Hutchinson, ed., The Poetical Works of Wordsworth (London, England: Oxford Umv. Press, 1936), p. 536. 15. Henry David Thoreau, The Maine Woods (1864), in Henry David Thoreau (New York: Library of America, 1985), pp.
640-41. 16. Process? Exodus 16:10, KJV. 17. John Muir, My First Summer in of multiculturalism in canada, the Sierra, p. 238. A Theological Argument By Donne Summarized As? Part of the difference between these descriptions may reflect the landscapes the three authors were describing.
In his essay, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Kenneth Olwig notes that early American travelers experienced Yosemite as much through the aesthetic tropes of the pastoral as through those of the sublime. The ease with which Muir celebrated the gentle divinity of the Sierra Nevada had much to do with the pastoral qualities of the landscape he described. See Olwig, “Reinventing Common Nature: Yosemite and Mount RushmoreA Meandering Tale of a Double Nature,” Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, ed. William Cronon (New York: W. W. In Canada? Norton CO, 1995), PP 379-408. 18. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, American History (New York: Henry Holt, 1920), pp. 37-38.
19. Richard Slotkin has made this observation the of multiculturalism, linchpin of his comparison between Turner and Theodore Roosevelt. See Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Atheneum, 1992), pp. 29-62. 20. Owen Wister, The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains (New York: Macmillan, 1902), pp. The Catcher In The Banning? viii-ix. 21. In Canada? Theodore Roosevelt, Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (1888; NewYork: Century, 1899), p. In The SalingerCensorship And The Banning Of Literature? 100. 22.
Wister, Virginian, p. x. 23. On the many problems with this view, see William M. Denevan, “The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the of multiculturalism, Americas in 1492,” Annals of the a theological offered in "death as, Association of American Geographers 82 (1992): 369-85. 24. Louis Warren, “The Hunter’s Came: Poachers, Conservationists, and advantages of multiculturalism in canada, Twentieth-Century America” (Ph.D. Identity Negotiation And Perception Of Hair Essay? diss., Yale University, 1994). 25. Wilderness also lies at the foundation of the Clementsian ecological concept of the climax.
See Michael Barbour, “Ecological Fragmentation in the Fifties” in advantages of multiculturalism, Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 233-55, and William Cronon, “Introduction: In Search of Nature,” in Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 23-56. 26. Advantages In Canada? On the many paradoxes of having to manage wilderness in order to maintain the appearance of an Rye by and the unmanaged landscape, see John C. Advantages? Hendee et al., Wilderness Management, USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication No. 1365 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978). 27. See James Proctor, “Whose Nature?: The Contested Moral Terrain of Ancient Forests,” in Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 269-97.
28. See Candace Slater, “Amazonia as Edenic Narrative,” in essay, Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 114-31. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? This argument has been powerfully made by Ramachandra Cuba, “Radical American Environmentalism: A Third World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11 (1989): 71-83. 29. Bill McKibben, The End of Nature (New York: Random House, 1989). 30. McKibben, The End of Nature, p. 49. 31.
Even comparable extinction rates have occurred before, though we surely would not want to emulate the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions as a model for responsible manipulation of the identity formation, biosphere! 32. Dave Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior (New York: Harmony Books, 1991, p. Advantages In Canada? 69 (italics in original). For a sampling of other writings by followers of deep ecology and/or Earth First!, see Michael Tobias, ed., Deep Ecology (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1984); Bill Devall and George Sessions, Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1985); Michael Tobias, After Eden: History, Ecology, and Conscience (San Diego, California: Avant Books, 1985); Dave Foreman and Bill Haywood, eds., Ecodefense: A Field Guide to Monkey Wrenching, 2nd ed. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1987); Bill Devall, Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1988); Steve Chase, ed., Defending the Earth: A Dialogue between Murray Bookchin Dave Foreman (Boston, Massachusetts: South End Press, 1991); John Davis, ed., The Earth First, Reader. Ten Years of Radical Environmentalism (Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1991); Bill Devall, Living Richly in an Age of Limits: Using Deep Ecology for den an Abundant Life (Salt Lake, City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1993); Michael E. Zimmerman ct al., eds., Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1993). A useful survey of the in canada, different factions of radical environmentalism can be found in Carolyn Merchant, Radical Ecology: The Search for a Livable World (New York: Routledge, 1992). For a very interesting critique of this literature (first published in sleepers, the anarchist newspaper Fifth Estate), see George Bradford, How Deep is advantages in canada Deep Ecology? (Ojai, California: Times Change Press, 1989). 33.
Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 34. 34. Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, p. 65. See also Dave Foreman and Howie Wolke, The Big Outside: A Descriptive Inventory of the Big Wilderness Areas of the U.S. (Tucson, Arizona: Ned Ludd Books, 1989). 35. Foreman, Confessions of an The Catcher Banning of Literature Eco-Warrior, p. 63. 36. Advantages Of Multiculturalism? Foreman, Confessions of an Eco-Warrior, P. 27. 37.
See Richard White, ”’Are You an Environmentalist or Do You Work for a Living?’: Work and Nature,” in by donne in "death proud" summarized as, Cronon, Uncommon Ground, pp. 171-85. Compare its analysis of environmental knowledge through work with Jennifer Price’s analysis of environmental knowledge through consumption. It is advantages in canada not much of an exaggeration to say that the elements, wilderness experience is essentially consumerist in its impulses. 38. Compare with Muir, Yosemite, in advantages of multiculturalism in canada, John Muir: Eight Wilderness Discovery Books, p. Sleepers Den? 714. 39. Wallace Stegner, ed., This Is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and advantages of multiculturalism, Its Magic Rivers (New York: Knopf, 1955), P. 17 (italics in original). 40. Katherine Hayles helped me see the importance of offered by donne in "death be not proud" summarized as this argument. 41.
Analogous arguments can be found in John Brinckerhoff Jackson, “Beyond Wilderness,” A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1994), pp. 71-91, and in the wonderful collection of in canada essays by Michael Pollan, Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991). 42. Wendell Berry, Home Economics (San Francisco, California: North Point, 1987), pp. 138, 143. 43. Of The Marketing? Gary Snyder, quoted in New York Times, “Week in Review,” 18 September 1994, p. In Canada? 6. Excerpted from Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature, edited by expository definition, William Cronon. Of Multiculturalism? Copyright 1995 by William Cronon.
Reprinted with permission of the publisher, W. W. Norton Company, Inc. Copyright William Cronon. (Please do not reprint without permission; links to this website are fine.)
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Security Architectures for Next Generation Networks. Scientific Essay, 2014. This paper gives practical guidance on the provision of security measures for proper operation of next generation networks (NGNs) and protection of the users’ proper use of the telecommunications services. It should be observed by all the advantages in canada operators, which operate NGNs (facility based operators) or provide services with the expository essay use of (NGN) provided by others (service based operators). In addition to the security measures, the operators should follow the triggering criteria and reporting procedures set out in this document for of multiculturalism in canada reporting security violations. Also in this paper we concern about different security vulnerabilities found in existing system and gives possible solutions to eliminate them. These vulnerabilities are the essay possibilities to forge key messages, unauthenticated messages and Man In the Middle attack. We proposed a secure key generation process, random number and function generation process to eliminate these vulnerabilities.
Malicious traffic is becoming more prevalent because of readily available and advantages in canada, ever more sophisticated attack tools, and motivations are becoming increasingly varied and malicious. The operators should take into in the J.D. SalingerCensorship and the of Literature, account the following security objectives, namely confidentiality, integrity, and availability, when building their network and providing their services are : - Confidentiality refers to advantages of multiculturalism the protection of network and user data against unauthorized access, viewing, diverted or intercepted. - Integrity refers to expository the protection of in canada network and user data against unauthorized modification, deletion, creation and offered be not proud" may be as, replication. - Availability refers to the network and service provisioning to minimize downtime due to security attacks by hackers, if any. These objectives provide a foundation upon which a more consistent and of multiculturalism in canada, structured approach to the design, development, and implementation of network security capabilities can be constructed. The NGN standardization work started in 2003 within ITU-T(International Telecommunication Union), and is worldwide today in various major telecom standardization bodies. The most active NGN relevant standardization bodies are ITU, ETSI, ATIS, CJK and a theological argument be not may be as, TMF . The Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) initiative is a major body for mobile-specific NGN activities, which are important contributors to the 3GPP specification for NGMN.In 2003, under the name JRG-NGN (Joint Rapporteur Group on NGN), the NGN pioneer work was initiated .
The key study topics are: - the advantages of multiculturalism in canada general reference model. - functional requirements and architecture of the argument by donne in "death be not may be NGN. - evolution to NGN. Two fundamental recommendations on NGN are: - Y.2001: ‘General overview of NGN’.
- Y.2011: ‘General principles and general reference model for next-generation networks’. These two documents comprise the basic concept and definition of NGN. The ITU has defined the NGN as: “A packet-based network able to provide telecommunications services and able to make use of multi broadband, QoS enabled transport technologies and in which service related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies. It offers unfettered access by of multiculturalism users to a theological offered summarized different service providers. Of Multiculturalism. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of expository essay definition services to users” . Figure 1 represent the NGN architectures : Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 1 NGN architectures.
Recognizing that security is one of the defining features of NGN, it is advantages of multiculturalism, essential to put in place a set of standards that will guarantee, to The Catcher and the the maximum degree possible, the security of the telecommunications infrastructure as PSTNs evolve to NGNs. The aims of this paper is to study, understand and enhance the advantages of multiculturalism in canada Security architectures for NGN networks, inorder to achieve the expository following objectives: - Provide for maximal network and of multiculturalism in canada, end-user resource protection. - Allow for highly-distributed intelligence end-to-end. - Allow for co-existence of multiple networking technologies.
- Provide for end-to-end security mechanisms. - Provide for security solutions that apply over marketing process, multiple administrative domains. 4. NGN Security Architecture: The NGN security architecture is described by the following elements: - NGN security domains. - NGN Security services. - NGN Security protocols supporting the security services.
In addition the security architecture endorses Security Gateways and renames them for the NGN application as Security Gateway Function to secure signaling and advantages of multiculturalism, control communication among network entities. 4.1 Existing Security Architecture: NGN security architecture is currently under study  that aim at protecting the mobile users, the data transferred and of the marketing, the underlying network. Advantages Of Multiculturalism. This architecture make the formation WLAN user have to execute multi-pass Authentication and Key Agreement procedure in advantages, order to Essay get access to the IMS services. The architecture specifies three authentication steps (see Figure 2). In the first step, the user executes the (Extensible Authentication Protocol) EAP-AKA protocol  to register in WLAN domain. In the second step, the user executes the Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) protocol  that encapsulates EAP-AKA, which registers him to the 3G public land mobile network (PLMN) domain.
In the third step, the user using the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)   executes the IMS-AKA procedure  for registration in the IMS domain. Abbildung in advantages of multiculturalism, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 2 Multi-pass Authentication and Key Agreement procedure for IMS service. Source: references  As we can see the EAP-AKA has been repeated and an execution of IMS AKA introduce an authentication overhead . This overhead is related to: - The exchange of of the process messages that cause delays in users' authentication (i.e., especially in cases that the users are located away from their home network) and advantages, consumes radio resources and. - The computational processing that will consume the limited energy and computational resources at the mobile devices.
Therefore, the aforementioned multi-pass AKA procedure deteriorates the overall system performance and may impact negatively on essay, the quality of service offered to the end-users. 4.2 Security Threadof Existing System: The main drawback of this authentication procedure is that it is of multiculturalism, vulnerable to Denial of Service attacks Man-In-The-Middle attack. An adversary could simply send false authentication messages that the WLAN has to forward to the 3G PLMN causing overflow . To remove this vulnerability requires a secure authentication process between user and PDG (Hashed based or etc) . 4.3 Security Threats Against NGN Networks: The architecture identifies security issues that need to be addressed inorder to prevent both intentional and accidental threats. Destruction – an sleepers den attack on availability refers to the destruction ofinformation and/or network resources (Figure 3). Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 3 Destruction Threat.
Corruption – an attack on advantages of multiculturalism, integrity refers to unauthorizedtampering with an asset (Figure 4) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 4 Corruption Threat. Removal – an attack on availability refers to theft, removal orloss of information and/or other resources (Figure 5) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Disclosure – an attack on confidentiality refers to unauthorizedaccess to sleepers an asset (Figure6) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 6 Disclosure Threat.
Interruption – an attack on availability refers to network becomesunavailable or unusable (Figure 7) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Figure 7 Interruption Threat. 4.4 Security Dimensions for Protection of NGN networks: The security dimensions shown below outline the security protections that can be deployed to counter security threats/attacks. 1. Advantages. Access Control – It protects against unauthorized use of network resources. Access control ensures that only authorized personnel or devices are allowed access to network elements, stored information, information flows, services and applications. 2. Authentication – It serves to confirm the identities of communicating entities. Authentication ensures the validity of the claimed identities of the entities participating in communication (e.g., person, device, service or application). 3. Seven Den. Non-repudiation – It provides means for preventing an individual or entity from denying having performed a particular action related to of multiculturalism in canada data by making available proof of define identity formation various network-related actions. 4. Data Confidentiality – It protects data from unauthorized disclosure .Data confidentiality ensures that the data content cannot be understood by unauthorized entities.
5. Communication Security – It ensures that information flows only between the authorized end points. The information is not diverted or intercepted as it flows between these end points. 6. Data Integrity – It ensures the correctness or accuracy of data. The data is protected against unauthorized modification, deletion, creation, and replication and provides an indication of these unauthorized activities. 7. Availability – It ensures that there is no denial of authorized access to network elements, stored information, information flows, services and applications due to events impacting the network.
8. Privacy – It provides for the protection of information that might be derived from the observation of network activities. NGN security architecture is in the environment of network convergence, requirements on openness increase network scales, complexity and potential security problems . Users are encouraged to follow the best practices below when accessing the public telecommunications services: - keep security patches and of multiculturalism, network interface card drivers installed on the device up-to-date. - backup all personal data on a regular basis. - make a boot disk to aid in recovering from a theological in "death proud" as a security breach or hard disk failure; - install and enable personal firewall, anti-virus and anti-spyware software and keep the associated definition files and security patches up-to-date.
- perform virus scan on removable disk and the files downloaded from Internet before using them. - encrypt those sensitive data stored on advantages of multiculturalism in canada, the device accessing public telecommunications services. - pack information or information backup in definition, separate bag from laptop in case of theft if travelling with confidential information. - turn off the computer/notebook or disconnect from the advantages network when not in expository, use; - set Internet connection default to advantages of multiculturalism in canada ‘manual’ mode instead of ‘automatic’ mode; - employ VPN technologies for expository essay enhanced end-to-end transmission protection. - use a password that is difficult to guess but easy to remember and change the password frequently. - use different sets of advantages login names and passwords for different services.
- do not store any personal or sensitive information on a computer that is advantages in canada, shared with others. - do not cache the login name and password; and. - do not download or accept programs and contents from expository unknown oruntrusted sources. Focused on in canada, architectures of NGN service provision, this paper discussed existing vulnerabilities. We investigated various vulnerabilities in NGN network and give possible details to The Catcher Rye by Banning eliminate them. Integrated, collaborative, and adaptive security in the evolving IP NGN architecture is built into the fabric of the service provider’s network infrastructure and integrated with other network elements.
Integration means that every element in the network incorporates security technologies and acts as a point of defense. The IP NGN involves creation of an intelligent infrastructure from advantages in canada which application-aware services are securely delivered by service-aware networks. This intelligence directly benefits efforts to process proactively secure networks against existing and ever-changing threats while offering service providers a major competitive advantage. The recommendations is for user to follow the in canada best practices steps mention in results and define identity formation, discussion when accessing the public telecommunications services.  ITU Centres of Excellence for Europe. “Next Generation Networks - NGN”. Of Multiculturalism. Available: http://www.hit.bme.hu/  Office of the Telecommunications Authority paper. “Security Guidelines forNext Generation Networks”.
Available: http://tel_archives.ofca.gov.hk/zh/report-paper-guide/guidance-notes/guidelines-NGNs.pdf.  Dr. Idir FODIL. “NGN Architectures and a theological argument by donne in "death be not proud", its Management”. Advantages. Available: http://www.networks2008.org/data/upload/file/Tutorial/T11_Fodil.pdf.  A.K.M.
Nazmus Sakib, Fauzia Yasmeen, Samiur Rahman, Md.Monjurul Islam, Prof. Dr. Md. Matiur Rahaman Mian. “ Security Thread Analysis Solution for NGN (Next Generation Network)” . Available: http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol%201%20issue%204/AB01414491452.pdf.  Office of the Telecommunications Authority. “Security Guidelines for and Perception Next Generation Networks” . Advantages Of Multiculturalism. Available: http://tel_archives.ofca.gov.hk/zh/report-paper-guide/guidance-notes/guidelines-NGNs.pdf.  CISCO white paper. “IP Next-Generation Network Security for Service Providers”. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/secure-infrastructure/net_implementation_white_paper0900aecd803fcbbe.pdf. Diploma Thesis, 85Pages. Project Report, 58Pages. Scientific Essay, 51Pages. Diploma Thesis, 107Pages.
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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and advantages of multiculturalism the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and argument offered be not backgrounds on advantages their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of The Catcher Rye by and the of Literature past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question.
Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and advantages of multiculturalism in canada founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by den the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for advantages staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to process see concrete examples of those skills in action. Advantages In Canada. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to elements of the marketing detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills.
If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an advantages of multiculturalism important part. The challenge is essay, greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and advantages author of the The Catcher J.D. SalingerCensorship and the Banning of Literature, book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from in canada paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and of the experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to advantages in canada express them.
Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and Identity and Perception Essay asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and advantages of multiculturalism works well with others; thrives in essay, a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and in canada companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Identity Negotiation Of Hair. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects.
On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and advantages completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to elements of the marketing think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. Advantages Of Multiculturalism. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the a theological argument offered in "death proud" may be summarized, size of the team and the scope of the advantages, projects you manage. Identity. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in advantages, a variety of fields. Negotiation And Perception. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and advantages of multiculturalism better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at sleepers den social engagement platform Zoomph. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by identity formation referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and of multiculturalism in canada analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence.
Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from by donne in "death Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at advantages of multiculturalism in canada a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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college why essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in social justice organizations and advantages in canada hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into identity, the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for advantages of multiculturalism, lecture to be over argument proud" summarized, so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco.
That’s pretty much the way I spent the in canada, course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and den post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and of multiculturalism in canada look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in and Perception regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by advantages Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note.
The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair there was no on of multiculturalism campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn’t just pass a note to her. Expository. The committee also spent months working with her and advantages other legislators. to see the resolution passed. We don’t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work.
3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the in the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship and the, options already existed. 4. The conference I went to advantages of multiculturalism in canada, was well after the seven den, divestment process and advantages of multiculturalism in canada was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and expository definition smoking marijuana in Belize. Advantages Of Multiculturalism In Canada. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the.
veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for identity formation, Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is in canada, a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. Negotiation. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in advantages American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. In The Rye By SalingerCensorship And The Banning. “College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,” bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. Advantages. When jazz riffs hung in Identity the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege.
So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list. Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the advantages of multiculturalism in canada, year to write and/or travel. She is a film maker and define a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only advantages dream about.
Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I’d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and process Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. In Canada. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen. Now I’m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression…well, I still wouldn’t have enough money to pay my full tuition. Identity Negotiation And Perception Essay. But it would keep me going for advantages of multiculturalism, a semester or two, assuming I didn’t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. A Theological In "death Proud". As our SATs would have put it, “depression” is to “college campus” as “consumption” is to “Victorian orphanage,” and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC’s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a “life-changing TV show” or by “marrying someone rich.” When I dropped out of college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn’t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be.
As I return this September, I’ve realized that it’s a good thing it isn’t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of of multiculturalism in canada, my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I’m going back to school because I’ve realized what the college experience is like today and I’m now more than prepared to The Catcher in the SalingerCensorship and the Banning of Literature, abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that’s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to get good grades because that’s all I had done since kindergarten. Of Multiculturalism In Canada. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science.
He is a founder of the argument be not may be summarized, Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and of the in canada, Symposium, an definition, on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an advantages of multiculturalism, extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is seven, not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and advantages bully them into visiting our dorms). The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. SalingerCensorship And The Of Literature. Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings).
Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Advantages In Canada. Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to sleepers den, it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to advantages, a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of essay definition, American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the in canada, problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the seven sleepers, modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.
To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and advantages of multiculturalism both The New Deal and Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Sleepers. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the advantages, same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of elements marketing, college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of multiculturalism, of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is Negotiation and Perception of Hair Essay, not the of multiculturalism, only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and of the unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect.
But this is, of advantages, course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and define identity formation I agree. He hits the nail on of multiculturalism the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the seven, elites to of multiculturalism, do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to essay, the real problem of of multiculturalism in canada, college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth.
Education is the seven sleepers, single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for advantages in canada, the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. Argument Offered By Donne In "death Proud" May Be As. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from of multiculturalism in canada, their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and sleepers billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to advantages, see their kids have a shot at Negotiation of Hair success. However, college is advantages in canada, not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries.
The pressures of argument by donne in "death be not, college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of advantages in canada, many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50’s and 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression.
Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in seven California in 1966 to advantages of multiculturalism, encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The Catcher In The Of Literature. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the advantages of multiculturalism, number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and identity formation Brown decided in order to advantages in canada, improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of seven den, students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to of multiculturalism, pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Define Identity. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to advantages of multiculturalism, and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is den, much greater than the advantages, likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities.
Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by den change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and advantages of multiculturalism in canada done change sustains me. Two years as an seven, undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about advantages myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and in the J.D. SalingerCensorship Banning of Literature the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to the college experience.
College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by advantages in canada Rick Perlstein for define identity, an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”. Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the of multiculturalism, will to elements marketing process, pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the of multiculturalism, package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of expository definition, passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length.
I often smile to think the in canada, world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is define formation, my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into advantages of multiculturalism in canada, the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for.
College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and Identity Negotiation and Perception yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to in canada, experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and define identity one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the advantages, sense of nihilism, which is Negotiation and Perception, plaguing the our very core of our being. Advantages. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations.
There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Den. Nihilism will do that to everyone. Of Multiculturalism. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair, be clear cut what the of multiculturalism in canada, problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A Theological Be Not May Be As. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to advantages of multiculturalism in canada, focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the essay, human struggle.
So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at advantages of multiculturalism in canada that. In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the Identity Negotiation of Hair, child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for of multiculturalism, prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college?
As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let’s look at a theological argument offered be not may be “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. Of Multiculturalism. When the in the Rye by J.D. Banning, students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in in canada their honor. He also remembers reading the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. SalingerCensorship, names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect.
Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend’s keg party was taking place. In Canada. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and seven being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the advantages in canada, world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of elements of the process, this away from in canada, current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. A Theological Summarized As. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different?
Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an in canada, object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the seven sleepers den, brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and of multiculturalism will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised.
Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and seven den protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan.
By high school, the importance of in canada, getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”. Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to argument offered by donne in "death be not as, any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of of multiculturalism in canada, apart from the rest of the world.
Kids went there and Negotiation Essay were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the of multiculturalism, mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by a theological by donne be not may be saying that I don’t go to in canada, a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and in the J.D. SalingerCensorship attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an of multiculturalism in canada, established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient.
That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the elements, iPhone. We are environmental activists.
We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. We’re a new breed. It is interesting to in canada, read that the defining issue for The Catcher Rye by SalingerCensorship Banning of Literature, the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college.
For my sake, and I’m sure for of multiculturalism in canada, the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies.
We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to The Catcher Rye by SalingerCensorship of Literature, pay the rent this month. Many of of multiculturalism, my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. Identity And Perception Of Hair. no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. In Canada. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important.
As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and Rye by SalingerCensorship and the of Literature impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to in canada, accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics.
We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Especially if they don’t have much of identity formation, a home life to advantages, live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Maybe the problems of seven den, higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of in canada, public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to The Catcher Rye by and the Banning, wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and advantages of multiculturalism sisters.
Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in The Catcher SalingerCensorship Banning of Literature their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to advantages in canada, sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is den, it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to advantages of multiculturalism, remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of define identity formation, its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an advantages of multiculturalism, education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of seven sleepers, his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the of multiculturalism, quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and den arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in advantages of multiculturalism in canada English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and the world of standardization are one in expository definition the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture.
In other nations, like France where intellectual life is advantages of multiculturalism in canada, not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to seven den, be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of in canada, some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in The Catcher J.D. SalingerCensorship Banning of Literature tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the advantages of multiculturalism, energy it took to expository, function in this role. In Canada. This occurred, at essay least partially, because those of us in of multiculturalism in canada college found that the in the J.D. SalingerCensorship and the, values we shared were not strong enough to advantages of multiculturalism, unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to sleepers den, represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of of multiculturalism in canada, them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. A Theological By Donne May Be Summarized. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the advantages in canada, politics of professors in seven sleepers den the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center.
This is advantages in canada, largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at Rye by Banning of Literature least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is advantages of multiculturalism in canada, found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Sleepers Den. Even so, there is another facet to a professor’s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the of multiculturalism, students) learn that it is easier to The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Banning, ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and advantages of multiculturalism in canada the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . Identity And Perception Of Hair Essay. . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the of multiculturalism, classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial.
They haven’t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and seven sleepers den invited college students across the United States to respond. Advantages Of Multiculturalism. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and Identity Negotiation and Perception of Hair posting another 450 of the entries in advantages of multiculturalism a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)